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Amin, S. M., A. Hasanin, O. S. Elsayed, M. Mostafa, D. KHALED, A. S. Arafa, and A. Hassan, "Comparison of the hemodynamic effects of opioid-based versus lidocaine-based induction of anesthesia with propofol in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 42, issue 4, pp. 101225, 2023. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to compare the hemodynamic profile of lidocaine and fentanyl during propofol induction of general anesthesia.

METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included patients aged above 60 years undergoing elective non-cardiac surgery. The included patients received either 1 mg/kg lidocaine (n = 50) or 1 mcg/kg fentanyl (n = 50) based on total body weight with propofol induction of anesthesia. Patient's hemodynamics were recorded every minute for the first 5 min then every 2 min until 15 min after induction of anesthesia. Hypotension (mean arterial pressure [MAP] <65 mmHg or >30% reduction from baseline) was treated by intravenous 4 mcg bolus of norepinephrine. Outcomes included norepinephrine requirements (primary), the incidence of postinduction hypotension, MAP, heart rate, intubation condition, and postoperative delirium via the cognitive assessment method.

RESULTS: Forty-seven patients in the lidocaine group and 46 patients in the fentanyl group were analyzed. None in the lidocaine group experienced hypotension, while 28/46 (61%) of patients in the fentanyl group developed at least one episode of hypotension requiring a median (25th and 75th quartiles) norepinephrine dose of 4 (0,5) mcg, p-value <0.001 for both outcomes. The average MAP was lower in the fentanyl group than in the lidocaine group at all time points after anesthesia induction. The average heart rate was comparable between the two groups nearly at all time points after anesthesia induction. The overall intubation condition was comparable between the two groups. None of the included patients developed postoperative delirium.

CONCLUSION: Lidocaine-based regimen for induction of anesthesia reduced the risk of postinduction hypotension in older patients compared to the fentanyl-based regimen.

Ali, T. M., R. Elwy, B. A. E. Razik, M. A. R. Soliman, M. F. Alsawy, A. Abdullah, E. Ahmed, S. Zaki, A. A. Salem, M. A. Katri, et al., "Risk factors of congenital hydrocephalus: a case-control study in a lower-middle-income country (Egypt).", Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics, vol. 31, issue 5, pp. 397-405, 2023. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Hydrocephalus is the most common brain disorder in children and is more common in low- and middle-income countries. Research output on hydrocephalus remains sparse and of lower quality in low- and middle-income countries compared with high-income countries. Most studies addressing hydrocephalus epidemiology are retrospective registry studies entailing their inherent limitations and biases. This study aimed to investigate child-related, parental, and socioeconomic risk factors of congenital hydrocephalus (CH) in a lower-middle-income country.

METHODS: An investigator-administered questionnaire was used to query parents of patients with CH and controls who visited the authors' institution from 2017 until 2021. Patients with secondary hydrocephalus and children older than 2 years of age at diagnosis were excluded. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify the factors affecting CH development.

RESULTS: Seven hundred forty-one respondents (312 cases and 429 controls) were included in this study. The authors showed that maternal diseases during pregnancy (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.96-5.03), a lack of periconceptional folic acid intake (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.32-2.81), being a housewife (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.51-4.87), paternal illiteracy (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.02-2.69), parental consanguinity (OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.40-5.69), a history of other CNS conditions in the family (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.24-7.34), conceiving a child via assisted fertilization techniques (OR 3.93, 95% CI 1.57-10.52), and the presence of other congenital anomalies (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.38-4.87) were associated with an independent higher odds of a child having CH. Conversely, maternal hypertension (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.09-0.48), older maternal age at delivery (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.97), and having more abortions (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.95) were negatively correlated with CH.

CONCLUSIONS: Multiple parental, socioeconomic, and child-related factors were associated with higher odds for developing CH. These results can be utilized to guide parental counseling and management, and direct social education and prevention programs.

