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Mukhtar, A., A. Rady, A. Hasanin, ahmed lotfy, akram eladawy, A. Hussein, I. El-Hefnawy, M. Hassan, and hanan mostafa, "Admission SpO and ROX index predict outcome in patients with COVID-19.", The American journal of emergency medicine, vol. 50, pp. 106-110, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of pulse oximetry-derived oxygen saturation (SpO) on room air, determined at hospital admission, as a predictor for the need for mechanical ventilatory support in patients with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19).

METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, demographic and clinical details of the patients were obtained during ICU admission. SpO and respiratory rate (RR) on room air were determined within the first 6 h of hospital admission. As all measurements were obtained on room air, we calculated the simplified respiratory rate‑oxygenation (ROX) index by dividing the SpO by the RR. Based on the use of any assistance of mechanical ventilator (invasive or noninvasive), patients were divided into mechanical ventilation (MV) group and oxygen therapy group. The accuracy of the SpO, CT score, and ROX index to predict the need to MV were determined using the Area under receiver operating curve (AUC).

RESULTS: We included 72 critically ill patients who tested COVID-19-positive. SpO on the room air could predict any MV requirement (AUC [95% confidence interval]: 0.9 [0.8-0.96], sensitivity: 70%, specificity 100%, cut-off value ≤78%, P < 0.001). Within the MV group, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was successful in 37 (74%) patients, whereas 13 patients (26%) required endotracheal intubation. The cut-off ROX value for predicting early NIV failure was ≤1.4, with a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 86%, and an AUC of 0.86 (95% confidence interval of 0.73-0.94, P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: A baseline SpO ≤78% is an excellent predictor of MV requirement with a positive predictive value of 100%. Moreover, the ROX index measured within the first 6 h of hospital admission is a good indicator of early NIV failure.

Fathy, S., A. Hasanin, M. Mostafa, E. Ramzy, K. Sarhan, T. Almenesey, A. G. Safina, Osama Hosny, G. A. Hamden, A. A. Gado, et al., "The benefit of adding lidocaine to ketamine during rapid sequence endotracheal intubation in patients with septic shock: A randomised controlled trial.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 1, pp. 100731, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients with septic shock commonly require endotracheal intubation under general anaesthesia in the operating theatre, the emergency department, and the intensive care unit. Hypotension is a serious complication after induction of general anaesthesia, especially in patients with circulatory failure. No randomised controlled trials had previously investigated protocols for induction of anaesthesia in septic shock patients. The aim of the current work is to compare two protocols, lidocaine-ketamine combination versus ketamine full-dose for rapid-sequence endotracheal intubation in patients with septic shock.

METHODS: Forty-four adult patients, with septic shock, scheduled for emergency surgical intervention were enrolled in this randomised, double-blinded, controlled study. Patients were randomised to receive either 1 mg/kg ketamine (ketamine group, n = 22) or 0.5 mg/kg ketamine plus 1 mg/kg lidocaine (ketamine-lidocaine group, n = 22) for induction of anaesthesia in addition to 0.05 mg/kg midazolam (in both groups). Our primary outcome was the mean arterial pressure (MAP). Other outcomes included frequency of post-induction hypotension, heart rate, and cardiac output.

RESULTS: Forty-three patients were available for final analysis. The average MAP reading in the first 5 min post-induction was higher in ketamine-lidocaine group than in the ketamine group {82.8 ± 5.6 mmHg and 73 ± 10.2 mmHg, P < 0.001}. Furthermore, the incidence of post-intubation hypotension was lower in the ketamine-lidocaine group than in the ketamine group {1 patient (5%) versus 17 patients (77%), P < 0.001}. The ketamine-lidocaine group showed higher MAP in almost all the readings after induction compared to ketamine group. Other haemodynamic variables including cardiac output and heart rate were comparable between both study groups.

CONCLUSION: Lidocaine-ketamine combination showed less incidence of hypotension compared to ketamine full-dose when used for rapid-sequence endotracheal intubation in patients with septic shock. REGISTRATION URL:;rank=1.

