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Mohamed, H., S. M. Abbas, and A. Hasanin, "Management of post laryngectomy tracheobronchial tear with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass", Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, vol. 55, pp. 128-129, 2019.
Mostafa, M., N. A. Helmy, A. S. Ibrahim, M. Elsayad, and A. M. Hasanin, "Accuracy of infrared thermography in detecting febrile critically ill patients.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 5, pp. 100951, 2021.
Mostafa, M., and A. Hasanin, "Appropriate intraoperative haemodynamic targets. Comment on Br J Anaesth 2021; 127: 396-404.", British journal of anaesthesia, vol. 128, issue 1, pp. e13-e14, 2022.
Mostafa, M., M. S. Mousa, A. Hasanin, A. S. Arafa, H. Raafat, and A. S. Ragab, "Erector spinae plane block versus subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in patients undergoing open liver resection surgery: A randomized controlled trial.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 42, issue 1, pp. 101161, 2023. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of erector spinae plane block (ESPB) in relation to subcostal transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) in patients undergoing open liver resection surgery.

METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, we included adult patients undergoing open liver resection surgery. After induction of general anaesthesia, the included patients were randomized to receive either ESPB (n = 30) or subcostal TAPB (n = 30). Postoperative pain was assessed using the numeric rating scale (NRS) at rest and during cough. Intravenous morphine boluses were used for management of breakthrough pain intra- and postoperatively. The study's primary outcome was morphine consumption during the first 24 h postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included intraoperative morphine consumption, time to first postoperative morphine requirement, incidence of complications, and patient satisfaction.

RESULTS: Sixty patients were included and were available for the final analysis in this study. The intra-and postoperative morphine consumption were less in the ESPB group than the subcostal TAPB group (median [quartiles] morphine dose: 0 [0-0] vs 2 [0-5] mg, p = 0.007 and 20 [15-20] vs 25 [20-30] mg, p = 0.006, respectively). The time to first morphine requirement was longer in the ESPB group (median [quartiles]: 6.5 [5.5-6.5] h) than the subcostal TAPB group (median [quartiles]: 4.3 [1.0-6.5] h), P = 0.013. Patients in the ESPB group had lower incidence of sedation and higher level of satisfaction than the subcostal TAPB group.

CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing open liver resection surgery, ESPB provided superior analgesic properties than subcostal TAPB.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05253079, Principal investigator: Maha Mostafa, Date of registration: February 23, 2022. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05253079.

hanan mostafa, M. Shaban, A. Hasanin, H. Mohamed, S. Fathy, H. M. Abdelreheem, ahmed lotfy, and A. Abougabal, "Evaluation of peripheral perfusion index and heart rate variability as early predictors for intradialytic hypotension in critically ill patients.", BMC Anesthesiology, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 242, 2019.
Mostafa, M., and A. Hasanin, "Analgesia for open liver resection surgery.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 42, issue 1, pp. 101169, 2023.
Mostafa, M., A. M. Hasanin, O. S. Elsayed, M. M. Mostafa, and K. Sarhan, "Accuracy of oscillometric blood pressure measurement at both arms in the lateral position.", Blood pressure monitoring, vol. 26, issue 5, pp. 364-372, 2021. Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement at the dependent- and nondependent arms in the lateral position, using invasive blood pressure (IBP) as reference.

METHODS: This prospective observational study included 42 adult patients undergoing surgery in the lateral position. Paired readings of IBP and NIBP were obtained at either arm. The accuracy of both arms in detecting mean arterial pressure (MAP) <70 mmHg was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The agreement between the IBP and NIBP was evaluated using the Bland-Altman and error grid analyses.

RESULTS: We analyzed 350 and 347 paired readings at the dependent- and nondependent arms. The AUC for detecting hypotension was comparable in both arms. The negative and positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) were 100% (99-100%) and 24% (14-34%), respectively for the dependent arm at cutoff value MAP ≤86 mmHg; and were 99% (96-100%) and 21% (13-30%), respectively for the nondependent arm at cutoff value MAP ≤75 mmHg. The mean bias for MAP was -6.0 ± 9.1 and 6.3 ± 10.1 mmHg; and for systolic blood pressure was 0.3 ± 11.6 and 13.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, in the dependent- and nondependent arm, respectively. Error grid analysis showed that the proportions of paired MAP readings in risk zone A were 71 and 82% in the dependent- and the nondependent arms, respectively.

