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A.A., Y., W. S.M., B. L.J., H. D.J., and C. C.C.L., "Infection with the noncytopathic BVDV-2 strain 890 prevents replication of superinfecting cytopathic BVDV-1 RNA in BT and MDOK cells", International Journal of Virology, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 53-55, 2005.
Abdulla, N. M., K. Mohran, H. M, A. A. Yousif, and M. Shalaby, "Identification of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Strains Originating from Multispecies Susceptible Animals", J Vet Sci Med Diagn, vol. 6, issue 1, pp. 1-5, 2017.
Ahmed, B. M., H. A. Amer, J. Kissenkoetter, A. A. E. Wahed, M. M. Bayoumi, S. Böhlken-Fascher, M. A. Elgamal, N. Yehia, A. A. Yousif, and M. A. Shalaby, "Evaluating two approaches for using positive control in standardizing the avian influenza H5 reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay", Molecular and Cellular Probes, vol. 50, 2020.
Amer, H. M., H. M. Elzahed, E. A. Elabiare, A. A. Badawy, and A. A. Yousef, "An Optimized Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay to Identify Avian Virus Vaccine Contamination with Chicken Anemia Virus", Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 23, issue 1, pp. 34 - 40, 2011/01/01. AbstractWebsite

The use of embryonating chicken eggs in preparation of avian virus vaccines is the principle cause for contamination with Chicken anemia virus (CAV). Identification of CAV in contaminated vaccines relies on the expensive, tedious, and time-consuming practice of virus isolation in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The experience of the last 2 decades indicates that polymerase chain reaction is extending to replace most of the classic methods for detection of infectious agents. In the present report, a simple, rapid, and accurate polymerase chain reaction method for detection of CAV in poultry vaccines is described. Oligonucleotide primers homologous to highly conserved sequences of the VP1 gene were used to amplify a fragment of 676 bp. The developed assay was specific for detecting CAV from different sources, with no cross reactivity with many avian viruses. No inter- and intra-assay variations were observed. The analytical sensitivity of the test was high enough to detect 5 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose) of the virus per reaction; however, different factors related to the vaccine matrix showed considerable effects on the detection limit. In conclusion, this method may represent a suitable alternative to virus isolation for identification of CAV contamination of poultry virus vaccines.

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