Potential use of dry powder of Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. rhizomes and leaves in methylene blue dye remediation

Awad, H. E. A., A. M. Mohammad, and E. A. Farahat, "Potential use of dry powder of Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. rhizomes and leaves in methylene blue dye remediation", Scientific Reports, vol. 13, issue 1: Nature Research, 2023.


Phytoremediation is a promising, cost-effective, and eco-friendly process for wastewater treatment. Herein, the dry biomasses of Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. leaves (PL) and rhizomes including aerial stems (PR) were used to effectively remediate methylene blue (MB) dyes. Interestingly, the adsorption uptake and removal efficiency of MB by PR were higher than those of PL; exceeding 97 and 91% in 35 and 25 min for 0.1 and 0.4 g/L MB, respectively. The MB diffusion within the PL and PR was insignificant and the adsorption kinetics was principally controlled by the surface MB–adsorbent interaction, as consistently approved by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. In addition, the adsorption increased rapidly with the plant dosage with high dependence on the initial MB concentration. Moreover, the impact of shaking speed on the adsorption was minor but temperature played a critical role where the highest efficiencies were recorded at 30 and 40 °C on PL (91.9%) and PR (93.3%), respectively. The best removal efficiencies were attained with PR at pH 6, but with PL at pH 8. The Temkin isotherm could perfectly simulate the experimental data (R2 > 0.97); suggesting a linear decrease of the adsorption heat of MB with the plant coverage. © 2023, The Author(s).


Cited By :1Export Date: 12 June 2024Correspondence Address: Mohammad, A.M.; Chemistry Department, Egypt; email: ammohammad@cu.edu.egChemicals/CAS: methylene blue, 61-73-4; Coloring Agents; Methylene Blue; Powders; Water Pollutants, ChemicalFunding text 1: The authors are grateful to Ms. Menna Rashad and Ms. Ahlam Zaki for their assistance in the early stages of running the adsorption experiments.References: Water, U., (2020) Water and Climate Change. The United Nations World Water Development Report, , UNESCO;Tee, G.T., Gok, X.Y., Yong, W.F., Adsorption of pollutants in wastewater via biosorbents, nanoparticles and magnetic biosorbents: A review (2022) Environ. Res., 212, p. 113248;
Boretti, A., Rosa, L., Reassessing the projections of the world water development report (2019) NPJ Clean Water, 2, p. 15;
(2020) The State of Food and Agriculture 2020. Overcoming Water Challenges in Agriculture, , FAO;
Mittal, A., Mittal, J., Malviya, A., Gupta, V.K., Adsorptive removal of hazardous anionic dye “Congo red” from wastewater using waste materials and recovery by desorption (2009) J. Colloid Interface Sci., 340, pp. 16-26;
Gupta, S., Sundarrajan, M., Rao, K.V.K., Tumor promotion by metanil yellow and malachite green during rat hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with dysregulated expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins (2003) Teratog. Carcinog. Mutagen., 23, pp. 301-312;
Saravanan, R., Thirumal, E., Gupta, V.K., Narayanan, V., Stephen, A., The photocatalytic activity of ZnO prepared by simple thermal decomposition method at various temperatures (2013) J. Mol. Liq., 177, pp. 394-401;
Gupta, V.K., Jain, R., Varshney, S., Removal of Reactofix golden yellow 3 RFN from aqueous solution using wheat husk—An agricultural waste (2007) J. Hazard. Mater., 142, pp. 443-448;
Gupta, V.K., Rastogi, A., Nayak, A., Adsorption studies on the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using a low cost fertilizer industry waste material (2010) J. Colloid Interface Sci., 342, pp. 135-141;
Mittal, A., Mittal, J., Malviya, A., Kaur, D., Gupta, V.K., Decoloration treatment of a hazardous triarylmethane dye, Light Green SF (Yellowish) by waste material adsorbents (2010) J. Colloid Interface Sci., 342, pp. 518-527;