CONCLUSION: In the lateral position, the NIBP readings at both arms are not interchangeable with the corresponding IBP readings. However, NIBP measurement at both arms can be used to accurately rule out hypotension.

Mostafa, M., A. Hasanin, M. Mostafa, M. Y. Taha, M. Elsayad, F. A. Haggag, O. Taalab, A. Rady, and B. A. Elhamid, "Hemodynamic effects of norepinephrine versus phenylephrine infusion for prophylaxis against spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension in the elderly population undergoing hip fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial.", Korean journal of anesthesiology, vol. 74, issue 4, pp. 308-316, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Elderly population are at increased risk of spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension increasing their risk for postoperative morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the hemodynamic effects of prophylactic infusion of norepinephrine (NE) versus phenylephrine (PE) in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery under spinal anesthesia.

METHODS: Elderly patients scheduled for hip fracture surgery were randomized to receive either NE infusion (8 µg/min) (NE group, n = 31) or PE infusion (100 µg/min) (PE group, n = 31) after spinal anesthesia. Outcomes included mean heart rate, mean blood pressure, cardiac output, incidence of spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension, incidence of bradycardia, and incidence of hypertension.

RESULTS: Sixty-two patients with a mean age of 71 ± 6 years were included in the final analysis (31 patients in each group). The NE group showed a higher mean heart rate and cardiac output than the PE group. The NE group had a lower incidence of reactive bradycardia (10% vs. 36%, P = 0.031) and hypertension (3% vs. 36%, P = 0.003) than the PE group. No study participant developed hypotension, and the mean blood pressure was comparable between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Both NE and PE infusions effectively prevented spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. However, NE provided more hemodynamic stability than PE; maintaining the heart rate, higher cardiac output, less reactive bradycardia, and hypertension.

Mostafa, M., M. Saeed, A. Hasanin, S. Badawy, and D. KHALED, "Accuracy of thyromental height test for predicting difficult intubation in elderly.", Journal of anesthesia, vol. 34, issue 2, pp. 217-223, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies of the accuracy of different airway tests are lacking in elderly. We evaluated and compared the accuracy of thyromental height in predicting difficult intubation in relation to the other traditional airway tests in elderly.

METHODS: We included 120 patients aged ≥ 65 years scheduled for general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. Thyromental height, modified Mallampati test, thyromental distance and sternomental distance were evaluated. Cormack-Lehane grade > 2 was considered difficult laryngoscopy. Difficult tracheal intubation was considered if successful intubation required more than 2 attempts. The accuracy of different tests in predicting difficult intubation and difficult laryngoscopy were evaluated through area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for difficult intubation and difficult laryngoscopy.

RESULTS: Our cohort had a mean age of 71(7) years. We encountered difficult laryngoscopy in 15/120 (12%) patients, difficult intubation in 20/120 (17%) patients, and failed laryngoscopy requiring alternative methods for securing the airway in 3/120 (3%) patients. For predicting difficult intubation, thyromental height and modified Mallampati test showed the highest accuracy AUROC (95% confidence interval): 0.9 (0.83-0.95), cut-off value ≤ 5.9 cm, and AUROC (95% confidence interval): 0.89 (0.82-0.94), cut-off value > 2, respectively. Low thyromental height and high modified Mallampati test were the only independent risk factors for difficult laryngoscopy and difficult intubation.

CONCLUSION: In elderly scheduled for elective procedure, both thyromental height and modified Mallampati tests showed good accuracy in predicting difficult intubation and difficult laryngoscopy, whilst thyromental distance and sternomental distance were poor predictors.

