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2022
Asal, Y. M., A. M. Mohammad, S. S. Abd El Rehim, and I. M. Al-Akraa, "Augmented formic acid electro-oxidation at a co-electrodeposited Pd/Au nanoparticle catalyst", Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, vol. 26, issue 4, 2022. AbstractWebsite

In this study, the formic acid electro-oxidation reaction (FAEOR) was catalyzed on a Pd-Au co-electrodeposited binary catalyst. The kinetics of FAEOR were intensively impacted by changing the Pd2+:Au3+ molar ratio in the deposition medium. The Pd1-Au1 catalyst (for which the Pd2+:Au3+ molar ratio was 1:1) acquired the highest activity with a peak current density for the direct FAEOR (Ip) of 4.14 mA cm−2 (ca. 13- times higher than that (ca. 0.33 mA cm−2) of the pristine Pd1-Au0 catalyst). It also retained the highest stability that was denoted in fulfilling ca. 0.292 mA cm−2 (ca. 19-times higher than 0.015 mA cm−2 of the pristine Pd1-Au0 catalyst) after 3600 s of continuous electrolysis at 0.05 V. The CO stripping and impedance measurements confirmed, respectively, the geometrical and electronic enhancements in the proposed catalyst. © 2022 The Author(s)

Hassan, H. E., Y. M. Asal, A. M. Mohammad, and I. M. Al-Akraa, "BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM CASTOR OIL: MIXING OPTIMIZATION DURING TRANSESTERIFICATION", ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 17, issue 8, pp. 844 - 848, 2022. AbstractWebsite

With the growing warning for accrediting the traditional combustion of fossil fuels for energy production, not only for their limited supply but also for their environmental risks (air pollution, climate change, …. etc), it became necessary to realize alternative greener and abundant sources for energy. Instead, the interest to sustain biodiesel for the energy production has recently been renewed as a replacement for petroleum diesel in conventional diesel engines. This was due to its renewable nature, low toxicity, high degradability and unique physical properties (high flash points & lubrication). Castor oil, in particular, appeared promising for biodiesel production with extremely low cloud and pour points; making it suitable for tropical climates. Blending petroleum diesel with castor oil biodiesel has been proven efficient for enhancing both the environmental effect and the kinematic flow properties of the mineral fuel. Nonetheless, because of the current market price of conventional diesel, the blended product appeared cost-ineffective; steering research to tune the use of castor oil biodiesel alone. In this study, a simple method is recommended to produce biodiesel from castor oil by a transesterification process. The effect of mixing time of oil and alcohol is optimized with a thorough analysis to optimize the best condition for the biodiesel production © 2006-2022 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved

Ayman, R., Y. M. Asal, A. M. Mohammad, and I. M. Al-Akraa, "CASTOR OIL CONVERSION TO BIODIESEL: A PROCESS SIMULATION STUDY", ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 17, issue 9, pp. 964 - 968, 2022. AbstractWebsite

The aim of this study is to highlights the importance to shift from the use of traditional fossil fuels to biodiesel as a clean energy source. A simulation study has been conducted using ASPEN HYSIS software for the biodiesel production form castor oil. The simulation was run and the properties of the produced biodiesel were highlighted. The optimum conditions resulted in 88 % conversion. © 2006-2022 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

Al-Akraa, I. M., M. M. Mamdouh, Y. M. Asal, and A. M. Mohammad, "A Competent MWCNT-Grafted MnOx/Pt Nanoanode for the Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cells", Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2022, 2022. AbstractWebsite
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Al-Akraa, I. M., Y. M. Asal, S. A. Darwish, R. M. Fikry, R. H. Mahmoud, M. Hassan, and A. M. Mohammad, "Effect of Palladium Loading on Catalytic Properties of Pd/GCE for the Electro-oxidation of Methanol, Formic Acid, and Ethylene Glycol", International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 17, 2022. AbstractWebsite
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Al-Qodami, B. A., H. H. Alalawy, I. M. Al-Akraa, S. Y. Sayed, N. K. Allam, and A. M. Mohammad, "Surface engineering of nanotubular ferric oxyhydroxide “goethite” on platinum anodes for durable formic acid fuel cells", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 47, issue 1, pp. 264 - 275, 2022. AbstractWebsite
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Al-Akraa, I. M., Y. M. Asal, and A. M. Mohammad, "Surface engineering of Pt surfaces with Au and cobalt oxide nanostructures for enhanced formic acid electro-oxidation", Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 15, issue 8, 2022. AbstractWebsite

