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Zayed, M., H. Nassar, A. Hasanin, A. H. Saleh, P. Hassan, D. Saad, S. A. H. A. R. MAHMOUD, G. A. Bakr, E. fouad, N. Saleh, et al., "Effects of nitroglycerin versus labetalol on peripheral perfusion during deliberate hypotension for sinus endoscopic surgery: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.", BMC anesthesiology, vol. 20, issue 1, pp. 85, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Deliberate hypotension is used to provide a bloodless field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery; however, the impact of controlled hypotension during anesthesia on peripheral tissue perfusion has not been extensively evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of nitroglycerin- versus labetalol-induced hypotension on peripheral perfusion.

METHODS: The present randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial included adult patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery. Patients were allocated to one of two groups according to the drug received for induction of deliberate hypotension: nitroglycerin (n = 20) or labetalol (n = 20). Mean arterial pressure was maintained at 55-65 mmHg in both groups. Both study groups were compared according to pulse oximeter-derived peripheral perfusion index (primary outcome), serum lactate level, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, surgical field score, and intraoperative blood loss.

RESULTS: Forty patients were included in the final analysis. The nitroglycerin group exhibited a higher peripheral perfusion index at nearly all records (p < 0.0001) and lower postoperative serum lactate levels (1.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L vs. 1.7 ± 0.4 mmol/L; p = 0.001) than the labetalol group. The peripheral perfusion index was higher in the nitroglycerin group than at baseline at most intraoperative readings. The median surgical field score was modestly lower in the labetalol group than in the nitroglycerin group in the first 20 min (2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2-2.5] versus 1.5 [IQR 1-2]; p = 0.001). Both groups demonstrated comparable and acceptable surgical field scores in all subsequent readings.

CONCLUSION: Nitroglycerin-induced deliberate hypotension was accompanied by higher peripheral perfusion index and lower serum lactate levels than labetalol-induced deliberate hypotension during sinus endoscopic surgery.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrials registry system with trial number: NCT03809065. Registered at 19 January 2019. This study adheres to CONSORT guidelines.

Sarhan, K., A. Hasanin, R. Melad, R. Fouad, H. Elhadi, M. Elsherbeeny, A. Arafa, and M. Mostafa, "Evaluation of gastric contents using ultrasound in full-term pregnant women fasted for 8 h: a prospective observational study.", Journal of anesthesia, vol. 36, issue 1, pp. 137-142, 2022. Abstract

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the gastric volume and contents after an 8-h fasting period in full-term, non-laboring, pregnant women following a standardized meal.

METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we included full-term pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery. The participants were instructed to fast after a standardized meal (apple juice, bread, and cheese). Participants were scanned in the semi-recumbent and right-lateral positions 8 h after the standardized meal. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with gastric volume > 1.5 mL kg calculated by two equations. Secondary outcomes included the antral cross-sectional area and gastric volume. Data are expressed as frequency (%, 95% confidence interval [CI]), mean ± standard deviation (95% CI of the mean), or median (quartiles) as appropriate.

RESULTS: Forty-one women were available for the final analysis. For the primary outcome, one participant (2.4%, 95% CI of 0.06 to 12.8%) had gastric volume > 1.5 mL kg, and none had solids in the antrum. For the secondary outcomes, the mean (95% CI of the mean) of the antral cross-sectional area was 2.11 ± 0.72 (1.88 to 2.34) cm and 4.08 ± 1.80 (3.51 to 4.65) cm during the semi-recumbent and right-lateral position, respectively. The median (quartiles) gastric volume was 0.53 (0.32, 0.66) mL kg and 0.33 (0.13, 0.52) mL kg as estimated by Perlas et al. and Roukhomovsky et al. equations, respectively.

CONCLUSION: After 8-h fasting following a standardized meal, full-term pregnant non-laboring women are less likely to have a high residual gastric volume.

Sarhan, K. A., R. Emad, D. Mahmoud, A. Hasanin, Osama Hosny, M. Al-Sonbaty, A. Aboel-ela, and S. Othman, "The effect of hyperventilation versus normoventilation on cerebral oxygenation using near infrared spectroscopy in children undergoing posterior fossa tumor resection: A randomized controlled cross-over trial.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 42, issue 3, pp. 101190, 2023. Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare the effect of two different ventilation strategies on cerebral oxygenation in children undergoing posterior fossa tumor excision surgeries.

