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Journal Article
Hasanin, A., and M. Mostafa, "A reply to a letter", Journal of anesthesia, vol. 34, pp. 631, 2020.
Hasanin, A., "Reply to: Pulse oximeter perfusion index for assessment of brachial plexus block: a holy grail or a design fail?", British journal of anaesthesia, vol. 119, issue 6, pp. 1239, 2017 Dec 01.
Elmetwally, S. A., A. Hasanin, L. Sobh, M. Gohary, K. Sarhan, and D. Ghazy, "Semi-sitting position enhances gastric emptying of clear fluids in children: A randomized controlled trial", Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 36, pp. 170-175, 2020.
Hasanin, A., A. Mukhtar, and A. Mokhtar, "Syrian revolution: A field hospital under attack", American Journal Of Disaster Medicine, vol. 8, issue 4, pp. 259-65, 2013.
Hammad, Y., A. Hasanin, A. Elsakka, A. Refaie, D. Abdelfattah, and S. A. El Rahman, "Thoracic Fluid Content: A Novel Parameter for Detection of Pulmonary Edema in Parturients With Preeclampsia", Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, vol. 33, issue 4, pp. 413-418, 2019.
Fathy, S., A. Hasanin, M. Raafat, M. Mostafa, A. fetouh, M. E. Sayed, E. M. Badr, H. M. Kamal, and A. Z. Fouad, "Thoracic fluid content: a novel parameter for predicting failed weaning from mechanical ventilation", Journal of intensive care, vol. 8, pp. 20, 2020.
Hasanin, A., and M. Mostafa, "Tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19: which patient, time, and dose?", Journal of anesthesia, 2021. Abstract

Tocilizumab (TCZ) is a recombinant anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody which showed uprising evidence as an anti-inflammatory agent which modulates the cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. However, proper use of the drug requires selection of the appropriate patient and timing. The two main factors which might improve patient selection are the degree of respiratory failure and systemic inflammation. TCZ can decrease the mortality and progression to invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with severe COVID-19 who are not yet invasively ventilated. However, its use in invasively ventilated patients did not yet gain the same level of evidence especially when administered after > 1 day from mechanical ventilation. Being an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drug, TCZ was mostly used in patients with COVID-19 who have clear signs of cytokine storm. However, the drug still showed positive response in some studies which did not strictly select patients with elevated markers of systemic inflammation. Thus, it is warranted to investigate and/or re-analyze the role of the drug in patients with severe COVID-19 and with no signs of systemic inflammation. TCZ is used in a dose of 8 mg/kg which can be repeated if there was no clinical improvement. However, there are no clear criteria for judgment of the success of the first dose. Being a drug with a major effect on gross outcomes in a serious pandemic with millions of mortalities, TCZ should be meticulously investigated to reach definitive indications and number of doses to avoid drug overuse, shortage, and side effects.

Nassar, H., A. Hasanin, M. Sewilam, H. Ahmed, M. Abo-elsoud, O. Taalab, A. Rady, and H. A. Zoheir, "Transmuscular Quadratus Lumborum Block versus Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Block for Hip Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study.", Local and regional anesthesia, vol. 14, pp. 67-74, 2021. Abstract

Background: This study aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy and motor block profile of single-shot transmuscular quadratus lumborum block (QLB) in comparison with those of suprainguinal fascia iliaca block (FIB) in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty.

Methods: This randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial included adult patients undergoing hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia. Patients were allocated to one of two groups according to the regional block received: FIB group (n=19) or QLB group (n=17). Both study groups were compared with regard to the duration of analgesia (primary outcome), block performance time, pain during positioning for spinal anesthesia, total morphine consumption in the first postoperative 24-h period, quadriceps muscle power, and static and dynamic visual analog scale.

Results: Thirty-six patients were included in the final analysis. Both study groups had comparable durations of analgesia. Postoperative visual analog scale (static and dynamic) values were comparable between the two groups in most readings. The block performance time was shorter in the FIB group. The number of patients with pain during positioning for the subarachnoid block was lower in the QLB group. The total morphine requirement during the first 24 h was marginally lower in the FIB group, whereas the quadriceps motor grade was higher in the FIB group than in the QLB group at 4 h and 6 h after surgery.