This study aims to mitigate the CO poisoning of platinum (Pt) surfaces during formic acid electro-oxidation (FAEO), the essential anodic reaction in the direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). For this purpose, a glassy carbon (GC) electrode was amended sequentially with Pt (n-Pt), gold (n-Au), and cobalt oxide (n-CoOx) nanostructures. Fascinatingly, the ternary modified n-CoOx/n-Au/n-Pt/GC catalyst (for which n-Pt, n-Au, and n-CoOx were sequentially and respectively assembled onto the GC surface) exhibited a remarkable electrocatalytic enhancement toward FAEO, which surpassed ca. 53 times that of the Pt/GC catalyst. Additionally, it exhibited a much (ca. 18 times) higher stability after 3000 s of continuous electrolysis. The observed enhancement was proven to originate from driving the reaction mechanism principally to the desirable direct dehydrogenation pathway on the expense of the poisoning dehydration path. The impedance and CO stripping measurements confirmed the prevailing of both the electronic and third body effects in the catalytic enhancement. © 2022 The Authors

Asal, Y. M., A. M. Mohammad, S. S. Abd El Rehim, and I. M. Al-Akraa, "Synergistic enhancement of formic acid electro-oxidation on PtxCuy co-electrodeposited binary catalysts", Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, vol. 26, issue 2, 2022. AbstractWebsite
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Al-Qodami, B. A., H. H. Alalawy, S. Y. Sayed, I. M. Al-Akraa, N. K. Allam, and A. M. Mohammad, "Tailor-designed nanowire-structured iron and nickel oxides on platinum catalyst for formic acid electro-oxidation", RSC Advances, vol. 12, issue 31, pp. 20395 - 20402, 2022. AbstractWebsite

This investigation is concerned with designing efficient catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells. A ternary catalyst containing iron (nano-FeOx) and nickel (nano-NiOx) nanowire oxides assembled sequentially onto a bare platinum (bare-Pt) substrate was recommended for the formic acid electro-oxidation reaction (FAOR). While nano-NiOx appeared as fibrillar nanowire bundles (ca. 82 nm and 4.2 μm average diameter and length, respectively), nano-FeOx was deposited as intersecting nanowires (ca. 74 nm and 400 nm average diameter and length, respectively). The electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst toward the FAOR depended on its composition and loading sequence. The FeOx/NiOx/Pt catalyst exhibited ca. 4.8 and 1.6 times increases in the catalytic activity and tolerance against CO poisoning, respectively, during the FAOR, relative to the bare-Pt catalyst. Interestingly, with a simple activation of the FeOx/NiOx/Pt catalyst at −0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl (sat.) in 0.2 mol L−1 NaOH, a favorable Fe2+/Fe3+ transformation succeeded in mitigating the permanent CO poisoning of the Pt-based catalysts. Interestingly, this activated a-FeOx/NiOx/Pt catalyst had an activity 7 times higher than that of bare-Pt with an ca. −122 mV shift in the onset potential of the FAOR. The presence of nano-FeOx and nano-NiOx enriched the catalyst surface with extra oxygen moieties that counteracted the CO poisoning of the Pt substrate and electronically facilitated the kinetics of the FAOR, as revealed from CO stripping and impedance spectra. © 2022 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