Hasanin, A., K. de Vasconcellos, and M. Abdulatif, "COVID-19 in Africa: Current difficulties and future challenges considering the ACCCOS study.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 4, pp. 100912, 2021.
Helmy, M. A., L. Magdy Milad, S. H. Osman, M. A. Ali, and A. Hasanin, "Diaphragmatic excursion: A possible key player for predicting successful weaning in patients with severe COVID-19.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 3, pp. 100875, 2021.
Hasanin, A., A. Abdelmottaleb, H. Elhadi, A. S. Arafa, and M. Mostafa, "Evaluation of gastric residual volume using ultrasound in fasting patients with uncomplicated appendicitis scheduled for appendectomy.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 3, pp. 100869, 2021.
Mahmoud, M., A. M. Hasanin, M. Mostafa, F. Alhamade, B. A. Elhamid, and M. Elsherbeeny, "Evaluation of super-obesity and super-super-obesity as risk factors for difficult intubation in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.", Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery, vol. 17, issue 7, pp. 1279-1285, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Super-obesity is a serious disorder which requires bariatric surgery. The association of super-obesity and difficult intubation was not adequately established.

OBJECTIVES: To determine if super-obesity and super-super-obesity are associated with difficult intubation or not.

SETTING: University Hospital.

METHODS: A cohort of obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery was prospectively recruited. Super-obesity and super-super-obesity were defined as body mass index ≥50 kg/m and 60 kg/m, respectively. Intubation difficulty was assessed by 2 methods: (1) intubation difficulty scale; (2) number of intubation attempts. Risk factors for difficult intubation were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis for risk factors for difficult intubation and difficult mask ventilation were performed.

RESULTS: A total of 658 patients were enrolled in the study including 205 (31%) super-obese and 52 (8%) super-super-obese patients. Ninety-nine (15%) patients required more than 1 intubation attempt, while 215 (33%) patients had intubation difficulty scale ≥5. Ninety-four (14.4%) patients had mask ventilation of moderate difficulty, while only 2 (.3%) patients needed 2-person ventilation. The independent risk factors for difficult intubation using the two stated definitions were STOP-Bang and Mallampati score values. The independent risk factors for mask ventilation of moderate difficulty were STOP-Bang score, Mallampati score, and limited neck extension.

CONCLUSION: Within obese patients, neither super-obesity nor super-super-obesity was associated with difficult intubation or difficult mask ventilation. High STOP-Bang and Mallampati score are the independent factors for difficult intubation.

Hasanin, A., M. Abdulatif, and M. Mostafa, "Maternal hypotension and neonatal sequelae. Comment on Br J Anaesth 2020; 125: 588-95.", British journal of anaesthesia, vol. 127, issue 1, pp. e10-e11, 2021.
Helmy, M. A., L. Magdy Milad, A. Hasanin, and M. Mostafa, "The novel use of diaphragmatic excursion on hospital admission to predict the need for ventilatory support in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 6, pp. 100976, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the ability of diaphragmatic excursion at hospital admission to predict outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).

METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we included adult patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary hospital. Ultrasound examination of the diaphragm was performed within 12 h of admission. Other collected data included peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO), respiratory rate, and computed tomography (CT) score. The outcomes included the ability of diaphragmatic excursion, respiratory rate, SpO, and CT score at admission to predict the need for ventilatory support (need for non-invasive or invasive ventilation) and patient mortality using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. Univariate and multivariable analyses about the need for ventilatory support and mortality were performed.

RESULTS: Diaphragmatic excursion showed an excellent ability to predict the need for ventilatory support, which was the highest among respiratory rate, SpO, and CT score; the AUCs (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 0.96 (0.85-1.00) for the right diaphragmatic excursion and 0.94 (0.82-0.99) for the left diaphragmatic excursion. The right diaphragmatic excursion also had the highest AUC for predicting mortality in relation to respiratory rate, SpO, and CT score. Multivariable analysis revealed that low diaphragmatic excursion was an independent predictor of mortality with an odds ratio (95% CI) of 0.55 (0.31-0.98).

CONCLUSION: Diaphragmatic excursion on hospital admission can accurately predict the need for ventilatory support and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19. Low diaphragmatic excursion was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality.

