Impact of Different Grafting Methods on Yield and Quality of Watermelon

Citation:
Abd El-Wanis, M., E. - E. A.A.S.A, and A. M. Salama, "Impact of Different Grafting Methods on Yield and Quality of Watermelon", Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences,, vol. 9, pp. 330-340, 2013.

Abstract:

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is an important vegetable crop grown in Egypt. Grafting watermelon has become much involved in the production area of watermelon. Many hand grafting methods were used for producing the seedlings of grafted watermelon. The grafting method is the most influential factor in the success of the grafting process and produce good seedlings. Both scion and rootstock material are determining factors for selecting the grafting methods. Best method also depends on the availability of the possibilities in the process of healing during a fusion between the scion and rootstocks and acclimatization stage. This study aims to define the best grafting method for producing of grafted watermelon seedlings in survival ratio under low potential in both healing and acclimatization chamber and to arrive to the commercial grafting technique. The studies were conducted in two experiments in randomized complete blocks design with three replicates during the two seasons of 2012and 2013 at Kaha Research Farm and private farm in Berkash Giza. Each experiment included different three grafting treatments (grafting techniques) in addition to the control watermelon hybrids which were sown without grafting. Watermelon cv. (Aswan F1 hybrid) was used as a scion and grafting it in bottle gourd rootstock (Lagenaria siceraria) local variety. The obtained results showed that, the grafted plants especially when using splice graft (one cotyledon grafting) showed significant increment in most studied characteristics such as vegetative growth (plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, number of leaves, number of branches, plant fresh and dry weight and dry matter percentage), early and total yield in addition to fruit characters, as compared with non-grafted watermelon (control). Tongue approach grafting was not requires careful control of humidity, light, and temperature after grafting. Normal greenhouse environment is sufficient. Splice graft was the best grafting technique in survival rate followed by hole insertion grafting. Splice grafting and tongue approach grafting were not requires to remove the shoots grown from the rootstocks, whereas it doesn't give any shoots from the rootstocks. Splice grafting gave highly significant increment in all characteristics under study compared with the other methods and control in both seasons. The histological studies on union zone in the grafted watermelon confirm that the results mentioned before that the splice graft was the best grafting method in most characters under studies followed by hole then tongue.