Conclusion: Both single-shot blocks, namely the suprainguinal FIB and transmuscular QLB, provide effective postoperative analgesia after hip arthroplasty. FIB showed slightly lower 24-h morphine consumption, while QLB showed better quadriceps motor power.

Clinical Trial Registration: The study was registered at clinical trials registry system before enrollment of the first participant (NCT04005326; initial release date, 2 July 2019;

Hasanin, A., A. Aboelela, M. Mostafa, R. M. Mansour, and A. Kareem, "The Use of Topical Nitroglycerin to Facilitate Radial Arterial Catheter Insertion in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.", Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, vol. 34, issue 12, pp. 3354-3360, 2020. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the use of topical nitroglycerin patch increases radial artery diameter and facilitate cannulation in children.

DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

SETTING: Cairo University Hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 2 to 8 years old scheduled for cardiac surgery.

INTERVENTION: In the nitroglycerin group (n = 20), a gauze-covered, half-sized nitroglycerin patch (5 mg) was applied at the site of radial pulsation 1 hour before induction of anesthesia. In the control group (n = 20), a gauze pad was applied to the bare skin at the site of radial pulsation with no intervention.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was the diameter of the radial artery in both limbs using ultrasonography. Other outcomes included the degree of arterial palpability, number of arterial punctures, and incidence of successful first puncture cannulation. The radial artery diameter increased after 30 minutes and 60 minutes compared with the baseline value in the nitroglycerin group in both limbs, whereas no change was reported in the radial artery diameter in the control group. The nitroglycerin group showed a greater incidence of successful first cannulation trial, a fewer number of trials, and a shorter cannulation time compared with the control group. There were no significant hypotensive episodes in any patient.

CONCLUSION: Local application of a half-sized, 5 mg nitroglycerin patch for 60 minutes in children increased the radial artery diameter bilaterally, increased the rate of first trial success, and decreased the time needed for arterial cannulation without significant hypotensive episodes.

Abdelhakeem, A. K., A. Amin, A. Hasanin, A. Mukhtar, akram eladawy, and S. Kassem, "Validity of Pulse Oximetry-derived Peripheral Perfusion Index in Pain Assessment in Critically Ill Intubated Patients.", The Clinical journal of pain, vol. 37, issue 12, pp. 904-907, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of pain in critically ill intubated patients is difficult and subjective. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of oximetry-derived peripheral perfusion index (PPI) in pain assessment in critically ill intubated patients using the behavioral pain scale (BPS) as a reference.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study included 35 adult mechanically ventilated surgical patients during their first 2 postoperative days in the intensive care unit. Values of PPI, BPS, Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained before and after a standard painful stimulus (changing the patient position) and the ratio between the second and the first reading was calculated to determine the change (Δ) in all variables. The outcomes were the correlation between ΔBPS and ΔPPI as well as other hemodynamic parameters. The ability of the PPI to detect pain (defined as BPS ≥6) was analyzed using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve.

RESULTS: Paired readings were obtained from 35 patients. After the standard painful stimulus, the PPI decreased while the BPS and the Richmond agitation sedation scale increased. The Spearman correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval) between Δ PPI and Δ BPS was 0.41 (0.09-0.65). PPI values showed poor accuracy in detecting pain with area under receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval): 0.65 (0.53-0.76), with best cutoff value of ≤2.7.

CONCLUSION: The PPI decreased after application of a standard painful stimulus in critically ill intubated patients. ∆PPI showed a low correlation with ∆BPS, and a PPI of ≤2.7 showed a low ability to detect BPS ≥6. Therefore, PPI should not be used for pain evaluation in critically ill intubated surgical patients.

Hasanin, A., S. Habib, Y. Abdelwahab, M. Elsayad, M. Mostafa, and M. Zayed, "Variable Versus Fixed-Rate Infusion of Phenylephrine During Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial", BMC Anesthesiology, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 197, 2019.
Hasanin, A., N. Sherif, M. Elbarbary, and D. Mansor, "Providing medical care in unfamiliar settings; experience of an Egyptian campaign in Uganda", Pan African Medical Journal, vol. 17, pp. 111, 2014.