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2021
Hasanin, A., N. Karam, A. H. M. E. D. M. MUKHTAR, and S. F. Habib, "The ability of pulse oximetry-derived peripheral perfusion index to detect fluid responsiveness in patients with septic shock.", Journal of anesthesia, vol. 35, issue 2, pp. 254-261, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Fluid challenge test is a widely used method for the detection of fluid responsiveness in acute circulatory failure. However, detection of the patient's response to the fluid challenge requires monitoring of cardiac output which is not feasible in many settings. We investigated whether the changes in the pulse oximetry-derived peripheral perfusion index (PPI), as a non-invasive surrogate of cardiac output, can detect fluid responsiveness using the fluid challenge test or not.

METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 58 patients with septic shock on norepinephrine infusion. Fluid challenge test, using 200 mL crystalloid solution, was performed in all study subjects. All patients received an additional 300 mL crystalloid infusion to confirm fluid responsiveness. Velocity time integral (VTI) (using transthoracic echocardiography), and PPI were measured at the baseline, after 200 mL fluid challenge, and after completion of 500 mL crystalloids. Fluid responsiveness was defined by 10% increase in the VTI after completion of the 500 mL. The predictive ability of ∆PPI [Calculated as (PPI after 200 mL - baseline PPI)/baseline PPI] to detect fluid responders was obtained using the receiver operating characteristic curve.

RESULTS: Forty-two patients (74%) were fluid responders; in whom, the mean arterial pressure, the central venous pressure, the VTI, and the PPI increased after fluid administration compared to the baseline values. ∆PPI showed moderate ability to detect fluid responders [area under receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval) 0.82 (0.70-0.91), sensitivity 76%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 92%, negative predictive value 54%, cutoff value ≥ 5%]. There was a significant correlation between ∆PPI and ∆VTI induced by the fluid challenge.

CONCLUSION: ∆PPI showed moderate ability to detect fluid responsiveness in patients with septic shock on norepinephrine infusion. Increased PPI after 200 mL crystalloid challenge can detect fluid responsiveness with a positive predictive value of 92%; however, failure of the PPI to increase does not exclude fluid responsiveness.

CLINICAL TRIAL IDENTIFIER: NCT03805321. Date of registration: 15 January 2019. Clinical trial registration URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03805321?term=ahmed+hasanin&rank=9 .

Refaat, S., M. Mostafa, A. Hasanin, N. Rujubali, R. Fouad, and Y. Hassabelnaby, "Accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure measured at the ankle during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia.", Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, vol. 35, issue 5, pp. 1211-1218, 2021. Abstract

In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of oscillometric noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measured at the ankle in detecting low arm NIBP during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. In this prospective observational study, a cohort of full-term mothers undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia was examined. Simultaneous NIBP measurements were obtained from the arm and the ankle. The primary outcome was the accuracy of the ankle NIBP in detecting arm systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 90 mmHg. Other outcomes included the accuracy of ankle NIBP in detecting SBP < 80% of the baseline value. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the accuracy of ankle NIBP in detecting low arm NIBP. The Bland-Altman analysis was conducted to evaluate the agreement between values. We analyzed 1729 pairs of readings obtained from 97 mothers. Ankle SBP showed good accuracy in detecting SBP < 90 mmHg, with an AUC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.90 (0.89-0.91) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99 (98-99%) at a cutoff value of ≤ 103 mmHg. Furthermore, ankle SBP showed good accuracy in detecting SBP < 80% of the baseline value, with an AUC (95% CI) of 0.84 (0.82-0.89) and an NPV of 95 (93-96%) at a cutoff value of ≤ 76% of the ankle baseline SBP. The mean bias between the two sites of measurement was - 5.4 ± 15.5, - 2.0 ± 11, and 0.5 ± 12.1 mmHg for SBP, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure, respectively. In conclusion, ankle NIBP measurement is not interchangeable with arm NIBP measurement. However, ankle NIBP measurement showed good accuracy for ruling out low arm NIBP during a cesarean delivery.Clinical trial rejistration: NCT04199156.