METHODS: Children scheduled for posterior fossa tumor surgeries were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, controlled cross-over trial. After induction of general anesthesia and positioning, participants were randomized to have mild hyperventilation for 30 min (phase 1) followed by normal ventilation for another 30 min (phase2) (early hyperventilation group, n = 23), or normal ventilation for 30 min (phase 1) followed by hyperventilation for 30 min (phase 2) (early normoventilation group, n = 19). Our primary outcome was cerebral oxygenation, measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Other outcomes included the intracranial pressure (ICP), brain relaxation score at the end of phase 1, and frequency of nadir NIRS.

RESULTS: Forty-two children were available for final per protocol analysis. The cerebral oxygenation decreased after the hyperventilation phase compared to the baseline values and the corresponding phases of normoventilation. The mean difference [95% confidence intervals (CI)] in cerebral oxygen saturation between the hyperventilation and normal ventilation readings was 13.45 ± 1.14% [11.14-15.76] and 11.47 ± 0.96% [11.14-15.76] in the left and right sides, respectively (p-values <0.0001). Both carryover and period effects were not significant. The ICP at the end of phase 1 did not differ between the two groups: 22.12 ± 3.75 mmHg vs. 23.26 ± 4.33, mean difference [95%CI]: -0.78 [-3.05 to 1.5], p = 0.49. Brain relaxation score was similar in the two groups.

CONCLUSION: In children undergoing posterior fossa craniotomy, moderate hyperventilation reduced cerebral oxygenation without significant improvement of the surgical brain relaxation or the ICP.

Sabry, R., A. Hasanin, S. Refaat, S. A. E. Raouf, A. S. Abdallah, and N. Helmy, "Evaluation of Gastric Residual Volume in Fasting Diabetic Patients Using Gastric Ultrasound", Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, vol. 63, issue 5, pp. 615-619, 2019.
Mukhtar, A., I. Rasmy, hossam mohamed, and N. Nabil, "Evaluation of Perfusion Index as a Predictor of Vasopressor Requirement in Patients with Severe Sepsis", shock, vol. 44, issue 6, pp. 554-9, 2015.
Mostafa, M., M. S. Mousa, A. Hasanin, A. S. Arafa, H. Raafat, and A. S. Ragab, "Erector spinae plane block versus subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in patients undergoing open liver resection surgery: A randomized controlled trial.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 42, issue 1, pp. 101161, 2023. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of erector spinae plane block (ESPB) in relation to subcostal transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) in patients undergoing open liver resection surgery.

METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, we included adult patients undergoing open liver resection surgery. After induction of general anaesthesia, the included patients were randomized to receive either ESPB (n = 30) or subcostal TAPB (n = 30). Postoperative pain was assessed using the numeric rating scale (NRS) at rest and during cough. Intravenous morphine boluses were used for management of breakthrough pain intra- and postoperatively. The study's primary outcome was morphine consumption during the first 24 h postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included intraoperative morphine consumption, time to first postoperative morphine requirement, incidence of complications, and patient satisfaction.

RESULTS: Sixty patients were included and were available for the final analysis in this study. The intra-and postoperative morphine consumption were less in the ESPB group than the subcostal TAPB group (median [quartiles] morphine dose: 0 [0-0] vs 2 [0-5] mg, p = 0.007 and 20 [15-20] vs 25 [20-30] mg, p = 0.006, respectively). The time to first morphine requirement was longer in the ESPB group (median [quartiles]: 6.5 [5.5-6.5] h) than the subcostal TAPB group (median [quartiles]: 4.3 [1.0-6.5] h), P = 0.013. Patients in the ESPB group had lower incidence of sedation and higher level of satisfaction than the subcostal TAPB group.

CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing open liver resection surgery, ESPB provided superior analgesic properties than subcostal TAPB.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05253079, Principal investigator: Maha Mostafa, Date of registration: February 23, 2022. URL:

hanan mostafa, M. Shaban, A. Hasanin, H. Mohamed, S. Fathy, H. M. Abdelreheem, ahmed lotfy, and A. Abougabal, "Evaluation of peripheral perfusion index and heart rate variability as early predictors for intradialytic hypotension in critically ill patients.", BMC Anesthesiology, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 242, 2019.
Mahmoud, M., A. M. Hasanin, M. Mostafa, F. Alhamade, B. A. Elhamid, and M. Elsherbeeny, "Evaluation of super-obesity and super-super-obesity as risk factors for difficult intubation in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.", Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery, vol. 17, issue 7, pp. 1279-1285, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Super-obesity is a serious disorder which requires bariatric surgery. The association of super-obesity and difficult intubation was not adequately established.

OBJECTIVES: To determine if super-obesity and super-super-obesity are associated with difficult intubation or not.