Ayed, L., Mahdhi, A., Cheref, A., Bakhrouf, A., Decolorization and degradation of azo dye Methyl Red by an isolated Sphingomonas paucimobilis: Biotoxicity and metabolites characterization (2011) Desalination, 274, pp. 272-277;
Vinoda, B., Vinuth, M., Bodke, Y., Manjanna, J., Photocatalytic degradation of toxic methyl red dye using silica nanoparticles synthesized from rice husk ash (2015) J. Environ. Anal. Toxicol., 5, p. 2161;
Ahmad, M.A., Ahmad, N., Bello, O.S., Modified durian seed as adsorbent for the removal of methyl red dye from aqueous solutions (2015) Appl. Water Sci., 5, pp. 407-423;
Dadfarnia, S., HajiShabani, A.M., Moradi, S.E., Emami, S., Methyl red removal from water by iron based metal-organic frameworks loaded onto iron oxide nanoparticle adsorbent (2015) Appl. Surf. Sci., 330, pp. 85-93;
Rahman, I.A., Saad, B., Utilization of guava seeds as a source of activated carbon for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution (2003) Malaysian J. Chem., 5, p. 8;
McKay, G., Porter, J.F., Prasad, G.R., The removal of dye colours from aqueous solutions by adsorption on low-cost materials (1999) Water Air Soil Pollut., 114, pp. 423-438;
Elçi, H., Utilisation of crushed floor and wall tile wastes as aggregate in concrete production (2016) J. Clean. Prod., 112, pp. 742-752;
Al-Ghouti, M.A., Al-Absi, R.S., Mechanistic understanding of the adsorption and thermodynamic aspects of cationic methylene blue dye onto cellulosic olive stones biomass from wastewater (2020) Sci. Rep., 10, p. 15928;
Chong, Z.T., Soh, L.S., Yong, W.F., Valorization of agriculture wastes as biosorbents for adsorption of emerging pollutants: Modification, remediation and industry application (2023) Results Eng., 17, p. 100960;
Li, H., A cost-effective porous carbon derived from pomelo peel for the removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution (2016) Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp., 489, pp. 191-199. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhsl2mu7fF;
Redha, A.A., Removal of heavy metals from aqueous media by biosorption (2020) Arab. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 27, pp. 183-193;
Din, M.I., Ashraf, S., Intisar, A., Comparative study of different activation treatments for the preparation of activated carbon: A mini-review (2017) Sci. Prog., 100, pp. 299-312. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC1MXht1OktrvE, PID: 28779759;
Mura, M.J., Behr, S., Bres, E.F., Voegel, J.C., Dynamic processes at the liquid/solid interface in the albumin/apatite system (1990) Clin. Mater., 5, pp. 285-295;
Noubactep, C., Sauter, M., Evaluation of the effects of shaking intensity on the process of methylene blue discoloration by metallic iron (2013) J. Hazard. Mater., 169, pp. 1005-1011;
Tien, C., (2019) Introduction to Adsorption: Basics, Analysis, and Applications, , Elsevier;
Eduation, V.A.L.U., (2011), vlab.amrita.edu; Barbato, M., Bruno, C., (1996) Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows, pp. 139-160. , Springer;
Pourhakkak, P., Taghizadeh, A., Taghizadeh, M., Ghaedi, M., Haghdoust, S., (2021) Fundamentals of Adsorption Technology in Adsorption: Fundamental Processes and Applications, 33. , Academic Press;
Rezania, S., Taib, S.M., Md Din, M.F., Dahalan, F.A., Kamyab, H., Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater (2016) J. Hazard. Mater., 318, pp. 587-599;
Vymazal, J., Concentration is not enough to evaluate accumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in plants (2016) Sci. Total Environ., 544, pp. 495-498;
Kumari, M., Tripathi, B.D., Efficiency of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia for heavy metal removal from wastewater (2015) Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 112, pp. 80-86;