Mostafa, M., A. M. Hasanin, O. S. Elsayed, M. M. Mostafa, and K. Sarhan, "Accuracy of oscillometric blood pressure measurement at both arms in the lateral position.", Blood pressure monitoring, vol. 26, issue 5, pp. 364-372, 2021. Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement at the dependent- and nondependent arms in the lateral position, using invasive blood pressure (IBP) as reference.

METHODS: This prospective observational study included 42 adult patients undergoing surgery in the lateral position. Paired readings of IBP and NIBP were obtained at either arm. The accuracy of both arms in detecting mean arterial pressure (MAP) <70 mmHg was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The agreement between the IBP and NIBP was evaluated using the Bland-Altman and error grid analyses.

RESULTS: We analyzed 350 and 347 paired readings at the dependent- and nondependent arms. The AUC for detecting hypotension was comparable in both arms. The negative and positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) were 100% (99-100%) and 24% (14-34%), respectively for the dependent arm at cutoff value MAP ≤86 mmHg; and were 99% (96-100%) and 21% (13-30%), respectively for the nondependent arm at cutoff value MAP ≤75 mmHg. The mean bias for MAP was -6.0 ± 9.1 and 6.3 ± 10.1 mmHg; and for systolic blood pressure was 0.3 ± 11.6 and 13.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, in the dependent- and nondependent arm, respectively. Error grid analysis showed that the proportions of paired MAP readings in risk zone A were 71 and 82% in the dependent- and the nondependent arms, respectively.

CONCLUSION: In the lateral position, the NIBP readings at both arms are not interchangeable with the corresponding IBP readings. However, NIBP measurement at both arms can be used to accurately rule out hypotension.

Mukhtar, A., A. Rady, A. Hasanin, ahmed lotfy, akram eladawy, A. Hussein, I. El-Hefnawy, M. Hassan, and hanan mostafa, "Admission SpO and ROX index predict outcome in patients with COVID-19.", The American journal of emergency medicine, vol. 50, pp. 106-110, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of pulse oximetry-derived oxygen saturation (SpO) on room air, determined at hospital admission, as a predictor for the need for mechanical ventilatory support in patients with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19).

METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, demographic and clinical details of the patients were obtained during ICU admission. SpO and respiratory rate (RR) on room air were determined within the first 6 h of hospital admission. As all measurements were obtained on room air, we calculated the simplified respiratory rate‑oxygenation (ROX) index by dividing the SpO by the RR. Based on the use of any assistance of mechanical ventilator (invasive or noninvasive), patients were divided into mechanical ventilation (MV) group and oxygen therapy group. The accuracy of the SpO, CT score, and ROX index to predict the need to MV were determined using the Area under receiver operating curve (AUC).

RESULTS: We included 72 critically ill patients who tested COVID-19-positive. SpO on the room air could predict any MV requirement (AUC [95% confidence interval]: 0.9 [0.8-0.96], sensitivity: 70%, specificity 100%, cut-off value ≤78%, P < 0.001). Within the MV group, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was successful in 37 (74%) patients, whereas 13 patients (26%) required endotracheal intubation. The cut-off ROX value for predicting early NIV failure was ≤1.4, with a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 86%, and an AUC of 0.86 (95% confidence interval of 0.73-0.94, P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: A baseline SpO ≤78% is an excellent predictor of MV requirement with a positive predictive value of 100%. Moreover, the ROX index measured within the first 6 h of hospital admission is a good indicator of early NIV failure.

Fathy, S., A. Hasanin, M. Mostafa, E. Ramzy, K. Sarhan, T. Almenesey, A. G. Safina, Osama Hosny, G. A. Hamden, A. A. Gado, et al., "The benefit of adding lidocaine to ketamine during rapid sequence endotracheal intubation in patients with septic shock: A randomised controlled trial.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 1, pp. 100731, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients with septic shock commonly require endotracheal intubation under general anaesthesia in the operating theatre, the emergency department, and the intensive care unit. Hypotension is a serious complication after induction of general anaesthesia, especially in patients with circulatory failure. No randomised controlled trials had previously investigated protocols for induction of anaesthesia in septic shock patients. The aim of the current work is to compare two protocols, lidocaine-ketamine combination versus ketamine full-dose for rapid-sequence endotracheal intubation in patients with septic shock.