Ali, H., B. M. A. Elhamid, A. M. Hasanin, A. Abou Amer, and A. Rady, "Ketamine-based Versus Fentanyl-based Regimen for Rapid-sequence Endotracheal Intubation in Patients with Septic Shock: A Randomised Controlled Trial.", Romanian journal of anaesthesia and intensive care, vol. 28, issue 2, pp. 98-104, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to compared ketamine-based versus fentanyl-based regimens for endotracheal intubation in patients with septic shock undergoing emergency surgery.

DESIGN: This was a randomised double-blinded controlled trial.

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with septic shock on norepinephrine infusion scheduled for emergency surgery.

SETTING AND INTERVENTIONS: At induction of anaesthesia, patients were allocated into ketamine group (n=23) in which the participants received ketamine 1 mg/kg, and fentanyl group (n=19) in which the participants received fentanyl 2.5 mcg/ kg. Both groups received midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) and succinyl choline (1 mg/kg).

MEASUREMENT: The primary outcome was mean arterial blood pressure. The secondary outcomes included: heart rate, cardiac output, and incidence of postintubation hypotension defined as mean arterial pressure ≤80% of baseline value.

RESULTS: Forty-two patients were available for final analysis. The mean blood pressure was higher in the ketamine group than in the fentanyl group at 1, 2 and 5 minutes after the induction of anaesthesia. Furthermore, the incidence of postinduction hypotension was lower in the ketamine group than in the fentanyl group (11 [47.8%] versus 16 [84.2%], P-value= 0.014). Other hypodynamic parameters, namely the heart rate and cardiac output, were comparable between both groups; and were generally maintained in relation to the baseline reading in each group.

CONCLUSION: The ketamine-based regimen provided better hemodynamic profile compared to fentanyl-based regimen for rapid-sequence intubation in patients with septic shock undergoing emergency surgery.

Ahmed Mukhtar, Ahmed Hasanin, G. O. A. A., "Intraoperative Terlipressin Therapy Reduces the Incidence of Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury After Living Donor Liver Transplantation", Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, 2015.
Ahmed Hasanin, Akram Eladawy, H. M. Y. S. I. A. L. H. M. D. G. A. M., "Prevalence of extensively drug-resistant gram negative bacilli in surgical intensive care in Egypt", Pan African Medical Journal, vol. 19, pp. 177, 2014.
Adel, A., W. Awada, B. A. Elhamid, H. Omar, O. A. E. Dayem, A. Hasanin, and A. Rady, "Accuracy and trending of non-invasive hemoglobin measurement during different volume and perfusion statuses.", Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, 2018 Jan 15. Abstract

The evolution of non-invasive hemoglobin measuring technology would save time and improve transfusion practice. The validity of pulse co-oximetry hemoglobin (SpHb) measurement in the perioperative setting was previously evaluated; however, the accuracy of SpHb in different volume statuses as well as in different perfusion states was not well investigated. The aim of this work is to evaluate the accuracy and trending of SpHb in comparison to laboratory hemoglobin (Lab-Hb) during acute bleeding and after resuscitation. Seventy patients scheduled for major orthopedic procedures with anticipated major blood loss were included. Radical-7 device was used for continuous assessment of SpHb, volume status [via pleth variability index (PVI)] and perfusion status [via perfusion index (PI)]. Lab-Hb and SpHb were measured at three time-points, a baseline reading, after major bleeding, and after resuscitation. Samples were divided into fluid-responsive and fluid non-responsive samples, and were also divided into high-PI and low-PI samples. Accuracy of SpHb was determined using Bland-Altman analysis. Trending of SpHb was evaluated using polar plot analysis. We obtained 210 time-matched readings. Fluid non-responsive samples were 106 (50.5%) whereas fluid responsive samples were 104 (49.5%). Excellent correlation was reported between Lab-Hb and SpHb (r = 0.938). Excellent accuracy with moderate levels of agreement was also reported between both measures among all samples, fluid non-responsive samples, fluid-responsive samples, high-PI samples, and low-PI samples [Mean bias (limits of agreement): 0.01 (- 1.33 and 1.34) g/dL, - 0.08 (- 1.27 and 1.11) g/dL, 0.09 (- 1.36 and 1.54) g/dL, 0.01 (- 1.34 to 1.31) g/dL, and 0.04 (- 1.31 to 1.39) g/dL respectively]. Polar plot analysis showed good trending ability for SpHb as a follow up monitor. In conclusion, SpHb showed excellent correlation with Lab-Hb in fluid responders, fluid non-responders, low-PI, and high PI states. Despite a favorable mean bias of 0.01 g/dL for SpHb, the relatively wide levels of agreement (- 1.3 to 1.3 g/dL) might limit its accuracy. SpHb showed good performance as a trend monitor.