Rahbar, A., Experimental data of biomaterial derived from Malva sylvestris and charcoal tablet powder for Hg2+ removal from aqueous solutions (2016) Data Brief, 8, pp. 132-135;
Emara, M.M., Farag, R.S., Mubarak, M.F., Ali, S.K., Synthesis of core–shell activated carbon/CaO composite from Ficus Nitida leaves, as an efficient adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (2020) Nanotechnol. Environ. Eng., 5, p. 8;
Liu, Z., Khan, T.A., Islam, M.A., Tabrez, U., A review on the treatment of dyes in printing and dyeing wastewater by plant biomass carbon (2022) Bioresour. Technol., 354, p. 127168;
Ali, H., Khan, E., Sajad, M.A., Phytoremediation of heavy metals—Concepts and applications (2013) Chemosphere, 91, pp. 869-881;
Ansari, A.A., Naeem, M., Gill, S.S., AlZuaibr, F.M., Phytoremediation of contaminated waters: An eco-friendly technology based on aquatic macrophytes application (2020) Egypt. J. Aquat. Res., 46, pp. 371-376;
Galal, T.M., Taif’s rose (Rosa damascena Mill var. trigentipetala) wastes are a potential candidate for heavy metals remediation from agricultural soil (2022) Agriculture, 12, p. 1319;
Török, A., Gulyás, Z., Szalai, G., Kocsy, G., Majdik, C., Phytoremediation capacity of aquatic plants is associated with the degree of phytochelatin polymerization (2015) J. Hazard. Mater., 299, pp. 371-378;
Siddiqui, S.H., Uddin, M.K., Isaac, R., Aldosari, O.F., An effective biomass for the adsorption of methylene blue dye and treatment of river water (2022) Adsorpt. Sci. Technol., 2022, p. 4143138;
Al-Baldawi, I.A., Abdullah, S.R.S., Anuar, N., Hasan, H.A., Phytotransformation of methylene blue from water using aquatic plant (Azolla pinnata) (2018) Environ. Technol. Innov., 11, pp. 15-22;
Boulos, L., (2005) Flora of Egypt (Alismataceae–Orchidaceae), , Al Hadara Publishing;
Mahmoud, W.F., (2020) Population Biology of Vossia Cuspidata, , Roxb.) Griff. in Egypt Ph.D. thesis, Cairo University;
Galal, T.M., Gharib, F.A., Ghazi, S.M., Mansour, K.H., Phytostabilization of heavy metals by the emergent macrophyte Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff.: A phytoremediation approach (2017) Int. J. Phytorem., 19, pp. 992-999;
Galal, T.M., Eid, E.M., Dakhil, M.A., Hassan, L.M., Bioaccumulation and rhizofiltration potential of Pistia stratiotes L. for mitigating water pollution in the Egyptian wetlands (2018) Int. J. Phytorem., 20, pp. 440-447;
Farahat, E.A., Mahmoud, W.F., Fahmy, G.M., Seasonal variations of heavy metals in water, sediment, and organs of Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in River Nile ecosystem: Implication for phytoremediation (2021) Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 28, pp. 32626-32633;
Farahat, E.A., Prediction models for evaluating the uptake of heavy metals by the invasive grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) griff. in the river Nile, Egypt: A biomonitoring approach (2021) Sustainability, 13, p. 10558;
Tang, C., Comparison of the removal and adsorption mechanisms of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution by activated carbons prepared from Typha angustifolia and Salix matsudana (2017) RSC Adv., 7, pp. 16092-16103;
Dilekoğlu, M.F., Malachite green adsorption from aqueous solutions onto biochar derived from sheep manure: Adsorption kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamic, and mechanism (2022) Int. J. Phytorem., 24, pp. 436-446;
Azizian, S., Kinetic models of sorption: A theoretical analysis (2004) J. Colloid Interface Sci., 276, pp. 47-52;
Weber, W.J., Morris, J.C., Kinetics of adsorption on carbon from solution (1963) J. Sanit. Eng. Div., 89, pp. 31-59;
Lagergren, S., Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloster stoffe (1898) Kungliga svenska vetenskapsakademiens. Handlingar, 24, pp. 1-39;
Revellame, E.D., Fortela, D.L., Sharp, W., Hernandez, R., Zappi, M.E., Adsorption kinetic modeling using pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order rate laws: A review (2020) Clean. Eng. Technol., 1, p. 100032;