METHODS: Forty-four adult patients, with septic shock, scheduled for emergency surgical intervention were enrolled in this randomised, double-blinded, controlled study. Patients were randomised to receive either 1 mg/kg ketamine (ketamine group, n = 22) or 0.5 mg/kg ketamine plus 1 mg/kg lidocaine (ketamine-lidocaine group, n = 22) for induction of anaesthesia in addition to 0.05 mg/kg midazolam (in both groups). Our primary outcome was the mean arterial pressure (MAP). Other outcomes included frequency of post-induction hypotension, heart rate, and cardiac output.

RESULTS: Forty-three patients were available for final analysis. The average MAP reading in the first 5 min post-induction was higher in ketamine-lidocaine group than in the ketamine group {82.8 ± 5.6 mmHg and 73 ± 10.2 mmHg, P < 0.001}. Furthermore, the incidence of post-intubation hypotension was lower in the ketamine-lidocaine group than in the ketamine group {1 patient (5%) versus 17 patients (77%), P < 0.001}. The ketamine-lidocaine group showed higher MAP in almost all the readings after induction compared to ketamine group. Other haemodynamic variables including cardiac output and heart rate were comparable between both study groups.

CONCLUSION: Lidocaine-ketamine combination showed less incidence of hypotension compared to ketamine full-dose when used for rapid-sequence endotracheal intubation in patients with septic shock. REGISTRATION URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03844984?cond=NCT03844984&amp;rank=1.

Hasanin, A., K. de Vasconcellos, and M. Abdulatif, "COVID-19 in Africa: Current difficulties and future challenges considering the ACCCOS study.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 4, pp. 100912, 2021.
Helmy, M. A., L. Magdy Milad, S. H. Osman, M. A. Ali, and A. Hasanin, "Diaphragmatic excursion: A possible key player for predicting successful weaning in patients with severe COVID-19.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 3, pp. 100875, 2021.
Hasanin, A., A. Abdelmottaleb, H. Elhadi, A. S. Arafa, and M. Mostafa, "Evaluation of gastric residual volume using ultrasound in fasting patients with uncomplicated appendicitis scheduled for appendectomy.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 3, pp. 100869, 2021.
Mahmoud, M., A. M. Hasanin, M. Mostafa, F. Alhamade, B. A. Elhamid, and M. Elsherbeeny, "Evaluation of super-obesity and super-super-obesity as risk factors for difficult intubation in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.", Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery, vol. 17, issue 7, pp. 1279-1285, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Super-obesity is a serious disorder which requires bariatric surgery. The association of super-obesity and difficult intubation was not adequately established.

OBJECTIVES: To determine if super-obesity and super-super-obesity are associated with difficult intubation or not.

SETTING: University Hospital.

METHODS: A cohort of obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery was prospectively recruited. Super-obesity and super-super-obesity were defined as body mass index ≥50 kg/m and 60 kg/m, respectively. Intubation difficulty was assessed by 2 methods: (1) intubation difficulty scale; (2) number of intubation attempts. Risk factors for difficult intubation were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis for risk factors for difficult intubation and difficult mask ventilation were performed.

RESULTS: A total of 658 patients were enrolled in the study including 205 (31%) super-obese and 52 (8%) super-super-obese patients. Ninety-nine (15%) patients required more than 1 intubation attempt, while 215 (33%) patients had intubation difficulty scale ≥5. Ninety-four (14.4%) patients had mask ventilation of moderate difficulty, while only 2 (.3%) patients needed 2-person ventilation. The independent risk factors for difficult intubation using the two stated definitions were STOP-Bang and Mallampati score values. The independent risk factors for mask ventilation of moderate difficulty were STOP-Bang score, Mallampati score, and limited neck extension.

CONCLUSION: Within obese patients, neither super-obesity nor super-super-obesity was associated with difficult intubation or difficult mask ventilation. High STOP-Bang and Mallampati score are the independent factors for difficult intubation.

Hasanin, A., M. Abdulatif, and M. Mostafa, "Maternal hypotension and neonatal sequelae. Comment on Br J Anaesth 2020; 125: 588-95.", British journal of anaesthesia, vol. 127, issue 1, pp. e10-e11, 2021.
Helmy, M. A., L. Magdy Milad, A. Hasanin, and M. Mostafa, "The novel use of diaphragmatic excursion on hospital admission to predict the need for ventilatory support in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 6, pp. 100976, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the ability of diaphragmatic excursion at hospital admission to predict outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).

METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we included adult patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary hospital. Ultrasound examination of the diaphragm was performed within 12 h of admission. Other collected data included peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO), respiratory rate, and computed tomography (CT) score. The outcomes included the ability of diaphragmatic excursion, respiratory rate, SpO, and CT score at admission to predict the need for ventilatory support (need for non-invasive or invasive ventilation) and patient mortality using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. Univariate and multivariable analyses about the need for ventilatory support and mortality were performed.

RESULTS: Diaphragmatic excursion showed an excellent ability to predict the need for ventilatory support, which was the highest among respiratory rate, SpO, and CT score; the AUCs (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 0.96 (0.85-1.00) for the right diaphragmatic excursion and 0.94 (0.82-0.99) for the left diaphragmatic excursion. The right diaphragmatic excursion also had the highest AUC for predicting mortality in relation to respiratory rate, SpO, and CT score. Multivariable analysis revealed that low diaphragmatic excursion was an independent predictor of mortality with an odds ratio (95% CI) of 0.55 (0.31-0.98).

CONCLUSION: Diaphragmatic excursion on hospital admission can accurately predict the need for ventilatory support and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19. Low diaphragmatic excursion was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality.

Mukhtar, A., M. AbdelGhany, A. Hasanin, W. Hamimy, A. Abougabal, H. Nasser, A. Elsayed, and E. Ayman, "The Novel Use of Point-of-Care Ultrasound to Predict Resting Energy Expenditure in Critically Ill Patients.", Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, vol. 40, issue 8, pp. 1581-1589, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Accurate estimation of a critically ill patient's caloric requirements is essential for a proper nutritional plan. This study aimed to evaluate the use of point-of-care ultrasound (US) to predict the resting energy expenditure (REE) in critically ill patients.

METHODS: In 69 critically ill patients, we measured the REE using indirect calorimetry (REE_IC), muscle layer thicknesses (MLTs), and cardiac output (CO). Muscle thickness was measured at the biceps and the quadriceps muscles. Patients were randomly split into a model development group (n = 46) and a cross-validation group (n = 23). In the model development group, a multiple regression analysis was applied to generate REE using US (REE_US) values. In the cross-validation group, REE was calculated by the REE_US and the resting energy expenditure using the Harris-Benedict equation (REE_HB), and both were compared to the REE_IC.

RESULTS: In the model development group, the REE_US was predicted by the following formula: predicted REE_US (kcal/d) = 206 + 173.5 × CO (L/min) + 137 × MLT (cm) - 230 × (women = 1; men = 0) (R  = 0.8; P < .0001). In the cross-validated group, the REE_IC and REE_US values were comparable (mean difference, -66 [-3.3%] kcal/d; P = .14). However, the difference between the mean REE_IC and the mean REE_HB was 455.8 (26%) kcal/d (P < .001). According to a Bland-Altman analysis, the REE_US agreed well with the REE_IC, whereas the REE_HB did not.

CONCLUSIONS: Resting energy expenditure could be estimated from US measurements of MLTs and CO. Our point-of-care US model explains 80% of the change in the REE in critically ill patients.

ahmed lotfy, A. Hasanin, M. Rashad, M. Mostafa, D. Saad, M. Mahmoud, W. Hamimy, and A. Z. Fouad, "Peripheral perfusion index as a predictor of failed weaning from mechanical ventilation.", Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, vol. 35, issue 2, pp. 405-412, 2021. Abstract