Abdulatif, M., M. Fawzy, H. Nassar, A. Hasanin, M. Ollaek, and H. Mohamed, "The effects of perineural dexmedetomidine on the pharmacodynamic profile of femoral nerve block: a dose-finding randomised, controlled, double-blind study", Anaesthesia, vol. 71, issue 10, pp. 1177-85, 2016.
Abdelnasser, A., B. Abdelhamid, A. Elsonbaty, A. Hasanin, and A. Rady, "Predicting successful supraclavicular brachial plexus block using pulse oximeter perfusion index.", British journal of anaesthesia, vol. 119, issue 2, pp. 276-280, 2017 Aug 01. Abstract

Background: Supraclavicular nerve block is a popular approach for anaesthesia for upper limb surgeries. Conventional methods for evaluation of block success are time consuming and need patient cooperation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the perfusion index (PI) can be used to predict and provide a cut-off value for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular nerve block success.

Methods: The study included 77 patients undergoing elective orthopaedic procedures under ultrasound-guided supraclavicular nerve block. After local anaesthetic injection, sensory block success was assessed every 3 min by pinprick, and motor block success was assessed every 5 min by the ability to flex the elbow and the hand against resistance. The PI was recorded at baseline and at 10, 20, and 30 min after anaesthetic injection in both blocked and non-blocked limbs. The PI ratio was calculated as the PI after 10 min divided by the PI at the baseline. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the accuracy of the PI in detection of block success.

Results: The PI was higher in the blocked limb at all time points, and this was paralleled by a higher PI ratio compared with the unblocked limb. Both the PI and the PI ratio at 10 min after injection showed a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for block success at cut-off values of 3.3 and 1.4, respectively.

Conclusions: The PI is a useful tool for evaluation of successful supraclavicular nerve block. A PI ratio of > 1.4 is a good predictor for block success.

Abdelhakeem, A. K., A. Amin, A. Hasanin, A. Mukhtar, akram eladawy, and S. Kassem, "Validity of Pulse Oximetry-derived Peripheral Perfusion Index in Pain Assessment in Critically Ill Intubated Patients.", The Clinical journal of pain, vol. 37, issue 12, pp. 904-907, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of pain in critically ill intubated patients is difficult and subjective. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of oximetry-derived peripheral perfusion index (PPI) in pain assessment in critically ill intubated patients using the behavioral pain scale (BPS) as a reference.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study included 35 adult mechanically ventilated surgical patients during their first 2 postoperative days in the intensive care unit. Values of PPI, BPS, Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained before and after a standard painful stimulus (changing the patient position) and the ratio between the second and the first reading was calculated to determine the change (Δ) in all variables. The outcomes were the correlation between ΔBPS and ΔPPI as well as other hemodynamic parameters. The ability of the PPI to detect pain (defined as BPS ≥6) was analyzed using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve.

RESULTS: Paired readings were obtained from 35 patients. After the standard painful stimulus, the PPI decreased while the BPS and the Richmond agitation sedation scale increased. The Spearman correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval) between Δ PPI and Δ BPS was 0.41 (0.09-0.65). PPI values showed poor accuracy in detecting pain with area under receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval): 0.65 (0.53-0.76), with best cutoff value of ≤2.7.

CONCLUSION: The PPI decreased after application of a standard painful stimulus in critically ill intubated patients. ∆PPI showed a low correlation with ∆BPS, and a PPI of ≤2.7 showed a low ability to detect BPS ≥6. Therefore, PPI should not be used for pain evaluation in critically ill intubated surgical patients.