2021
Al-Akraa, I. M., A. E. Salama, Y. M. Asal, and A. M. Mohammad, "Boosted performance of NiOx/Pt nanocatalyst for the electro-oxidation of formic acid: A substrate's functionalization with multi-walled carbon nanotubes", Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 14, issue 10, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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Asal, Y. M., A. M. Mohammad, S. S. A. El Rehim, and I. M. Al-Akraa, "Preparation of Co-electrodeposited Pd-Au Nanocatalyst for Methanol Electro-oxidation", International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 16, pp. 1 - 11, 2021. AbstractWebsite
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2020
Al-Akraa, I. M., B. A. Al-Qodami, and A. M. Mohammad, "Effect of the electrodeposition potential of platinum on the catalytic activity of a Pt/GC catalyst toward formic acid electro-oxidation", International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 15, pp. 4005 - 4014, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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Farrag, H. H., S. Y. Sayed, N. K. Allam, and A. M. Mohammad, "Emerging nanoporous anodized stainless steel for hydrogen production from solar water splitting", Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 274, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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Abuzaied, M. M., Y. M. Asal, A. M. Mohammad, and I. M. Al-Akraa, "Enhanced glucose electrooxidation at Ni-Cu binary oxide nanocatalyst", International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 15, issue 3, pp. 2449 - 2457, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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Dileepkumar, V. G., P. S. Surya, C. Pratapkumar, R. Viswanatha, C. R. Ravikumar, M. R. Anil Kumar, H. B. Muralidhara, I. M. Al-Akraa, A. M. Mohammad, Z. Chen, et al., "NaFeS2as a new photocatalytic material for the degradation of industrial dyes", Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 8, issue 4, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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Abdulhalim, A. S., Y. M. Asal, A. M. Mohammad, and I. M. Al-Akraa, "Ni-Au anodic nano-electrocatalyst for direct glucose fuel cells", International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 15, pp. 3274 - 3282, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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Al-Akraa, I. M., and A. M. Mohammad, "A spin-coated TiOx/Pt nanolayered anodic catalyst for the direct formic acid fuel cells", Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 13, issue 3, pp. 4703 - 4711, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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Al-Akraa, I. M., B. A. Al-Qodami, M. S. Santosh, R. Viswanatha, A. K. Thottoli, and A. M. Mohammad, "Tuning the activity and stability of platinum nanoparticles toward the catalysis of the formic acid electrooxidation", International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 15, pp. 5597 - 5608, 2020. AbstractWebsite
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2019
Asal, Y. M., I. M. Al-Akraa, A. M. Mohammad, and M. S. El-Deab, "A competent simultaneously co-electrodeposited Pt-MnOx nanocatalyst for enhanced formic acid electro-oxidation", Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 96: Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, pp. 169 - 175, 2019. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, a new methodology replacing the typical sequential layer-by-layer immobilization, i.e., simultaneous co-electrodeposition protocol is proven eminent for assembling efficient binary nanoelectrocatalysts for formic acid (FA) electro-oxidation (FAO). This strategy is successful to integrate homogeneously Pt nanoparticles (nano-Pt; essential component for FA adsorption/oxidation) with manganese oxide nanowires (nano-MnOx; a CO poisoning alleviator) in a single blend avoiding the poisoning CO adsorption at the catalyst surface. The molar ratio of the catalyst's ingredients (Pt:Mn) in the deposition bath is critical in identifying the catalyst's composition of the prepared binary catalyst and thus, a molar ratio of (1:8) is optimum yielding the highest catalytic activity. It is believed that adjusting the catalyst's composition could preferably act against the adsorption of poisoning CO intermediate and/or providing an electronic support to the desired (low over potential) direct dehydrogenation pathway of FAO to CO 2 . © 2018 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers

Asal, Y. M., I. M. Al-Akraa, A. M. Mohammad, and M. S. El-Deab, "Design of efficient bimetallic Pt–Au nanoparticle-based anodes for direct formic acid fuel cells", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 44, issue 7: Elsevier Ltd, pp. 3615 - 3624, 2019. AbstractWebsite

Formic acid (FA) electro-oxidation (FAO) was investigated at a binary catalyst composed of Pt (PtNPs) and Au (AuNPs) nanoparticles which were electrodeposited simultaneously onto a glassy carbon (GC) substrate. The catalytic activity of the binary modified catalyst toward FAO was significantly influenced by the relative molar ratio of PtNPs and AuNPs. Interestingly, the catalyst with a molar ratio (1:1) of PtNPs and AuNPs showed the highest activity toward the favorable pathway of FAO (ca. 26 times increase in the direct peak current concurrently with a ca. 133 mV negative shift in the onset potential). Such enhancement was believed originating from the outstanding improvement of charge transfer during FAO via the desirable “non-poisoning” pathway along with a significant mitigation of CO poisoning at the electrode surface. The diversity of techniques (cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction) employed in this investigation offered opportunities to assess and interpret the catalyst's activity and stability and to possess a deliberated overview about its morphology, composition and structure. © 2018 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC

El-Nowihy, G. H., A. M. Mohammad, M. A. Sadek, M. M. H. Khalil, and M. S. El-Deab, "EIS-activity correlation for the electro-oxidation of ethylene glycol at nanoparticles-based electrocatalysts", Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 166, issue 6: Electrochemical Society Inc., pp. F364 - F376, 2019. AbstractWebsite

Enhanced catalysis of ethylene glycol electro-oxidation (EGO) is reported at a ternary CoOx/NiOx/Pt catalyst in which Pt nanoparticles (nano-Pt), nickel oxide nanoflowers (nanoNiOx), and cobalt oxide nanoparticles (nano-CoOx); are respectively electrodeposited onto a glassy carbon (GC) substrate. The electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst toward EGO depends on the catalyst's composition, loading sequence and loading level besides the electrolyte's pH and temperature. A detailed morphological, compositional, and structural inspection for the catalyst is achieved by FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry is employed to ensure the successful electrodeposition of the catalyst's ingredients and to assess its activity. The superiority of the CoOx/NiOx/Pt/GC catalyst over a series of catalysts employing different ingredients and/or deposition sequence is demonstrated. It supports a larger (ca. fourfold) oxidation peak current, and a significant (ca. -330 mV) negative shift in the onset potential of EGO together with a much more enhanced long-term stability toward continuous electrolysis when compared to the Pt catalyst. The novelty of this investigation extends to employing the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a probe that provides important information about the reaction pathway of EGO. Interestingly, the maximum capacitance obtained at the CoOx/NiOx/Pt/GC catalyst (coincides with the EGO peak current) is fivefold higher than that obtained at the Pt/GC catalyst at -0.35 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Formic acid and oxalic acid were the major products of EGO, as revealed by high performance liquid chromatography. © 2019 The Electrochemical Society.

Al-Akraa, I. M., Y. M. Asal, and A. M. Mohammad, "Facile synthesis of a tailored-designed AU/PT nanoanode for enhanced formic acid, methanol, and ethylene glycol electrooxidation", Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2019: Hindawi Limited, 2019. AbstractWebsite

The recent revolution in nanoscience and global energy demand have motivated research in liquid fuel cells (LFCs) due to their enhanced efficiency, moving flexibility, and reduced contamination. In line with this advancement, a glassy carbon (GC) electrode was modified with platinum (PtNPs) and gold (AuNPs) nanoparticles to fabricate a nanosized anode for formic acid, methanol, and ethylene glycol electrooxidation (abbreviated, respectively, to FAO, MO, and EGO), of the key anodic reactions of LFCs. The deposition sequence of the catalyst’s layers was important where the Au/Pt/GC electrode (in which PtNPs were directly deposited onto the GC surface followed by AuNPs—surface coverage ≈ 32%) exhibited the best catalytic performance. The catalytic performance of the Au/Pt/GC anode excelled (at least threefold) its value obtained at the Pt/GC anode with regard to FAO and EGO, if the oxidation peak currents were compared. This enhancement got reduced to 1.4 times in the case of MO, but the large decrease (− 220 mV) in the onset potential of MO provided compensation. The role of AuNPs in the Au/Pt/GC catalyst was principal in boosting its catalytic performance as it immunized the underlying PtNPs against CO poisoning which is associated with the release of CO as an intermediate during the oxidation. Interestingly, AuNPs succeeded in interrupting the contiguity of the Pt surface sites required for CO adsorption during FAO, MO, and EGO and, thus, presage preventing the deterioration of the catalytic performance of their corresponding LFCs. Copyright © 2019 Islam M. Al-Akraa et al.