We hypothesized that impairment of peripheral perfusion index (PPI) during spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) might be predictive of weaning failure. We included 44 consecutive, adult, patients, who were scheduled for weaning after at least 48 h of invasive mechanical ventilation in this prospective observational study. Weaning failure was defined as failed SBT or reintubation within 48 h of extubation. PPI readings were obtained before initiation of the SBT, and every 5 min till the end of the SBT. PPI ratio was calculated at every time point as: PPI value/ baseline PPI. The primary outcome was the accuracy of PPI ratio at the end of the SBT in detecting failed weaning. Forty-three patients were available for the final analysis. Eighteen patients (42%) were considered failed weaning. PPI ratio was higher in patients with successful weaning compared to patients with failed weaning during the last 15 min of the SBT. PPI ratio at the end of SBT was higher in patients with successful weaning compared to patients with failed weaning. PPI ratio at the end of SBT had good predictive ability for weaning failure {area under receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval): 0.833(0.688-0.929), cutoff value ≤ 1.41}. The change in PPI during SBT is an independent predictor for re-intubation. PPI could be a useful tool for monitoring the patient response to SBT. Patients with successful weaning showed higher augmentation of PPI during the SBT compared to re-intubated patients. Failure of augmenting the PPI by 41% at the end of SBT could predict re-intubation with negative predictive value of 95%. Clinical trial identifier: NCT03974568. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03974568?term=ahmed+hasanin&amp;draw=3&amp;rank=17.

Hasanin, A., and M. Mostafa, "Tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19: which patient, time, and dose?", Journal of anesthesia, 2021. Abstract

Tocilizumab (TCZ) is a recombinant anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody which showed uprising evidence as an anti-inflammatory agent which modulates the cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. However, proper use of the drug requires selection of the appropriate patient and timing. The two main factors which might improve patient selection are the degree of respiratory failure and systemic inflammation. TCZ can decrease the mortality and progression to invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with severe COVID-19 who are not yet invasively ventilated. However, its use in invasively ventilated patients did not yet gain the same level of evidence especially when administered after > 1 day from mechanical ventilation. Being an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drug, TCZ was mostly used in patients with COVID-19 who have clear signs of cytokine storm. However, the drug still showed positive response in some studies which did not strictly select patients with elevated markers of systemic inflammation. Thus, it is warranted to investigate and/or re-analyze the role of the drug in patients with severe COVID-19 and with no signs of systemic inflammation. TCZ is used in a dose of 8 mg/kg which can be repeated if there was no clinical improvement. However, there are no clear criteria for judgment of the success of the first dose. Being a drug with a major effect on gross outcomes in a serious pandemic with millions of mortalities, TCZ should be meticulously investigated to reach definitive indications and number of doses to avoid drug overuse, shortage, and side effects.

Nassar, H., A. Hasanin, M. Sewilam, H. Ahmed, M. Abo-elsoud, O. Taalab, A. Rady, and H. A. Zoheir, "Transmuscular Quadratus Lumborum Block versus Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Block for Hip Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study.", Local and regional anesthesia, vol. 14, pp. 67-74, 2021. Abstract

Background: This study aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy and motor block profile of single-shot transmuscular quadratus lumborum block (QLB) in comparison with those of suprainguinal fascia iliaca block (FIB) in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty.

Methods: This randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial included adult patients undergoing hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia. Patients were allocated to one of two groups according to the regional block received: FIB group (n=19) or QLB group (n=17). Both study groups were compared with regard to the duration of analgesia (primary outcome), block performance time, pain during positioning for spinal anesthesia, total morphine consumption in the first postoperative 24-h period, quadriceps muscle power, and static and dynamic visual analog scale.

Results: Thirty-six patients were included in the final analysis. Both study groups had comparable durations of analgesia. Postoperative visual analog scale (static and dynamic) values were comparable between the two groups in most readings. The block performance time was shorter in the FIB group. The number of patients with pain during positioning for the subarachnoid block was lower in the QLB group. The total morphine requirement during the first 24 h was marginally lower in the FIB group, whereas the quadriceps motor grade was higher in the FIB group than in the QLB group at 4 h and 6 h after surgery.

Conclusion: Both single-shot blocks, namely the suprainguinal FIB and transmuscular QLB, provide effective postoperative analgesia after hip arthroplasty. FIB showed slightly lower 24-h morphine consumption, while QLB showed better quadriceps motor power.

Clinical Trial Registration: The study was registered at clinical trials registry system before enrollment of the first participant (NCT04005326; initial release date, 2 July 2019; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04005326).