SETTING: University Hospital.

METHODS: A cohort of obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery was prospectively recruited. Super-obesity and super-super-obesity were defined as body mass index ≥50 kg/m and 60 kg/m, respectively. Intubation difficulty was assessed by 2 methods: (1) intubation difficulty scale; (2) number of intubation attempts. Risk factors for difficult intubation were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis for risk factors for difficult intubation and difficult mask ventilation were performed.

RESULTS: A total of 658 patients were enrolled in the study including 205 (31%) super-obese and 52 (8%) super-super-obese patients. Ninety-nine (15%) patients required more than 1 intubation attempt, while 215 (33%) patients had intubation difficulty scale ≥5. Ninety-four (14.4%) patients had mask ventilation of moderate difficulty, while only 2 (.3%) patients needed 2-person ventilation. The independent risk factors for difficult intubation using the two stated definitions were STOP-Bang and Mallampati score values. The independent risk factors for mask ventilation of moderate difficulty were STOP-Bang score, Mallampati score, and limited neck extension.

CONCLUSION: Within obese patients, neither super-obesity nor super-super-obesity was associated with difficult intubation or difficult mask ventilation. High STOP-Bang and Mallampati score are the independent factors for difficult intubation.

Kamel, M. M., A. Hasanin, B. Nawar, M. Mostafa, V. F. Jacob, H. Elhadi, W. Alsadek, and S. A. Elmetwally, "Evaluation of noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring in children with congenital heart diseases.", Paediatric anaesthesia, vol. 30, issue 5, pp. 571-576, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive measurement of blood hemoglobin could save time and decrease the risk of anemia and infection. The accuracy of CO-oximetry-derived noninvasive hemoglobin (Sp-Hb) had been evaluated in pediatric population; however, its accuracy in children with congenital heart disease has not been studied till date. We evaluated the accuracy of Sp-Hb in relation to laboratory-measured hemoglobin (Lab-Hb) in children with congenital heart disease.

METHODS: This prospective observational study included children with congenital heart disease undergoing procedural intervention. Sp-Hb measurements were obtained using Radical-7 Masimo pulse CO-oximeter and were compared against simultaneous Lab-Hb measurements obtained from the arterial line. Children were divided in cyanotic and acyanotic, and separate analysis was performed for each group. The values of both measurements were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Correlation was performed between Sp-Hb and Lab-Hb bias and each of arterial oxygen saturation and perfusion index.

RESULTS: One-hundred and eleven pairs of readings were obtained from 65 children. The median (quartiles) age and weight of the children were 1 (1.2-4) years and 11 (8-17) kg, respectively. There was moderate correlation between Lab-Hb and Sp-Hb with a correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.75 (0.63-0.83) in acyanotic children and 0.62 (0.37-0.79) in cyanotic children. The mean bias (95% limits of agreements) was -0.4 g/dL (-2.4 to 1.6 g/dL) and 1 g/dL (-2.7 to 4.6 g/dL) in acyanotic and cyanotic children, respectively. The mean bias between Sp-Hb and Lab-Hb showed a weak negative correlation with oxygen saturation (r [95% CI]): (-0.36 [-0.51--0.18]), and a weak positive correlation with the perfusion index (r [95% CI]): (0.19 [0.01-0.37]).

CONCLUSION: The large bias and the wide limits of agreement between Sp-Hb and Lab-Hb denote that Masimo-derived Sp-Hb is not accurate in children with congenital heart disease especially in the cyanotic group; the error in Sp-Hb increases when oxygen saturation decreases.

Hasanin, A. M., M. Mostafa, and M. Abdulatif, "The effect of intrathecal morphine on urinary bladder function after Caesarean delivery: risk-benefit dilemma.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 42, issue 6, pp. 101287, 2023.
Hasanin, A., K. Taha, B. A. Elhamid, and S. M. Amin, "Evaluation of the effects of dexmedetomidine infusion on oxygenation and lung mechanics in morbidly obese patients with restrictive lung disease", BMC Anesthesiology, vol. 18, issue 1, pp. 104, 2018.
Hasanin, A., A. Abdelmottaleb, H. Elhadi, A. S. Arafa, and M. Mostafa, "Evaluation of gastric residual volume using ultrasound in fasting patients with uncomplicated appendicitis scheduled for appendectomy.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 3, pp. 100869, 2021.
Hasanin, A., and M. Mostafa, "Evaluation of fluid responsiveness during COVID-19 pandemic: what are the remaining choices?", Journal of anesthesia, vol. 34, pp. 758-764, 2020.
Hasanin, A., S. A. R. Mohamed, and A. El-adawy, "Evaluation of perfusion index as a tool for pain assessment in critically ill patients", Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, vol. 31, issue 5, pp. 961-65, 2017.
Gamal, M., B. A. Elhamid, D. Zakaria, O. A. E. Dayem, A. Rady, M. Fawzy, and A. Hasanin, "Evaluation of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma Patients with Low Hemoglobin Levels.", Shock (Augusta, Ga.), vol. 49, issue 2, pp. 150-153, 2018 Feb. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Bleeding is a leading cause of death among trauma patients. Delayed assessment of blood hemoglobin level might result in either unnecessary blood transfusion in nonindicated patients or delayed blood transfusion in critically bleeding patients. In this study, we evaluate the precision of noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring in trauma patients with low hemoglobin levels.

