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Hasanin, A., R. Soryal, T. Kaddah, S. A. E. Raouf, Y. Abdelwahab, K. Elshafaei, M. Elsayad, B. A. Elhamid, R. Fouad, D. Mahmoud, et al., "Hemodynamic effects of lateral tilt before and after spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery: an observational study.", BMC anesthesiology, vol. 18, issue 1, pp. 8, 2018 01 15. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Post-spinal hypotension is a common maternal complication during cesarean delivery. Aortocaval compression by the gravid uterus has been assumed as a precipitating factor for post-spinal hypotension. The role of left lateral tilting position in improving maternal cardiac output after subarachnoid block (SAB) is unclear. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of left lateral tilting on maternal hemodynamics after SAB.

METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted including 105 full term pregnant women scheduled for cesarean delivery. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output (measured by electrical cardiometry), stroke volume, and systemic vascular resistance were recorded in three positions (supine, 15, and 30left lateral positions) before SAB, after SAB, and after delivery of the fetus.

RESULTS: Before SAB, no significant hemodynamic changes were reported with left lateral tilting. A significant decrease was reported in mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, and systemic vascular resistance after SAB (in supine position). When performing left lateral tilting, there was an increase in cardiac output, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure. No difference was reported between the two tilt angles (15and 30).

CONCLUSIONS: Changing position of full term pregnant woman after SAB from supine to left lateral tilted position results increased cardiac output and mean arterial pressure. There is no difference between the two tilt angles (15and 30).

TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT02828176 ) retrospectively registered.

Mostafa, M., A. Hasanin, M. Mostafa, M. Y. Taha, M. Elsayad, F. A. Haggag, O. Taalab, A. Rady, and B. A. Elhamid, "Hemodynamic effects of norepinephrine versus phenylephrine infusion for prophylaxis against spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension in the elderly population undergoing hip fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial.", Korean journal of anesthesiology, vol. 74, issue 4, pp. 308-316, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Elderly population are at increased risk of spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension increasing their risk for postoperative morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the hemodynamic effects of prophylactic infusion of norepinephrine (NE) versus phenylephrine (PE) in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery under spinal anesthesia.

METHODS: Elderly patients scheduled for hip fracture surgery were randomized to receive either NE infusion (8 µg/min) (NE group, n = 31) or PE infusion (100 µg/min) (PE group, n = 31) after spinal anesthesia. Outcomes included mean heart rate, mean blood pressure, cardiac output, incidence of spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension, incidence of bradycardia, and incidence of hypertension.

RESULTS: Sixty-two patients with a mean age of 71 ± 6 years were included in the final analysis (31 patients in each group). The NE group showed a higher mean heart rate and cardiac output than the PE group. The NE group had a lower incidence of reactive bradycardia (10% vs. 36%, P = 0.031) and hypertension (3% vs. 36%, P = 0.003) than the PE group. No study participant developed hypotension, and the mean blood pressure was comparable between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Both NE and PE infusions effectively prevented spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. However, NE provided more hemodynamic stability than PE; maintaining the heart rate, higher cardiac output, less reactive bradycardia, and hypertension.

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