Abdelhakeem, A. K., A. Amin, A. Hasanin, A. Mukhtar, akram eladawy, and S. Kassem, "Validity of Pulse Oximetry-derived Peripheral Perfusion Index in Pain Assessment in Critically Ill Intubated Patients.", The Clinical journal of pain, vol. 37, issue 12, pp. 904-907, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of pain in critically ill intubated patients is difficult and subjective. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of oximetry-derived peripheral perfusion index (PPI) in pain assessment in critically ill intubated patients using the behavioral pain scale (BPS) as a reference.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study included 35 adult mechanically ventilated surgical patients during their first 2 postoperative days in the intensive care unit. Values of PPI, BPS, Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained before and after a standard painful stimulus (changing the patient position) and the ratio between the second and the first reading was calculated to determine the change (Δ) in all variables. The outcomes were the correlation between ΔBPS and ΔPPI as well as other hemodynamic parameters. The ability of the PPI to detect pain (defined as BPS ≥6) was analyzed using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve.

RESULTS: Paired readings were obtained from 35 patients. After the standard painful stimulus, the PPI decreased while the BPS and the Richmond agitation sedation scale increased. The Spearman correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval) between Δ PPI and Δ BPS was 0.41 (0.09-0.65). PPI values showed poor accuracy in detecting pain with area under receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval): 0.65 (0.53-0.76), with best cutoff value of ≤2.7.

CONCLUSION: The PPI decreased after application of a standard painful stimulus in critically ill intubated patients. ∆PPI showed a low correlation with ∆BPS, and a PPI of ≤2.7 showed a low ability to detect BPS ≥6. Therefore, PPI should not be used for pain evaluation in critically ill intubated surgical patients.

2020
Elhamid, B. A., mohamed emam, M. Mostafa, A. Hasanin, W. Awada, A. Rady, and H. Omar, "The ability of perfusion index to detect segmental ulnar nerve sparing after supraclavicular nerve block.", Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, vol. 34, issue 6, pp. 1185-1191, 2020. Abstract

Supraclavicular nerve block (SCB) is a commonly used regional block for upper extremity surgery. The most common form of failure of SCB is ulnar segmental sparing. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of perfusion index (PI) in early detection of segmental sparing of the ulnar component of SCB. A prospective observational study included adult patients scheduled for surgery under ultrasound-guided SCB. PI was simultaneously measured at the index finger and little finger. PI was recorded every minute for the first 10 min after SCB. PI ratio was calculated at every measurement point as PI/baseline PI. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was calculated for the ability of PI ratio to detect segmental ulnar sparing with comparison of little finger readings to the index finger readings. Forty-nine patients were available for the final analysis. Nine patients (18%) had segmental ulnar sparing. PI ratio at the little finger showed excellent predictive ability for ulnar sparing starting from the fifth minute (AUROC 0.92 [0.8-0.98], cutoff value ≤ 1.71) and reached the highest value at the seventh minute (AUROC 0.96 [0.86-1], cutoff value ≤ 1.35), whereas PI ratio at the index finger showed poor predictive ability. When using the PI for evaluation of successful SCB, segmental ulnar sparing could be accurately detected when the PI was measured at the little finger and not at the index finger. An increase of 71% in PI at the little finger 5 min after SCB could accurately rule out ulnar sparing.Clinical trial identifier NCT03880201. Clinical trial registration https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03880201?term=NCT03880201&amp;draw=2&amp;rank=1 .

Mostafa, M. M. A., A. M. Hasanin, F. Alhamade, B. A. Elhamid, A. G. Safina, S. M. Kasem, Osama Hosny, M. Mahmoud, E. fouad, A. Rady, et al., "Accuracy and trending of non-invasive oscillometric blood pressure monitoring at the wrist in obese patients.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 39, issue 2, pp. 221-227, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In obese patients, non-invasive blood pressure monitoring in the arm is difficult due to the arm size and morphology. We compared the non-invasive oscillometric wrist blood pressure measurement with the arm and forearm in obese patients monitored with invasive radial blood pressure (reference standard).

METHODS: This prospective observational study included adult obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery. Non-invasive blood pressure was measured at the arm, upper forearm and wrist of one upper extremity, while invasive blood pressure was simultaneously measured through a radial arterial catheter in the contralateral upper extremity. The accuracy of non-invasive blood pressure reading at each site was evaluated for absolute and trending values using the Bland-Altman analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient.