Ho, Y.S., McKay, G., Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes (1999) Process Biochem., 34, pp. 451-465;
Lin, K., Pan, J., Chen, Y., Cheng, R., Xu, X., Study the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution on hydroxyapatite nanopowders (2009) J. Hazard. Mater., 161, pp. 231-240;
Freundlich, H.M.F., Over the adsorption in solution (1906) J. Phys. Chem., 57, pp. 385-471. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DyaD28XhtVCl;
Ayawei, N., Ebelegi, A.N., Wankasi, D., Modelling and interpretation of adsorption isotherms (2017) J. Chem., 2017, p. 3039817;
Kajjumba, G.W., Emik, S., Öngen, A., Aydın, H.K.Ö.S., (2018) Advanced Sorption Process Applications, , IntechOpen;
Hassan, M.A., Mohammad, A.M., Salaheldin, T.A., El-Anadouli, B.E., A promising hydroxyapatite/graphene hybrid nanocomposite for methylene blue dye's removal in wastewater treatment (2018) Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 13, pp. 8222-8240;
Mohammad, A.M., Salah Eldin, T.A., Hassan, M.A., El-Anadouli, B.E., Efficient treatment of lead-containing wastewater by hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanostructures (2017) Arab. J. Chem., 10, pp. 683-690;
Salah, T.A., Mohammad, A.M., Hassan, M.A., El-Anadouli, B.E., Development of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite for cadmium ions removal in wastewater treatment (2014) J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 45, pp. 1571-1577;
Bhattacharyya, K.G., Gupta, S.S., Adsorptive accumulation of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II) from water on montmorillonite: Influence of acid activation (2007) J. Colloid Interface Sci., 310, pp. 411-424;
Tempkin, M.J., Pyzhev, V., Kinetics of ammonia synthesis on promoted iron catalysts (1940) Acta Physicochim. U.R.S.S., 12, pp. 217-222;
Hutson, N.D., Yang, R.T., Theoretical basis for the Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) adsorption isotherm equation (1997) Adsorption, 3, pp. 189-195;
Dubinin, M.M., Radushkevich, L.V., Equation of the characteristic curve of activated charcoal (1947) Proc. Acad. Sci. Phys. Chem. U.S.S.R., 55, pp. 331-333;
Galal, T.M., Gharib, F.A., Al-Yasi, H.M., Mansour, K.H., Hassan, M.M., Evaluation of the nutrient status and forage quality of the hippo grass (Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff.) along Ismailia canal, Egypt (2021) J. Freshw. Ecol., 36, pp. 63-76;
Shooto, N.D., Naidoo, E.B., Maubane, M., Sorption studies of toxic cations on ginger root adsorbent (2019) J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 76, pp. 133-140;
Shooto, N.D., Thabede, P.M., Naidoo, E.B., Simultaneous adsorptive study of toxic metal ions in quaternary system from aqueous solution using low cost black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa) adsorbents (2019) S. Afr. J. Chem. Eng., 30, pp. 15-27;
Alshehri, A.A., Malik, M.A., Biogenic fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles using Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) for proficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation (2019) J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., 30, pp. 16156-16173;
Mashkoor, F., Nasar, A., Inamuddin, Asiri, A.M., Exploring the reusability of synthetically contaminated wastewater containing crystal violet dye using Tectona grandis sawdust as a very low-cost adsorbent (2018) Sci. Rep., 8, p. 3;
Mashkoor, F., Nasar, A., Polyaniline/Tectona grandis sawdust: A novel composite for efficient decontamination of synthetically polluted water containing crystal violet dye (2019) Groundw. Sustain. Dev., 8, pp. 390-401;
Bello, O.S., Adegoke, K.A., Sarumi, O.O., Lameed, O.S., Functionalized locust bean pod (Parkia biglobosa) activated carbon for Rhodamine B dye removal (2019) Heliyon, 5;