Al-Akraa, I. M., T. Ohsaka, and A. M. Mohammad, "A promising amendment for water splitters: Boosted oxygen evolution at a platinum, titanium oxide and manganese oxide hybrid catalyst", Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 12, issue 7: Elsevier B.V., pp. 897 - 907, 2019. AbstractWebsite

A hybrid catalyst composed of a platinum thin layer and modified with manganese oxide (MnOx) is recommended for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The Pt layer of the catalyst was physically sputtered onto a TiOx-coated Si substrate (this TiOx layer was sputtered inbetween the Si substrate and Pt layer to improve their adhesion and prevent their mutual diffusion). On top of the Pt layer, another thin TiOx layer (∼60 nm) was spun before the electrochemical deposition of MnOx. The investigation focused primarily to evaluate the impact of the catalyst's annealing in oxygen atmosphere on its catalytic activity toward OER. Interestingly, before the modification with MnOx, a large catalytic enhancement both in activity (∼228 mV negative shift at 20 mA cm−2 if compared to conventional bare Pt catalysts) and stability was achieved at the catalyst annealed at 600 °C toward OER in 0.5 M KOH. Surprisingly, the addition of MnOx to the catalyst synergized a boosted activity amplifying the negative shift to 470 mV at the same current density. Bunch of materials and electrochemical techniques were combined to reveal important remarks about the catalyst's morphology, structure, composition and intrinsic activity which was attributed to electronic rather than geometric factors. © 2019 King Saud University

2018
Al-Qodami, B. A., H. H. Farrag, S. Y. Sayed, N. K. Allam, B. E. El-Anadouli, and A. M. Mohammad, "Bifunctional tailoring of platinum surfaces with earth abundant iron oxide nanowires for boosted formic acid electro-oxidation", Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 2018: Hindawi Limited, 2018. AbstractWebsite

To expedite the marketing of direct formic acid fuel cells, a peerless inexpensive binary FeOx/Pt nanocatalyst was proposed for formic acid electro-oxidation (FAO). The roles of both catalytic ingredients (FeOx and Pt) were inspired by testing the catalytic performance of FAO at the FeOx/Au and FeOx/GC analogies. The deposition of FeOx proceeded electrochemically with a post-activating step that identified the catalyst's structure and performance. With a proper adaptation for the deposition and activation processes, the FeOx/Pt nanocatalyst succeeded to mitigate the typical CO poisoning that represents the principal element deteriorating the catalytic performance of the direct formic acid fuel cells. It also provided a higher (eightfold) catalytic efficiency than the bare Pt substrates toward FAO with a much better durability. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were all employed to inspect, respectively, the surface morphology, bulk composition, and crystal structure of the catalyst. The electrochemical impedance spectra could correlate the charge transfer resistances for FAO over the inspected set of catalysts to explore the role of FeOx in mediating the reaction mechanism. © 2018 Bilquis Ali Al-Qodami et al.

Asal, Y. M., I. M. Al-Akraa, A. M. Mohammad, and M. S. El-Deab, "A competent simultaneously co-electrodeposited Pt-MnOx nanocatalyst for enhanced formic acid electro-oxidation", Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers: Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2018. Abstract

In this paper, a new methodology replacing the typical sequential layer-by-layer immobilization, i.e., simultaneous co-electrodeposition protocol is proven eminent for assembling efficient binary nanoelectrocatalysts for formic acid (FA) electro-oxidation (FAO). This strategy is successful to integrate homogeneously Pt nanoparticles (nano-Pt; essential component for FA adsorption/oxidation) with manganese oxide nanowires (nano-MnOx; a CO poisoning alleviator) in a single blend avoiding the poisoning CO adsorption at the catalyst surface. The molar ratio of the catalyst's ingredients (Pt:Mn) in the deposition bath is critical in identifying the catalyst's composition of the prepared binary catalyst and thus, a molar ratio of (1:8) is optimum yielding the highest catalytic activity. It is believed that adjusting the catalyst's composition could preferably act against the adsorption of poisoning CO intermediate and/or providing an electronic support to the desired (low over potential) direct dehydrogenation pathway of FAO to CO2. © 2018 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers