PPAR agonists as effective adjuvants for COVID-19 vaccines, by modifying immunogenetics: a review of literature.

AbdelMassih, A. F., R. Menshawey, J. H. Ismail, R. J. Husseiny, Y. M. Husseiny, S. Yacoub, A. Kamel, R. Hozaien, E. Yacoub, EsraaMenshawey, et al., "PPAR agonists as effective adjuvants for COVID-19 vaccines, by modifying immunogenetics: a review of literature.", Journal, genetic engineering & biotechnology, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 82, 2021.


BACKGROUND: Several coronavirus vaccine have been fast-tracked to halt the pandemic, the usage of immune adjuvants that can boost immunological memory has come up to the surface. This is particularly of importance in view of the rates of failure of seroconversion and re-infection after COVID-19 infection, which could make the vaccine role and response debatable. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have an established immune-modulatory role, but their effects as adjuvants to vaccination have not been explored to date. It is increasingly recognized that PPAR agonists can upregulate the levels of anti-apoptotic factors such as MCL-1. Such effect can improve the results of vaccination by enhancing the longevity of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). The interaction between PPAR agonists and the immune system does not halt here, as T cell memory is also stimulated through enhanced T regulatory cells, antagonizing PD-L1 and switching the metabolism of T cells to fatty acid oxidation, which has a remarkable effect on the persistence of T memory cells. What is even of a more significant value is the effect of PPAR gamma on ensuring a profound secretion of antibodies upon re-exposure to the offending antigen through upregulating lipoxin B4, therefore potentially assisting the vaccine response and deterring re-infection.

SHORT CONCLUSION: In view of the above, we suggest the use of PPAR as adjuvants to vaccines in general especially the emerging COVID-19 vaccine due to their role in enhancing immunologic memory through DNA-dependent mechanisms.