https://instanano.com/all/characterization/ftir/ftir-functional-group-search/(2023); Saikia, B.J., Parthasarathy, G., Borah, R.R., Borthakur, R., Raman and FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of clay minerals and estimation of metal contaminations in natural deposition of surface sediments from Brahmaputra river (2016) Int. J. Geosci., 7, pp. 873-883. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XitFels7%2FL;
Martsouka, F., Evaluation of the antimicrobial protection of pharmaceutical kaolin and talc modified with copper and zinc (2021) Materials, 14, p. 1173. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BB3MXhslSnsLrP, PID: 33801536;
Uddin, M.K., Nasar, A., Walnut shell powder as a low-cost adsorbent for methylene blue dye: Isotherm, kinetics, thermodynamic, desorption and response surface methodology examinations (2020) Sci. Rep., 10, p. 3;
Amin, M.T., Alazba, A.A., Shafiq, M., Successful application of eucalyptus camdulensis biochar in the batch adsorption of crystal violet and methylene blue dyes from aqueous solution (2021) Sustainability, 13, p. 3600;
Iwuozor, K.O., Ighalo, J.O., Ogunfowora, L.A., Adeniyi, A.G., Igwegbe, C.A., An empirical literature analysis of adsorbent performance for methylene blue uptake from aqueous media (2021) J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 9, p. 105658;
Shelke, B.N., Jopale, M.K., Kategaonkar, A.H., Exploration of biomass waste as low cost adsorbents for removal of methylene blue dye: A review (2022) J. Indian Chem. Soc., 99, p. 100530;
Rafatullah, M., Sulaiman, O., Hashim, R., Ahmad, A., Adsorption of methylene blue on low-cost adsorbents: A review (2010) J. Hazard Mater., 177, pp. 70-80;
Rao, V.B., Rao, S.R.M., Adsorption studies on treatment of textile dyeing industrial effluent by flyash (2006) Chem. Eng. J., 116, pp. 77-84. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtlWqu77K;
Aygün, A., Yenisoy-Karakaş, S., Duman, I., Production of granular activated carbon from fruit stones and nutshells and evaluation of their physical, chemical and adsorption properties (2003) Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 66, pp. 189-195;
Kavitha, D., Namasivayam, C., Experimental and kinetic studies on methylene blue adsorption by coir pith carbon (2007) Bioresour. Technol., 98, pp. 14-21. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XptVCis7Y%3D, PID: 16427273;
Wu, F.-C., Tseng, R.-L., High adsorption capacity NaOH-activated carbon for dye removal from aqueous solution (2008) J. Hazard Mater., 152, pp. 1256-1267. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXjt12murY%3D, PID: 17826897;
Tseng, R.-L., Tseng, S.-K., Wu, F.-C., Preparation of high surface area carbons from Corncob with KOH etching plus CO2 gasification for the adsorption of dyes and phenols from water (2006) Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp., 279, pp. 69-78. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjvVahsL8%3D;
Ghosh, D., Bhattacharyya, K.G., Adsorption of methylene blue on kaolinite (2002) Appl. Clay Sci., 20, pp. 295-300. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XktVyltw%3D%3D;
Gürses, A., Determination of adsorptive properties of clay/water system: Methylene blue sorption (2004) J. Colloid Interface Sci., 269, pp. 310-314. , PID: 14654389;
Chakrabarti, S., Dutta, B.K., On the adsorption and diffusion of methylene blue in glass fibers (2005) J. Colloid Interface Sci., 286, pp. 807-811. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXktFCqur0%3D, PID: 15897098;
Ncibi, M., Biosorptive uptake of methylene blue using Mediterranean green alga Enteromorpha spp (2009) J. Hazard. Mater., 170, pp. 1050-1055. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtVGqtbfE, PID: 19520507;
Cengiz, S., Cavas, L., Removal of methylene blue by invasive marine seaweed: Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (2008) Bioresour. Technol., 99, pp. 2357-2363. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhvFyjsL0%3D, PID: 17604623;