Mostafa, M., M. A. Helmy, L. Magdy Milad, and A. Hasanin, "Patient self-induced lung injury risk in severe COVID-19.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 41, issue 2, pp. 101018, 2022.
Mostafa, M. M. A., A. M. Hasanin, F. Alhamade, B. A. Elhamid, A. G. Safina, S. M. Kasem, Osama Hosny, M. Mahmoud, E. fouad, A. Rady, et al., "Accuracy and trending of non-invasive oscillometric blood pressure monitoring at the wrist in obese patients.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 39, issue 2, pp. 221-227, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In obese patients, non-invasive blood pressure monitoring in the arm is difficult due to the arm size and morphology. We compared the non-invasive oscillometric wrist blood pressure measurement with the arm and forearm in obese patients monitored with invasive radial blood pressure (reference standard).

METHODS: This prospective observational study included adult obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery. Non-invasive blood pressure was measured at the arm, upper forearm and wrist of one upper extremity, while invasive blood pressure was simultaneously measured through a radial arterial catheter in the contralateral upper extremity. The accuracy of non-invasive blood pressure reading at each site was evaluated for absolute and trending values using the Bland-Altman analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient.

RESULTS: In 40 patients, 262, 259, and 263 pairs of non-invasive blood pressure readings were obtained from the arm, forearm, and wrist sites, respectively. As primary outcome, the correlation coefficient for systolic blood pressure was higher for the wrist (0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.9-0.94]) than for the arm (0.74, 95% CI [0.68-0.79]) and the forearm (0.71, 95% CI [0.64-0.76]) (P<0.05). The non-invasive systolic wrist blood pressure showed the least mean bias and the narrowest limits of agreement (-0.3±7.6mmHg) when compared with forearm (4.3±16) and arm measurements (14.2±13.6) (P<0.05). For trending values, the correlation coefficient was the highest at the wrist.

CONCLUSION: In obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, non-invasive blood pressure measured at the wrist showed the highest accuracy in comparison with the arm and forearm.

Mukhtar, A., I. Rasmy, hossam mohamed, and N. Nabil, "Evaluation of Perfusion Index as a Predictor of Vasopressor Requirement in Patients with Severe Sepsis", shock, vol. 44, issue 6, pp. 554-9, 2015.
Mukhtar, A., A. Hasanin, A. Abelaal, and G. Obayah, "Infection complications and pattern of bacterial resistance in living-donor liver transplantation: A multicenter epidemiologic study in Egypt", transplantation proceedings, vol. 46, issue 5, pp. 1444-7, 2014.
Mukhtar, A., ahmed lotfy, A. Hasanin, I. El-Hefnawy, and A. El-adawy, "Outcome of non-invasive ventilation in COVID-19 critically ill patients: A Retrospective observational Study", Anaesthesia Critical care & Pain Medicine, vol. 39, pp. 579-580, 2020.
Mukhtar, A., M. AbdelGhany, A. Hasanin, W. Hamimy, A. Abougabal, H. Nasser, A. Elsayed, and E. Ayman, "The Novel Use of Point-of-Care Ultrasound to Predict Resting Energy Expenditure in Critically Ill Patients.", Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 40, issue 8, pp. 1581-1589, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Accurate estimation of a critically ill patient's caloric requirements is essential for a proper nutritional plan. This study aimed to evaluate the use of point-of-care ultrasound (US) to predict the resting energy expenditure (REE) in critically ill patients.

METHODS: In 69 critically ill patients, we measured the REE using indirect calorimetry (REE_IC), muscle layer thicknesses (MLTs), and cardiac output (CO). Muscle thickness was measured at the biceps and the quadriceps muscles. Patients were randomly split into a model development group (n = 46) and a cross-validation group (n = 23). In the model development group, a multiple regression analysis was applied to generate REE using US (REE_US) values. In the cross-validation group, REE was calculated by the REE_US and the resting energy expenditure using the Harris-Benedict equation (REE_HB), and both were compared to the REE_IC.

RESULTS: In the model development group, the REE_US was predicted by the following formula: predicted REE_US (kcal/d) = 206 + 173.5 × CO (L/min) + 137 × MLT (cm) - 230 × (women = 1; men = 0) (R  = 0.8; P < .0001). In the cross-validated group, the REE_IC and REE_US values were comparable (mean difference, -66 [-3.3%] kcal/d; P = .14). However, the difference between the mean REE_IC and the mean REE_HB was 455.8 (26%) kcal/d (P < .001). According to a Bland-Altman analysis, the REE_US agreed well with the REE_IC, whereas the REE_HB did not.