Mukhtar, A., M. AbdelGhany, A. Hasanin, W. Hamimy, A. Abougabal, H. Nasser, A. Elsayed, and E. Ayman, "The Novel Use of Point-of-Care Ultrasound to Predict Resting Energy Expenditure in Critically Ill Patients.", Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 40, issue 8, pp. 1581-1589, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Accurate estimation of a critically ill patient's caloric requirements is essential for a proper nutritional plan. This study aimed to evaluate the use of point-of-care ultrasound (US) to predict the resting energy expenditure (REE) in critically ill patients.

METHODS: In 69 critically ill patients, we measured the REE using indirect calorimetry (REE_IC), muscle layer thicknesses (MLTs), and cardiac output (CO). Muscle thickness was measured at the biceps and the quadriceps muscles. Patients were randomly split into a model development group (n = 46) and a cross-validation group (n = 23). In the model development group, a multiple regression analysis was applied to generate REE using US (REE_US) values. In the cross-validation group, REE was calculated by the REE_US and the resting energy expenditure using the Harris-Benedict equation (REE_HB), and both were compared to the REE_IC.

RESULTS: In the model development group, the REE_US was predicted by the following formula: predicted REE_US (kcal/d) = 206 + 173.5 × CO (L/min) + 137 × MLT (cm) - 230 × (women = 1; men = 0) (R  = 0.8; P < .0001). In the cross-validated group, the REE_IC and REE_US values were comparable (mean difference, -66 [-3.3%] kcal/d; P = .14). However, the difference between the mean REE_IC and the mean REE_HB was 455.8 (26%) kcal/d (P < .001). According to a Bland-Altman analysis, the REE_US agreed well with the REE_IC, whereas the REE_HB did not.

CONCLUSIONS: Resting energy expenditure could be estimated from US measurements of MLTs and CO. Our point-of-care US model explains 80% of the change in the REE in critically ill patients.

ahmed lotfy, A. Hasanin, M. Rashad, M. Mostafa, D. Saad, M. Mahmoud, W. Hamimy, and A. Z. Fouad, "Peripheral perfusion index as a predictor of failed weaning from mechanical ventilation.", Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, vol. 35, issue 2, pp. 405-412, 2021. Abstract

We hypothesized that impairment of peripheral perfusion index (PPI) during spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) might be predictive of weaning failure. We included 44 consecutive, adult, patients, who were scheduled for weaning after at least 48 h of invasive mechanical ventilation in this prospective observational study. Weaning failure was defined as failed SBT or reintubation within 48 h of extubation. PPI readings were obtained before initiation of the SBT, and every 5 min till the end of the SBT. PPI ratio was calculated at every time point as: PPI value/ baseline PPI. The primary outcome was the accuracy of PPI ratio at the end of the SBT in detecting failed weaning. Forty-three patients were available for the final analysis. Eighteen patients (42%) were considered failed weaning. PPI ratio was higher in patients with successful weaning compared to patients with failed weaning during the last 15 min of the SBT. PPI ratio at the end of SBT was higher in patients with successful weaning compared to patients with failed weaning. PPI ratio at the end of SBT had good predictive ability for weaning failure {area under receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval): 0.833(0.688-0.929), cutoff value ≤ 1.41}. The change in PPI during SBT is an independent predictor for re-intubation. PPI could be a useful tool for monitoring the patient response to SBT. Patients with successful weaning showed higher augmentation of PPI during the SBT compared to re-intubated patients. Failure of augmenting the PPI by 41% at the end of SBT could predict re-intubation with negative predictive value of 95%. Clinical trial identifier: NCT03974568.;draw=3&amp;rank=17.

