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Sarhan, K. A., H. Hasaneen, A. Hasanin, H. Mohammed, R. Saleh, and A. Kamel, "Ultrasound Assessment of Gastric Fluid Volume in Children Scheduled for Elective Surgery After Clear Fluid Fasting for 1 Versus 2 Hours: A Randomized Controlled Trial.", Anesthesia and analgesia, vol. 136, issue 4, pp. 711-718, 2023. Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the gastric fluid volume (GFV) in children who fasted 1 versus 2 hours using ultrasound, after ingestion of a defined volume of clear fluid.

METHODS: Children scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. After receiving 3 mL kg -1 clear fluid, participants were randomized to have a gastric ultrasound after fasting for either 1 hour (1-hour group, n = 116) or 2 hours (2-hour group, n = 111). Our primary outcome was the GFV. Other outcomes included the antral cross-sectional area, frequency of high risk and low risk of aspiration, and qualitative grading for the gastric antrum.

RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-seven children were available for final analysis. The median (Q1-Q3) GFV was higher in the 1-hour group versus the 2-hour group (0.61 [0.41-0.9] mL kg -1 vs 0.32 [0.23-0.47] mL kg -1 ; P value = .001). None of the study groups had GFV ≥1.5 mL kg -1 . The frequency (%) of GFV ≥1.25 mL kg -1 was comparable between both groups (2 [1.7%] vs 0 [0%], P value = .165). However, the frequency of GFV ≥0.8 mL kg -1 was higher in 1-hour group than in 2-hour group (34.5% vs 4.5%), and grade 2 antral grading score was 56.9% in 1-hour group vs 0.9% in 2-hour group ( P value <.001).

CONCLUSIONS: In healthy children scheduled for elective surgery receiving 3 mL kg -1 clear fluid, the median GFV after 1-hour fasting was double the volume after conventional 2-hour fasting. These findings should be considered whether weighting the risk/benefit of a liberal approach to preoperative fasting versus the risk of pulmonary aspiration.

Hasanin, A. M., A. Abou Amer, Y. S. Hassabelnaby, M. Mostafa, A. Abdelnasser, S. M. Amin, M. Elsherbiny, and S. Refaat, "The use of epinephrine infusion for the prevention of spinal hypotension during Caesarean delivery: A randomized controlled dose-finding trial.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 42, issue 3, pp. 101204, 2023. Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare three epinephrine doses for the prevention of spinal hypotension during Caesarean delivery.

METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included full-term pregnant women undergoing elective Caesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. The participants received prophylactic epinephrine infusions at rates of 0.01, 0.02, or 0.03 mcg/kg/min. Spinal hypotension (systolic blood pressure <80% of baseline) was managed with a 9-mg ephedrine bolus. The primary outcome was the incidence of spinal hypotension. Secondary outcomes included total ephedrine requirement, the incidence of severe spinal hypotension, excessive tachycardia and hypertension, and neonatal outcomes.

RESULTS: The final analysis included 271 patients. The incidence of hypotension was lowest in the 0.03 mcg group (11/90 [12%]), followed by the 0.02 mcg (32/91 [35%]) and the 0.01 mcg (55/90 [61%]) groups (p < 0.001). The median ephedrine requirements (quartiles) were also the lowest in the 0.03 mcg group (0 [0-0] mg), followed by the 0.02 mcg (0 [0-9] mg) and the 0.01 mcg (9 [0-18] mg) groups. The incidence of severe hypotension was lower in the 0.03 mcg and 0.02 mcg groups than in the 0.01 mcg group (3/90 [3%], 5/91 [6%], and 15/90 [17%], respectively). The incidences of excessive tachycardia, hypertension, and neonatal outcomes were comparable among the groups.

CONCLUSION: The use of epinephrine to prevent spinal hypotension during Caesarean delivery is feasible and effective. An initial dose of 0.03 mcg/kg/min produced the lowest incidence of hypotension compared to 0.02 mcg/kg/min and 0.01 mcg/kg/min doses. The three doses were comparable in terms of the incidence of tachycardia, hypertension, and neonatal outcomes.

STUDY REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT05279703.

Shaker, A., A. Hasanin, M. Nagy, M. Mostafa, A. Z. Fouad, H. Mohamed, A. S. Abdallah, and M. Elsayad, "The Use of Lactate-Capillary Refill Time Product as Novel Index for Tissue Perfusion in Patients with Abdominal Sepsis: A Prospective Observational Study.", International journal of general medicine, vol. 15, pp. 7443-7448, 2022.
Hasanin, A., A. Aboelela, M. Mostafa, R. M. Mansour, and A. Kareem, "The Use of Topical Nitroglycerin to Facilitate Radial Arterial Catheter Insertion in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.", Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, vol. 34, issue 12, pp. 3354-3360, 2020. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the use of topical nitroglycerin patch increases radial artery diameter and facilitate cannulation in children.

DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

SETTING: Cairo University Hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 2 to 8 years old scheduled for cardiac surgery.

INTERVENTION: In the nitroglycerin group (n = 20), a gauze-covered, half-sized nitroglycerin patch (5 mg) was applied at the site of radial pulsation 1 hour before induction of anesthesia. In the control group (n = 20), a gauze pad was applied to the bare skin at the site of radial pulsation with no intervention.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was the diameter of the radial artery in both limbs using ultrasonography. Other outcomes included the degree of arterial palpability, number of arterial punctures, and incidence of successful first puncture cannulation. The radial artery diameter increased after 30 minutes and 60 minutes compared with the baseline value in the nitroglycerin group in both limbs, whereas no change was reported in the radial artery diameter in the control group. The nitroglycerin group showed a greater incidence of successful first cannulation trial, a fewer number of trials, and a shorter cannulation time compared with the control group. There were no significant hypotensive episodes in any patient.

CONCLUSION: Local application of a half-sized, 5 mg nitroglycerin patch for 60 minutes in children increased the radial artery diameter bilaterally, increased the rate of first trial success, and decreased the time needed for arterial cannulation without significant hypotensive episodes.