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Bakr, R. O., S. S. Zaghloul, R. A. Hassan, A. Sonousi, R. Wasfi, and M. A. A. Fayed, "Antimicrobial activity of Vitex agnus-castus Essential Oil and Molecular Docking Study of Its Major Constituents", Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, vol. 23, issue 1: Taylor & Francis, pp. 184 - 193, 2020. AbstractWebsite


Elansary, A. K., H. H. Kadry, E. M. Ahmed, and A. S. M. Sonousi, "Design, synthesis and in vitro PDE4 inhibition activity of certain quinazolinone derivatives for treatment of asthma", Medicinal Chemistry Research, vol. 21, issue 11, pp. 3327 - 3335, 2012. AbstractWebsite

In this study, a novel series of quinazolinone derivatives analogue to nitraquazone structure were synthesized. The compounds tested for their inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase 4B revealed that compound 6d shows promising inhibitory activity comparable to that of Rolipram, whereas compounds 6a and 6c exhibited moderate inhibitory activity.

Elansary, A. K., H. H. Kadry, E. M. Ahmed, and A. S. M. Sonousi, "Design, synthesis, and biological activity of certain quinazolinedione derivatives as potent phosphodiestrase4 inhibitors", Medicinal Chemistry Research, vol. 21, issue 11, pp. 3557 - 3567, 2012. AbstractWebsite

In this study, a series of 3-butylquinazolinedione linked with different substituent to N1 of quinazoline nucleus have been synthesized. Some of the new final compounds tested in vitro for their inhibitory activity against phosphodiestrase 4B which is the enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine mono phosphate, the second messenger involved in the regulation of important cell functions. Compound 7f (100%) showed inhibition better than rolipram (90%), while the other tested compounds showed moderate activity. Docking study has been done to rationalize the obtained biological results.

Emam, S. H., A. Sonousi, E. O. Osman, D. Hwang, G. - D. Kim, and R. A. Hassan, "Design and synthesis of methoxyphenyl- and coumarin-based chalcone derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents by inhibition of NO production and down-regulation of NF-κB in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells", Bioorganic, vol. 107, pp. 104630, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Exaggerated inflammatory responses may cause serious and debilitating diseases such as acute lung injury and rheumatoid arthritis. Two series of chalcone derivatives were prepared as anti-inflammatory agents. Methoxylated phenyl-based chalcones 2a-l and coumarin-based chalcones 3a-f were synthesized and compared for their inhibition of COX-2 enzyme and nitric oxide production suppression. Methoxylated phenyl-based chalcones showed better inhibition to COX-2 enzyme and nitric oxide suppression than the coumarin-based chalcones. Among the 18 synthesized chalcone derivatives, compound 2f exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of nitric oxide concentration in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages (IC50 = 11.2 μM). The tested compound 2f showed suppression of iNOS and COX-2 enzymes. Moreover, compound 2f decreases in the expression of NF-κB and phosphorylated IκB in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Finally, docking studies suggested the inhibition of IKKβ as a mechanism of action and highlighted the importance of 2f hydrophobic interactions.

Hassan, R. A., S. H. Emam, D. Hwang, G. - D. Kim, S. O. Hassanin, M. G. Khalil, A. M. Abdou, and A. Sonousi, "Design, synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activity of new pyrazoline derivatives by down-regulation of VEGF: Molecular docking and apoptosis inducing activity", Bioorganic, vol. 118, pp. 105487, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Two series of pyrazoline compounds were designed and synthesized as antiproliferative agents by VEGFR pathway inhibition. All synthesized compounds were screened by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, USA for anticancer activity against 60 human cancer cell lines. Compound 3f exhibited the highest anticancer activity on the ovarian cell line (OVCAR-4) with IC50 = 0.29 μM and on the breast cell line (MDA-MB-468) with IC50 = 0.35 μM. It also exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI = 74). Compound 3f caused cell cycle arrest in OVCAR-4 cell line at the S phase which consequently inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Moreover, 3f showed potent down-regulation of VEGF and p-VEGFR-2. Docking studies showed that compound 3f interacts in a similar pattern to axitinib on the VEGFR-2 receptor. The same compound was also able to fit into the gorge of STAT3 binding site, the transcription factor for VEGF, which explains the VEGF down-regulation.

Nemr, M. T. M., A. Sonousi, and A. A. Marzouk, "Design, synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of new tricyclic fused thiazolopyrimidines targeting topoisomerase II: Molecular docking and apoptosis inducing activity", Bioorganic, vol. 105, pp. 104446, 2020. AbstractWebsite

A novel series of thiazolopyrimidines and fused thiazolopyrimidines was designed and synthesized as topoisomerase II alpha inhibitors. All synthesized compounds were screened by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, USA for anticancer activity against 60 human cancer cell lines representing the following cancer types: leukemia, non-small cell lung, colon, CNS, melanoma, ovarian, renal, prostate, and breast cancers. Compound 3a was found to be the most potent inhibitor on renal cell line (A-498) causing 83.03% inhibition (IC50 = 1.89 μM). DNA-flow cytometric analysis showed that compound 3a induce cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase leading to cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Moreover, fused thiazolopyrimidines 3a showed potent topoisomerase II inhibitory activity (IC50 = 3.19 μM) when compared with reference compound doxorubicin (IC50 = 2.67 μM). Docking study of all the synthesized compounds showed that compound 3a interacts in a similar pattern to etoposide and stabilizing the topoisomerase cleavage complex (Top2-cc) that accounts for its high potency.

Quirke, J. C. K., G. C. Sati, A. Sonousi, M. Gysin, K. Haldimann, E. C. Böttger, A. Vasella, S. N. Hobbie, and D. Crich, "Structure-Activity Relationships for 5′′ Modifications of 4,5-Aminoglycoside Antibiotics", ChemMedChem, vol. n/a, issue n/a: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. e202200120, 2022. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Modification at the 5??-position of 4,5-disubstituted aminoglycoside antibiotics (AGAs) to circumvent inactivation by aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs) is well known. Such modifications, however, unpredictably impact activity and affect target selectivity thereby hindering drug development. A survey of 5??-modifications of the 4,5-AGAs and the related 5-O-furanosyl apramycin derivatives is presented. In the neomycin and the apralog series, all modifications were well-tolerated, but other 4,5-AGAs require a hydrogen bonding group at the 5??-position for maintenance of antibacterial activity. The 5??-amino modification resulted in parent-like activity, but reduced selectivity against the human cytosolic decoding A site rendering this modification unfavorable in paromomycin, propylamycin, and ribostamycin. Installation of a 5??-formamido group and, to a lesser degree, a 5??-ureido group resulted in parent-like activity without loss of selectivity. These lessons will aid the design of next-generation AGAs capable of circumventing AME action while maintaining high antibacterial activity and target selectivity.

Quirke, J. C. K., P. Rajasekaran, V. A. Sarpe, A. Sonousi, I. Osinnii, M. Gysin, K. Haldimann, Q. - J. Fang, D. Shcherbakov, S. N. Hobbie, et al., "Apralogs: Apramycin 5-O-Glycosides and Ethers with Improved Antibacterial Activity and Ribosomal Selectivity and Reduced Susceptibility to the Aminoacyltransferase (3)-IV Resistance Determinant", Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 142, issue 1: American Chemical Society, pp. 530 - 544, 2020. AbstractWebsite


Sonousi, A., A. Vasella, and D. Crich, "Synthesis of a Pseudodisaccharide Suitable for Synthesis of Ring I Modified 4,5-2-Deoxystreptamine Type Aminoglycoside Antibiotics", The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 85, issue 11: American Chemical Society, pp. 7583 - 7587, 2020. AbstractWebsite


Sonousi, A., and D. Crich, "Selective Protection of Secondary Amines as the N-Phenyltriazenes. Application to Aminoglycoside Antibiotics", Organic Letters, vol. 17, pp. 4006-4009, 2015.
Sonousi, A., H. A. Mahran, I. M. Ibrahim, M. N. Ibrahim, A. A. Elfiky, and W. M. Elshemey, "Novel adenosine derivatives against SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: an in silico perspective", Pharmacological Reports, vol. 73, issue 6, pp. 1754 - 1764, 2021. AbstractWebsite

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged human coronavirus that severely affected human health and the economy. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a crucial protein target to stop virus replication. The adenosine derivative, remdesivir, was authorized for emergency use 10 months ago by the United States FDA against COVID-19 despite its doubtful efficacy against SARS-CoV-2.

Sonousi, A., V. A. Sarpe, M. Brilkova, J. Schacht, A. Vasella, E. C. Böttger, and D. Crich, "Effects of the 1-N-(4-Amino-2S-hydroxybutyryl) and 6′-N-(2-Hydroxyethyl) Substituents on Ribosomal Selectivity, Cochleotoxicity, and Antibacterial Activity in the Sisomicin Class of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics", ACS Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, issue 7: American Chemical Society, pp. 1114 - 1120, 2018. AbstractWebsite


Sonousi, A., J. C. K. Quirke, P. Waduge, T. Janusic, M. Gysin, K. Haldimann, S. Xu, S. N. Hobbie, S. - H. Sha, J. Schacht, et al., "An Advanced Apralog with Increased in vitro and in vivo Activity toward Gram-negative Pathogens and Reduced ex vivo Cochleotoxicity", ChemMedChem, vol. 16, issue 2: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 335 - 339, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Abstract We describe the convergent synthesis of a 5-O-?-D-ribofuranosyl-based apramycin derivative (apralog) that displays significantly improved antibacterial activity over the parent apramycin against wild-type ESKAPE pathogens. In addition, the new apralog retains excellent antibacterial activity in the presence of the only aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AAC(3)-IV) acting on the parent, without incurring susceptibility to the APH(3?) mechanism that disables other 5-O-?-D-ribofuranosyl 2-deoxystreptamine type aminoglycosides by phosphorylation at the ribose 5-position. Consistent with this antibacterial activity, the new apralog has excellent 30?nM activity (IC50) for the inhibition of protein synthesis by the bacterial ribosome in a cell-free translation assay, while retaining the excellent across-the-board selectivity of the parent for inhibition of bacterial over eukaryotic ribosomes. Overall, these characteristics translate into excellent in?vivo efficacy against E. coli in a mouse thigh infection model and reduced ototoxicity vis à vis the parent in mouse cochlear explants.

Sonousi, A., D. Shcherbakov, A. Vasella, E. C. Böttger, and D. Crich, "Synthesis, ribosomal selectivity, and antibacterial activity of netilmicin 4'-derivatives", MedChemComm, vol. 10, issue 6: Royal Society of Chemistry, pp. 946 - 950, 2019/04/25. AbstractWebsite

Halogenation of a suitably protected netilmicin derivative enables preparation of 4'-chloro-, bromo-, and iodo derivatives of netilmicin after deprotection. Suzuki coupling of a protected 4'-bromo derivative with phenylboronic acid or butyltrifluoroborate affords the corresponding 4'-phenyl and 4'-butyl derivatives of netilmicin. Sulfenylation of suitably protected netilmicin derivative with ethanesulfenyl chloride followed by deprotection affords 4'-ethylsulfanylnetilmicin. All netilmicin 4'-derivatives displayed reduced levels of inhibition for prokaryotic ribosomes and reduced antibacterial activity against typical Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. None of the derivatives displayed enhanced target selectivity.