Hasanin, A., and M. Mostafa, "Tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19: which patient, time, and dose?", Journal of anesthesia, 2021. Abstract

Tocilizumab (TCZ) is a recombinant anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody which showed uprising evidence as an anti-inflammatory agent which modulates the cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. However, proper use of the drug requires selection of the appropriate patient and timing. The two main factors which might improve patient selection are the degree of respiratory failure and systemic inflammation. TCZ can decrease the mortality and progression to invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with severe COVID-19 who are not yet invasively ventilated. However, its use in invasively ventilated patients did not yet gain the same level of evidence especially when administered after > 1 day from mechanical ventilation. Being an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drug, TCZ was mostly used in patients with COVID-19 who have clear signs of cytokine storm. However, the drug still showed positive response in some studies which did not strictly select patients with elevated markers of systemic inflammation. Thus, it is warranted to investigate and/or re-analyze the role of the drug in patients with severe COVID-19 and with no signs of systemic inflammation. TCZ is used in a dose of 8 mg/kg which can be repeated if there was no clinical improvement. However, there are no clear criteria for judgment of the success of the first dose. Being a drug with a major effect on gross outcomes in a serious pandemic with millions of mortalities, TCZ should be meticulously investigated to reach definitive indications and number of doses to avoid drug overuse, shortage, and side effects.

Nassar, H., A. Hasanin, M. Sewilam, H. Ahmed, M. Abo-elsoud, O. Taalab, A. Rady, and H. A. Zoheir, "Transmuscular Quadratus Lumborum Block versus Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Block for Hip Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study.", Local and regional anesthesia, vol. 14, pp. 67-74, 2021. Abstract

Background: This study aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy and motor block profile of single-shot transmuscular quadratus lumborum block (QLB) in comparison with those of suprainguinal fascia iliaca block (FIB) in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty.

Methods: This randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial included adult patients undergoing hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia. Patients were allocated to one of two groups according to the regional block received: FIB group (n=19) or QLB group (n=17). Both study groups were compared with regard to the duration of analgesia (primary outcome), block performance time, pain during positioning for spinal anesthesia, total morphine consumption in the first postoperative 24-h period, quadriceps muscle power, and static and dynamic visual analog scale.

Results: Thirty-six patients were included in the final analysis. Both study groups had comparable durations of analgesia. Postoperative visual analog scale (static and dynamic) values were comparable between the two groups in most readings. The block performance time was shorter in the FIB group. The number of patients with pain during positioning for the subarachnoid block was lower in the QLB group. The total morphine requirement during the first 24 h was marginally lower in the FIB group, whereas the quadriceps motor grade was higher in the FIB group than in the QLB group at 4 h and 6 h after surgery.

Conclusion: Both single-shot blocks, namely the suprainguinal FIB and transmuscular QLB, provide effective postoperative analgesia after hip arthroplasty. FIB showed slightly lower 24-h morphine consumption, while QLB showed better quadriceps motor power.

Clinical Trial Registration: The study was registered at clinical trials registry system before enrollment of the first participant (NCT04005326; initial release date, 2 July 2019;

Abdelhakeem, A. K., A. Amin, A. Hasanin, A. Mukhtar, akram eladawy, and S. Kassem, "Validity of Pulse Oximetry-derived Peripheral Perfusion Index in Pain Assessment in Critically Ill Intubated Patients.", The Clinical journal of pain, vol. 37, issue 12, pp. 904-907, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of pain in critically ill intubated patients is difficult and subjective. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of oximetry-derived peripheral perfusion index (PPI) in pain assessment in critically ill intubated patients using the behavioral pain scale (BPS) as a reference.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study included 35 adult mechanically ventilated surgical patients during their first 2 postoperative days in the intensive care unit. Values of PPI, BPS, Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained before and after a standard painful stimulus (changing the patient position) and the ratio between the second and the first reading was calculated to determine the change (Δ) in all variables. The outcomes were the correlation between ΔBPS and ΔPPI as well as other hemodynamic parameters. The ability of the PPI to detect pain (defined as BPS ≥6) was analyzed using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve.

RESULTS: Paired readings were obtained from 35 patients. After the standard painful stimulus, the PPI decreased while the BPS and the Richmond agitation sedation scale increased. The Spearman correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval) between Δ PPI and Δ BPS was 0.41 (0.09-0.65). PPI values showed poor accuracy in detecting pain with area under receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval): 0.65 (0.53-0.76), with best cutoff value of ≤2.7.

CONCLUSION: The PPI decreased after application of a standard painful stimulus in critically ill intubated patients. ∆PPI showed a low correlation with ∆BPS, and a PPI of ≤2.7 showed a low ability to detect BPS ≥6. Therefore, PPI should not be used for pain evaluation in critically ill intubated surgical patients.