RESULTS: In 40 patients, 262, 259, and 263 pairs of non-invasive blood pressure readings were obtained from the arm, forearm, and wrist sites, respectively. As primary outcome, the correlation coefficient for systolic blood pressure was higher for the wrist (0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.9-0.94]) than for the arm (0.74, 95% CI [0.68-0.79]) and the forearm (0.71, 95% CI [0.64-0.76]) (P<0.05). The non-invasive systolic wrist blood pressure showed the least mean bias and the narrowest limits of agreement (-0.3±7.6mmHg) when compared with forearm (4.3±16) and arm measurements (14.2±13.6) (P<0.05). For trending values, the correlation coefficient was the highest at the wrist.

CONCLUSION: In obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, non-invasive blood pressure measured at the wrist showed the highest accuracy in comparison with the arm and forearm.

Mostafa, M., M. Saeed, A. Hasanin, S. Badawy, and D. KHALED, "Accuracy of thyromental height test for predicting difficult intubation in elderly.", Journal of anesthesia, vol. 34, issue 2, pp. 217-223, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies of the accuracy of different airway tests are lacking in elderly. We evaluated and compared the accuracy of thyromental height in predicting difficult intubation in relation to the other traditional airway tests in elderly.

METHODS: We included 120 patients aged ≥ 65 years scheduled for general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. Thyromental height, modified Mallampati test, thyromental distance and sternomental distance were evaluated. Cormack-Lehane grade > 2 was considered difficult laryngoscopy. Difficult tracheal intubation was considered if successful intubation required more than 2 attempts. The accuracy of different tests in predicting difficult intubation and difficult laryngoscopy were evaluated through area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for difficult intubation and difficult laryngoscopy.

RESULTS: Our cohort had a mean age of 71(7) years. We encountered difficult laryngoscopy in 15/120 (12%) patients, difficult intubation in 20/120 (17%) patients, and failed laryngoscopy requiring alternative methods for securing the airway in 3/120 (3%) patients. For predicting difficult intubation, thyromental height and modified Mallampati test showed the highest accuracy AUROC (95% confidence interval): 0.9 (0.83-0.95), cut-off value ≤ 5.9 cm, and AUROC (95% confidence interval): 0.89 (0.82-0.94), cut-off value > 2, respectively. Low thyromental height and high modified Mallampati test were the only independent risk factors for difficult laryngoscopy and difficult intubation.

CONCLUSION: In elderly scheduled for elective procedure, both thyromental height and modified Mallampati tests showed good accuracy in predicting difficult intubation and difficult laryngoscopy, whilst thyromental distance and sternomental distance were poor predictors.

Hassabelnaby, Y. S., A. M. Hasanin, N. Adly, M. M. A. Mostafa, S. Refaat, E. fouad, M. Elsonbaty, H. A. Hussein, M. Mahmoud, Y. M. Abdelwahab, et al., "Comparison of two Norepinephrine rescue bolus for Management of Post-spinal Hypotension during Cesarean Delivery: a randomized controlled trial.", BMC anesthesiology, vol. 20, issue 1, pp. 84, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Data on the best norepinephrine bolus dose for management of hypotension are limited. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of two norepinephrine bolus doses in the rescue management of maternal hypotension during cesarean delivery.

METHODS: This randomized, controlled trial included mothers scheduled for cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia with a prophylactic norepinephrine infusion. Following spinal anaesthesia administration, a participant was considered hypotensive if systolic blood pressure was ≤80% compared to the baseline reading. Participants were allocated to receive either 6 mcg or 10 mcg norepinephrine bolus for the management of hypotensive episodes. The hemodynamic response after administration of norepinephrine bolus was recorded. The episode was considered successfully managed if systolic blood pressure returned to within 80% from the baseline reading within 2 min after norepinephrine bolus administration, and did not drop again within 6 min after the norepinephrine bolus. The primary outcome was the incidence of successful management of the first hypotensive episode. Other outcomes included systolic blood pressure, heart rate, incidence of maternal bradycardia, and reactive hypertension.

