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Emam, S. H., A. Sonousi, E. O. Osman, D. Hwang, G. - D. Kim, and R. A. Hassan, "Design and synthesis of methoxyphenyl- and coumarin-based chalcone derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents by inhibition of NO production and down-regulation of NF-κB in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells", Bioorganic, vol. 107, pp. 104630, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Exaggerated inflammatory responses may cause serious and debilitating diseases such as acute lung injury and rheumatoid arthritis. Two series of chalcone derivatives were prepared as anti-inflammatory agents. Methoxylated phenyl-based chalcones 2a-l and coumarin-based chalcones 3a-f were synthesized and compared for their inhibition of COX-2 enzyme and nitric oxide production suppression. Methoxylated phenyl-based chalcones showed better inhibition to COX-2 enzyme and nitric oxide suppression than the coumarin-based chalcones. Among the 18 synthesized chalcone derivatives, compound 2f exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of nitric oxide concentration in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages (IC50 = 11.2 μM). The tested compound 2f showed suppression of iNOS and COX-2 enzymes. Moreover, compound 2f decreases in the expression of NF-κB and phosphorylated IκB in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Finally, docking studies suggested the inhibition of IKKβ as a mechanism of action and highlighted the importance of 2f hydrophobic interactions.

Nemr, M. T. M., A. Sonousi, and A. A. Marzouk, "Design, synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of new tricyclic fused thiazolopyrimidines targeting topoisomerase II: Molecular docking and apoptosis inducing activity", Bioorganic, vol. 105, pp. 104446, 2020. AbstractWebsite

A novel series of thiazolopyrimidines and fused thiazolopyrimidines was designed and synthesized as topoisomerase II alpha inhibitors. All synthesized compounds were screened by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, USA for anticancer activity against 60 human cancer cell lines representing the following cancer types: leukemia, non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, melanoma, ovarian, renal, prostate, and breast cancers. Compound 3a was found to be the most potent inhibitor on renal cell line (A-498) causing 83.03% inhibition (IC50 = 1.89 μM). DNA-flow cytometric analysis showed that compound 3a induce cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase leading to cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Moreover, fused thiazolopyrimidines 3a showed potent topoisomerase II inhibitory activity (IC50 = 3.19 μM) when compared with reference compound doxorubicin (IC50 = 2.67 μM). Docking study of all the synthesized compounds showed that compound 3a interacts in a similar pattern to etoposide and stabilizing the topoisomerase cleavage complex (Top2-cc) that accounts for its high potency.

Hassan, R. A., S. H. Emam, D. Hwang, G. - D. Kim, S. O. Hassanin, M. G. Khalil, A. M. Abdou, and A. Sonousi, "Design, synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activity of new pyrazoline derivatives by down-regulation of VEGF: Molecular docking and apoptosis inducing activity", Bioorganic, vol. 118, pp. 105487, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Two series of pyrazoline compounds were designed and synthesized as antiproliferative agents by VEGFR pathway inhibition. All synthesized compounds were screened by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, USA for anticancer activity against 60 human cancer cell lines. Compound 3f exhibited the highest anticancer activity on the ovarian cell line (OVCAR-4) with IC50 = 0.29 μM and on the breast cell line (MDA-MB-468) with IC50 = 0.35 μM. It also exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI = 74). Compound 3f caused cell cycle arrest in OVCAR-4 cell line at the S phase which consequently inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Moreover, 3f showed potent down-regulation of VEGF and p-VEGFR-2. Docking studies showed that compound 3f interacts in a similar pattern to axitinib on the VEGFR-2 receptor. The same compound was also able to fit into the gorge of STAT3 binding site, the transcription factor for VEGF, which explains the VEGF down-regulation.

Elansary, A. K., H. H. Kadry, E. M. Ahmed, and A. S. M. Sonousi, "Design, synthesis and in vitro PDE4 inhibition activity of certain quinazolinone derivatives for treatment of asthma", Medicinal Chemistry Research, vol. 21, issue 11, pp. 3327 - 3335, 2012. AbstractWebsite

In this study, a novel series of quinazolinone derivatives analogue to nitraquazone structure were synthesized. The compounds tested for their inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase 4B revealed that compound 6d shows promising inhibitory activity comparable to that of Rolipram, whereas compounds 6a and 6c exhibited moderate inhibitory activity.

Elansary, A. K., H. H. Kadry, E. M. Ahmed, and A. S. M. Sonousi, "Design, synthesis, and biological activity of certain quinazolinedione derivatives as potent phosphodiestrase4 inhibitors", Medicinal Chemistry Research, vol. 21, issue 11, pp. 3557 - 3567, 2012. AbstractWebsite

In this study, a series of 3-butylquinazolinedione linked with different substituent to N1 of quinazoline nucleus have been synthesized. Some of the new final compounds tested in vitro for their inhibitory activity against phosphodiestrase 4B which is the enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine mono phosphate, the second messenger involved in the regulation of important cell functions. Compound 7f (100%) showed inhibition better than rolipram (90%), while the other tested compounds showed moderate activity. Docking study has been done to rationalize the obtained biological results.

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