CONCLUSIONS: Resting energy expenditure could be estimated from US measurements of MLTs and CO. Our point-of-care US model explains 80% of the change in the REE in critically ill patients.

Mukhtar, A., A. Rady, A. Hasanin, ahmed lotfy, akram eladawy, A. Hussein, I. El-Hefnawy, M. Hassan, and hanan mostafa, "Admission SpO and ROX index predict outcome in patients with COVID-19.", The American journal of emergency medicine, vol. 50, pp. 106-110, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of pulse oximetry-derived oxygen saturation (SpO) on room air, determined at hospital admission, as a predictor for the need for mechanical ventilatory support in patients with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19).

METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, demographic and clinical details of the patients were obtained during ICU admission. SpO and respiratory rate (RR) on room air were determined within the first 6 h of hospital admission. As all measurements were obtained on room air, we calculated the simplified respiratory rate‑oxygenation (ROX) index by dividing the SpO by the RR. Based on the use of any assistance of mechanical ventilator (invasive or noninvasive), patients were divided into mechanical ventilation (MV) group and oxygen therapy group. The accuracy of the SpO, CT score, and ROX index to predict the need to MV were determined using the Area under receiver operating curve (AUC).

RESULTS: We included 72 critically ill patients who tested COVID-19-positive. SpO on the room air could predict any MV requirement (AUC [95% confidence interval]: 0.9 [0.8-0.96], sensitivity: 70%, specificity 100%, cut-off value ≤78%, P < 0.001). Within the MV group, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was successful in 37 (74%) patients, whereas 13 patients (26%) required endotracheal intubation. The cut-off ROX value for predicting early NIV failure was ≤1.4, with a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 86%, and an AUC of 0.86 (95% confidence interval of 0.73-0.94, P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: A baseline SpO ≤78% is an excellent predictor of MV requirement with a positive predictive value of 100%. Moreover, the ROX index measured within the first 6 h of hospital admission is a good indicator of early NIV failure.

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Nassar, H., A. Hasanin, M. Sewilam, H. Ahmed, M. Abo-elsoud, O. Taalab, A. Rady, and H. A. Zoheir, "Transmuscular Quadratus Lumborum Block versus Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Block for Hip Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study.", Local and regional anesthesia, vol. 14, pp. 67-74, 2021. Abstract

Background: This study aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy and motor block profile of single-shot transmuscular quadratus lumborum block (QLB) in comparison with those of suprainguinal fascia iliaca block (FIB) in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty.

Methods: This randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial included adult patients undergoing hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia. Patients were allocated to one of two groups according to the regional block received: FIB group (n=19) or QLB group (n=17). Both study groups were compared with regard to the duration of analgesia (primary outcome), block performance time, pain during positioning for spinal anesthesia, total morphine consumption in the first postoperative 24-h period, quadriceps muscle power, and static and dynamic visual analog scale.

Results: Thirty-six patients were included in the final analysis. Both study groups had comparable durations of analgesia. Postoperative visual analog scale (static and dynamic) values were comparable between the two groups in most readings. The block performance time was shorter in the FIB group. The number of patients with pain during positioning for the subarachnoid block was lower in the QLB group. The total morphine requirement during the first 24 h was marginally lower in the FIB group, whereas the quadriceps motor grade was higher in the FIB group than in the QLB group at 4 h and 6 h after surgery.

Conclusion: Both single-shot blocks, namely the suprainguinal FIB and transmuscular QLB, provide effective postoperative analgesia after hip arthroplasty. FIB showed slightly lower 24-h morphine consumption, while QLB showed better quadriceps motor power.

Clinical Trial Registration: The study was registered at clinical trials registry system before enrollment of the first participant (NCT04005326; initial release date, 2 July 2019; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04005326).

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Refaat, S., M. Mostafa, A. Hasanin, N. Rujubali, R. Fouad, and Y. Hassabelnaby, "Accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure measured at the ankle during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia.", Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, vol. 35, issue 5, pp. 1211-1218, 2021. Abstract

In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of oscillometric noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measured at the ankle in detecting low arm NIBP during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. In this prospective observational study, a cohort of full-term mothers undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia was examined. Simultaneous NIBP measurements were obtained from the arm and the ankle. The primary outcome was the accuracy of the ankle NIBP in detecting arm systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 90 mmHg. Other outcomes included the accuracy of ankle NIBP in detecting SBP < 80% of the baseline value. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the accuracy of ankle NIBP in detecting low arm NIBP. The Bland-Altman analysis was conducted to evaluate the agreement between values. We analyzed 1729 pairs of readings obtained from 97 mothers. Ankle SBP showed good accuracy in detecting SBP < 90 mmHg, with an AUC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.90 (0.89-0.91) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99 (98-99%) at a cutoff value of ≤ 103 mmHg. Furthermore, ankle SBP showed good accuracy in detecting SBP < 80% of the baseline value, with an AUC (95% CI) of 0.84 (0.82-0.89) and an NPV of 95 (93-96%) at a cutoff value of ≤ 76% of the ankle baseline SBP. The mean bias between the two sites of measurement was - 5.4 ± 15.5, - 2.0 ± 11, and 0.5 ± 12.1 mmHg for SBP, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure, respectively. In conclusion, ankle NIBP measurement is not interchangeable with arm NIBP measurement. However, ankle NIBP measurement showed good accuracy for ruling out low arm NIBP during a cesarean delivery.Clinical trial rejistration: NCT04199156.

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Sabry, R., A. Hasanin, S. Refaat, S. A. E. Raouf, A. S. Abdallah, and N. Helmy, "Evaluation of Gastric Residual Volume in Fasting Diabetic Patients Using Gastric Ultrasound", Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, vol. 63, issue 5, pp. 615-619, 2019.
Sanfilippo, F., D. P. Gopalan, and A. Hasanin, "The COVID-19 pandemic: a gateway between one world and the next!", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 41, issue 5, pp. 101131, 2022.
Sanfilippo, F., A. Zeidan, and A. Hasanin, "Disposable versus reusable medical devices and carbon footprint: old is gold.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 42, issue 5, pp. 101285, 2023.
Sarhan, K. A., H. Hasaneen, A. Hasanin, H. Mohammed, R. Saleh, and A. Kamel, "Ultrasound Assessment of Gastric Fluid Volume in Children Scheduled for Elective Surgery After Clear Fluid Fasting for 1 Versus 2 Hours: A Randomized Controlled Trial.", Anesthesia and analgesia, vol. 136, issue 4, pp. 711-718, 2023. Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the gastric fluid volume (GFV) in children who fasted 1 versus 2 hours using ultrasound, after ingestion of a defined volume of clear fluid.

METHODS: Children scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. After receiving 3 mL kg -1 clear fluid, participants were randomized to have a gastric ultrasound after fasting for either 1 hour (1-hour group, n = 116) or 2 hours (2-hour group, n = 111). Our primary outcome was the GFV. Other outcomes included the antral cross-sectional area, frequency of high risk and low risk of aspiration, and qualitative grading for the gastric antrum.

RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-seven children were available for final analysis. The median (Q1-Q3) GFV was higher in the 1-hour group versus the 2-hour group (0.61 [0.41-0.9] mL kg -1 vs 0.32 [0.23-0.47] mL kg -1 ; P value = .001). None of the study groups had GFV ≥1.5 mL kg -1 . The frequency (%) of GFV ≥1.25 mL kg -1 was comparable between both groups (2 [1.7%] vs 0 [0%], P value = .165). However, the frequency of GFV ≥0.8 mL kg -1 was higher in 1-hour group than in 2-hour group (34.5% vs 4.5%), and grade 2 antral grading score was 56.9% in 1-hour group vs 0.9% in 2-hour group ( P value <.001).

