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Abdelnasser, A., B. Abdelhamid, A. Elsonbaty, A. Hasanin, and A. Rady, "Predicting successful supraclavicular brachial plexus block using pulse oximeter perfusion index.", British journal of anaesthesia, vol. 119, issue 2, pp. 276-280, 2017 Aug 01. Abstract

Background: Supraclavicular nerve block is a popular approach for anaesthesia for upper limb surgeries. Conventional methods for evaluation of block success are time consuming and need patient cooperation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the perfusion index (PI) can be used to predict and provide a cut-off value for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular nerve block success.

Methods: The study included 77 patients undergoing elective orthopaedic procedures under ultrasound-guided supraclavicular nerve block. After local anaesthetic injection, sensory block success was assessed every 3 min by pinprick, and motor block success was assessed every 5 min by the ability to flex the elbow and the hand against resistance. The PI was recorded at baseline and at 10, 20, and 30 min after anaesthetic injection in both blocked and non-blocked limbs. The PI ratio was calculated as the PI after 10 min divided by the PI at the baseline. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the accuracy of the PI in detection of block success.

Results: The PI was higher in the blocked limb at all time points, and this was paralleled by a higher PI ratio compared with the unblocked limb. Both the PI and the PI ratio at 10 min after injection showed a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for block success at cut-off values of 3.3 and 1.4, respectively.

Conclusions: The PI is a useful tool for evaluation of successful supraclavicular nerve block. A PI ratio of > 1.4 is a good predictor for block success.

Abdelhakeem, A. K., A. Amin, A. Hasanin, A. Mukhtar, akram eladawy, and S. Kassem, "Validity of Pulse Oximetry-derived Peripheral Perfusion Index in Pain Assessment in Critically Ill Intubated Patients.", The Clinical journal of pain, vol. 37, issue 12, pp. 904-907, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of pain in critically ill intubated patients is difficult and subjective. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of oximetry-derived peripheral perfusion index (PPI) in pain assessment in critically ill intubated patients using the behavioral pain scale (BPS) as a reference.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study included 35 adult mechanically ventilated surgical patients during their first 2 postoperative days in the intensive care unit. Values of PPI, BPS, Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained before and after a standard painful stimulus (changing the patient position) and the ratio between the second and the first reading was calculated to determine the change (Δ) in all variables. The outcomes were the correlation between ΔBPS and ΔPPI as well as other hemodynamic parameters. The ability of the PPI to detect pain (defined as BPS ≥6) was analyzed using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve.

RESULTS: Paired readings were obtained from 35 patients. After the standard painful stimulus, the PPI decreased while the BPS and the Richmond agitation sedation scale increased. The Spearman correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval) between Δ PPI and Δ BPS was 0.41 (0.09-0.65). PPI values showed poor accuracy in detecting pain with area under receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval): 0.65 (0.53-0.76), with best cutoff value of ≤2.7.

CONCLUSION: The PPI decreased after application of a standard painful stimulus in critically ill intubated patients. ∆PPI showed a low correlation with ∆BPS, and a PPI of ≤2.7 showed a low ability to detect BPS ≥6. Therefore, PPI should not be used for pain evaluation in critically ill intubated surgical patients.