METHODS: We included trauma patients with low hemoglobin levels (less than 8 g/dL) scheduled for surgical intervention. Blood samples were obtained on admission and after each blood unit with concomitant measurement of serum hemoglobin using radical-7 Masimo device. The change in blood hemoglobin after every transfused blood unit was also assessed by both methods (change in noninvasive Masimo hemoglobin [Delta-Sp-Hb] and change in laboratory hemoglobin [Delta-Lab-Hb]). The precision of Masimo hemoglobin level (Sp-Hb) compared with Laboratory hemoglobin level (Lab-Hb) was determined using both Bland-Altman and Pearson correlation analyses.

RESULTS: One hundred eighty-four time-matched samples were available for final analysis. Bland-Altman analysis showed excellent accuracy of Sp-Hb compared with Lab-Hb with mean bias of 0.12 g/dL and limits of agreement between -0.56 g/dL and 0.79 g/dL. Excellent correlation was reported between both measures with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.872. Excellent agreement was also reported between both Delta-Sp-Hb and Delta-Lab-Hb with mean bias of -0.05 and limits of agreement from -0.62 to 0.51 CONCLUSIONS:: Sp-Hb showed accurate precision in both absolute values and trend values compared with Lab-Hb measurement in trauma patients with low hemoglobin levels.

Gamal, R. M., M. Mostafa, A. M. Hasanin, S. A. Khedr, A. S. Abdelgalil, and M. M. Elshal, "Evaluation of the accuracy of oscillometric non-invasive blood pressure measurement at the ankle in children during general anesthesia.", Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, vol. 37, issue 5, pp. 1239-1245, 2023. Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of oscillometric blood pressure measurement at the ankle in children using invasive blood pressure as reference standard. This prospective observational study included children undergoing noncardiac surgery. Paired radial invasive and ankle non-invasive blood pressure measurements were obtained. Delta blood pressure was calculated as the difference between two consecutive readings. The primary outcome was the mean bias and agreement between the two methods using the Bland-Altman analysis. The ISO standard was fulfilled if the mean bias between the two methods was ≤ 5 ± 8 mmHg. Other outcomes included the trending ability of ankle blood pressure using the four-quadrant plot and the accuracy of ankle measurement to detect hypotension using area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. We analyzed 683 paired readings from 86 children. The mean bias between the two methods for systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (SBP, DBP, MAP) was - 7.2 ± 10.7, 4.5 ± 12.8, and - 1.8 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. The concordance rate of ankle blood pressure was 72%, 71%, and 77% for delta SBP, DBP and MAP, respectively. The AUC (95% confidence interval) for ankle MAP ability to detect hypotension was 0.91 (0.89-0.93) with negative predictive value of 100% at cut-off value ≤ 70 mmHg, We concluded that in pediatric population undergoing noncardiac surgery, ankle blood pressure was not interchangeable with the corresponding invasive readings with the ankle MAP having the least bias compared to SBP and DBP. An ankle MAP > 70 mmHg can exclude hypotension with negative predictive value of 100%.

Eltrabili, H. H., A. Hasanin, M. S. Soliman, A. M. Lotfy, W. I. Hamimy, and A. H. M. E. D. M. MUKHTAR, "Evaluation of Diaphragmatic Ultrasound Indices as Predictors of Successful Liberation From Mechanical Ventilation in Subjects With Abdominal Sepsis", Respiratory Care, vol. 64, issue 5, pp. 564-569, 2019.
Abdulatif, M., M. Fawzy, H. Nassar, A. Hasanin, M. Ollaek, and H. Mohamed, "The effects of perineural dexmedetomidine on the pharmacodynamic profile of femoral nerve block: a dose-finding randomised, controlled, double-blind study", Anaesthesia, vol. 71, issue 10, pp. 1177-85, 2016.