Fu, Y., Viraraghavan, T., Removal of a dye from an aqueous solution by the fungus Aspergillus niger (2000) Water Qual. Res. J., 35, pp. 95-112. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjvVektw%3D%3D;
Batzias, F., Sidiras, D., Dye adsorption by calcium chloride treated beech sawdust in batch and fixed-bed systems (2004) J. Hazard. Mater., 114, pp. 167-174. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXptFSjt7w%3D, PID: 15511588;
Batzias, F., Sidiras, D., Schroeder, E., Weber, C., Simulation of dye adsorption on hydrolyzed wheat straw in batch and fixed-bed systems (2009) Chem. Eng. J., 148, pp. 459-472. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXjt1Sgsb0%3D;
Bhattacharyya, K.G., Sharma, A., Kinetics and thermodynamics of methylene blue adsorption on neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder (2005) Dyes Pigm., 65, pp. 51-59. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXovFOhtbg%3D;
Lee, C., Low, K., Chow, S., Chrome sludge as an adsorbent for colour removal (1996) Environ. Technol., 17, pp. 1023-1028. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XlvVyhsLk%3D;
Kumar, K., Adsorption isotherm for basic dye onto low cost adsorbents (2002) Res. J. Chem. Environ., 6, pp. 61-65. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXkvFKjtrY%3D;
Krishnappa, B., Saravu, S., Shivanna, J.M., Naik, M., Hegde, G., Fast and effective removal of textile dyes from the wastewater using reusable porous nano-carbons: a study on adsorptive parameters and isotherms (2022) Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 29 (52), pp. 79067-79081. , &;
Mahmoodi, N.M., Mokhtari-Shourijeh, Z., Modified poly(vinyl alcohol)-triethylenetetramine nanofiber by glutaraldehyde: Preparation and dye removal ability from wastewater (2016) Desalin. Water Treat., 57, pp. 20076-20083;
Pathania, D., Sharma, S., Singh, P., Removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto activated carbon developed from Ficus carica bast (2017) Arab. J. Chem., 10, pp. S1445-S1451;
Samarbaf, S., Tahmasebi Birgani, Y., Yazdani, M., Babaei, A.A., A comparative removal of two dyes from aqueous solution using modified oak waste residues: Process optimization using response surface methodology (2019) J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 73, pp. 67-77;
Hussain, S., Anjali, K.P., Hassan, S.T., Dwivedi, P.B., Waste tea as a novel adsorbent: A review (2018) Appl. Water Sci., 8, p. 5;
Prasanna Kumar, Y., King, P., Prasad, V.S.R.K., Adsorption of zinc from aqueous solution using marine green algae—Ulva fasciata sp (2007) Chem. Eng. J., 129, pp. 161-166;
Esmaeili, H., Foroutan, R., Adsorptive behavior of methylene blue onto sawdust of sour lemon, date palm, and eucalyptus as agricultural wastes (2019) J. Dispers. Sci. Technol., 40, pp. 990-999;
Soliman, N.K., Moustafa, A.F., Aboud, A.A., Halim, K.S.A., Effective utilization of Moringa seeds waste as a new green environmental adsorbent for removal of industrial toxic dyes (2019) J. Mater. Res. Technol., 8, pp. 1798-1808;
Elmorsi, T.M., Equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies of removal of methylene blue dye by adsorption onto miswak leaves as a natural adsorbent (2011) J. Environ. Prot., 2, pp. 817-827. , COI: 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xhs1Cks78%3D;
Shen, K., Gondal, M.A., Removal of hazardous Rhodamine dye from water by adsorption onto exhausted coffee ground (2017) J. Saudi Chem. Soc., 21, pp. S120-S127;
Piri, F., Mollahosseini, A., Khadir, A., Milani Hosseini, M., Enhanced adsorption of dyes on microwave-assisted synthesized magnetic zeolite-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite (2019) J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 7, p. 103338;
Neina, D., The role of soil pH in plant nutrition and soil remediation (2019) Appl. Environ. Soil Sci., 2019, p. 4869

Related External Link