Inflammatory biomarkers and severity of COVID-19: Cross sectional study among Egyptian patients.

Shams Eldeen, A. M., A. Fawzy, saeed soliman, E. A. Hegazy, L. Rashed, H. Hosny, W. A. Anwar, ahmed y ali, and A. A. Abdel Khalik, "Inflammatory biomarkers and severity of COVID-19: Cross sectional study among Egyptian patients.", The Egyptian journal of immunology, vol. 29, issue 2, pp. 96-105, 2022.


The newly emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by multisystem inflammatory syndrome. The development of SARS-CoV-2 complications usually starts within few days following infection, and the severity of the disease determines its outcome. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with risk of lung infections, also cell-based studies reported the ability of vitamin D to control enveloped virus growth. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the most eminent inflammatory biomarkers and the level of vitamin D aiming to provide a tool for early diagnosis and prediction of disease progression. The current study was approved by Research Ethics Committee (REC), Kasr Al-Ainy. After confirmation of being COVID-19 by PCR, the admitted patients were categorized as mild-moderate, and severe-critically ill based on clinical and radiologic data. The total levels of serum 25(OH)D, as well as other pro-inflammatory biomarkers were measured and were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis for detection of their association with COVID-19 disease severity and to determine their sensitivity and specificity at optimum cutoff points. The area under the curve (AUC) ROC for predicting COVID-19 disease severity was the highest (of 0.97) for vitamin D, inflammatory cytokines, liver enzymes, ferritin, and D-Dimer. In addition, high serum levels of creatinine, and elevated liver enzymes associated with severe-critical COVID-19. The low 25(OH)D was associated with the disease severity.