CONCLUSIONS: In healthy children scheduled for elective surgery receiving 3 mL kg -1 clear fluid, the median GFV after 1-hour fasting was double the volume after conventional 2-hour fasting. These findings should be considered whether weighting the risk/benefit of a liberal approach to preoperative fasting versus the risk of pulmonary aspiration.

Sarhan, K., A. Hasanin, R. Melad, R. Fouad, H. Elhadi, M. Elsherbeeny, A. Arafa, and M. Mostafa, "Evaluation of gastric contents using ultrasound in full-term pregnant women fasted for 8 h: a prospective observational study.", Journal of anesthesia, vol. 36, issue 1, pp. 137-142, 2022. Abstract

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the gastric volume and contents after an 8-h fasting period in full-term, non-laboring, pregnant women following a standardized meal.

METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we included full-term pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery. The participants were instructed to fast after a standardized meal (apple juice, bread, and cheese). Participants were scanned in the semi-recumbent and right-lateral positions 8 h after the standardized meal. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with gastric volume > 1.5 mL kg calculated by two equations. Secondary outcomes included the antral cross-sectional area and gastric volume. Data are expressed as frequency (%, 95% confidence interval [CI]), mean ± standard deviation (95% CI of the mean), or median (quartiles) as appropriate.

RESULTS: Forty-one women were available for the final analysis. For the primary outcome, one participant (2.4%, 95% CI of 0.06 to 12.8%) had gastric volume > 1.5 mL kg, and none had solids in the antrum. For the secondary outcomes, the mean (95% CI of the mean) of the antral cross-sectional area was 2.11 ± 0.72 (1.88 to 2.34) cm and 4.08 ± 1.80 (3.51 to 4.65) cm during the semi-recumbent and right-lateral position, respectively. The median (quartiles) gastric volume was 0.53 (0.32, 0.66) mL kg and 0.33 (0.13, 0.52) mL kg as estimated by Perlas et al. and Roukhomovsky et al. equations, respectively.

CONCLUSION: After 8-h fasting following a standardized meal, full-term pregnant non-laboring women are less likely to have a high residual gastric volume.

Sarhan, K. A., R. Emad, D. Mahmoud, A. Hasanin, Osama Hosny, M. Al-Sonbaty, A. Aboel-ela, and S. Othman, "The effect of hyperventilation versus normoventilation on cerebral oxygenation using near infrared spectroscopy in children undergoing posterior fossa tumor resection: A randomized controlled cross-over trial.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 42, issue 3, pp. 101190, 2023. Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare the effect of two different ventilation strategies on cerebral oxygenation in children undergoing posterior fossa tumor excision surgeries.

METHODS: Children scheduled for posterior fossa tumor surgeries were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, controlled cross-over trial. After induction of general anesthesia and positioning, participants were randomized to have mild hyperventilation for 30 min (phase 1) followed by normal ventilation for another 30 min (phase2) (early hyperventilation group, n = 23), or normal ventilation for 30 min (phase 1) followed by hyperventilation for 30 min (phase 2) (early normoventilation group, n = 19). Our primary outcome was cerebral oxygenation, measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Other outcomes included the intracranial pressure (ICP), brain relaxation score at the end of phase 1, and frequency of nadir NIRS.

RESULTS: Forty-two children were available for final per protocol analysis. The cerebral oxygenation decreased after the hyperventilation phase compared to the baseline values and the corresponding phases of normoventilation. The mean difference [95% confidence intervals (CI)] in cerebral oxygen saturation between the hyperventilation and normal ventilation readings was 13.45 ± 1.14% [11.14-15.76] and 11.47 ± 0.96% [11.14-15.76] in the left and right sides, respectively (p-values <0.0001). Both carryover and period effects were not significant. The ICP at the end of phase 1 did not differ between the two groups: 22.12 ± 3.75 mmHg vs. 23.26 ± 4.33, mean difference [95%CI]: -0.78 [-3.05 to 1.5], p = 0.49. Brain relaxation score was similar in the two groups.

CONCLUSION: In children undergoing posterior fossa craniotomy, moderate hyperventilation reduced cerebral oxygenation without significant improvement of the surgical brain relaxation or the ICP.

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