RESULTS: One hundred and ten mothers developed hypotensive episodes and received norepinephrine boluses for management. The number of successfully managed first hypotensive episodes was 50/57 (88%) in the 6 mcg-treated episodes and 45/53 (85%) in the 10 mcg-treated episodes (p = 0.78). Systolic blood pressure was comparable after administration of either bolus dose. Heart rate was lower after administration of 10 mcg bolus compared to 6 mcg bolus, without significant bradycardia requiring atropine administration. The incidence of reactive hypertension was comparable between both groups.

CONCLUSION: In mothers undergoing elective cesarean delivery under prophylactic norepinephrine infusion at 0.05 mcg/kg/min, there was no advantage to the use of 10 mcg norepinephrine bolus over 6 mcg norepinephrine bolus for the rescue management of first hypotensive episode. Neither of the 2 bolus doses reached a 100% success rate. The incidences of bradycardia and reactive hypertension were comparable between both norepinephrine doses.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: At clinicaltrial.gov registry system on January 4, 2019 Clinical trial identifier: NCT03792906.

Zayed, M., H. Nassar, A. Hasanin, A. H. Saleh, P. Hassan, D. Saad, S. A. H. A. R. MAHMOUD, G. A. Bakr, E. fouad, N. Saleh, et al., "Effects of nitroglycerin versus labetalol on peripheral perfusion during deliberate hypotension for sinus endoscopic surgery: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.", BMC anesthesiology, vol. 20, issue 1, pp. 85, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Deliberate hypotension is used to provide a bloodless field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery; however, the impact of controlled hypotension during anesthesia on peripheral tissue perfusion has not been extensively evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of nitroglycerin- versus labetalol-induced hypotension on peripheral perfusion.

METHODS: The present randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial included adult patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery. Patients were allocated to one of two groups according to the drug received for induction of deliberate hypotension: nitroglycerin (n = 20) or labetalol (n = 20). Mean arterial pressure was maintained at 55-65 mmHg in both groups. Both study groups were compared according to pulse oximeter-derived peripheral perfusion index (primary outcome), serum lactate level, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, surgical field score, and intraoperative blood loss.

RESULTS: Forty patients were included in the final analysis. The nitroglycerin group exhibited a higher peripheral perfusion index at nearly all records (p < 0.0001) and lower postoperative serum lactate levels (1.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L vs. 1.7 ± 0.4 mmol/L; p = 0.001) than the labetalol group. The peripheral perfusion index was higher in the nitroglycerin group than at baseline at most intraoperative readings. The median surgical field score was modestly lower in the labetalol group than in the nitroglycerin group in the first 20 min (2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2-2.5] versus 1.5 [IQR 1-2]; p = 0.001). Both groups demonstrated comparable and acceptable surgical field scores in all subsequent readings.

CONCLUSION: Nitroglycerin-induced deliberate hypotension was accompanied by higher peripheral perfusion index and lower serum lactate levels than labetalol-induced deliberate hypotension during sinus endoscopic surgery.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrials registry system with trial number: NCT03809065. Registered at 19 January 2019. This study adheres to CONSORT guidelines.

Hasanin, A., and M. Mostafa, "Evaluation of fluid responsiveness during COVID-19 pandemic: what are the remaining choices?", Journal of anesthesia, vol. 34, pp. 758-764, 2020.
Kamel, M. M., A. Hasanin, B. Nawar, M. Mostafa, V. F. Jacob, H. Elhadi, W. Alsadek, and S. A. Elmetwally, "Evaluation of noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring in children with congenital heart diseases.", Paediatric anaesthesia, vol. 30, issue 5, pp. 571-576, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive measurement of blood hemoglobin could save time and decrease the risk of anemia and infection. The accuracy of CO-oximetry-derived noninvasive hemoglobin (Sp-Hb) had been evaluated in pediatric population; however, its accuracy in children with congenital heart disease has not been studied till date. We evaluated the accuracy of Sp-Hb in relation to laboratory-measured hemoglobin (Lab-Hb) in children with congenital heart disease.

METHODS: This prospective observational study included children with congenital heart disease undergoing procedural intervention. Sp-Hb measurements were obtained using Radical-7 Masimo pulse CO-oximeter and were compared against simultaneous Lab-Hb measurements obtained from the arterial line. Children were divided in cyanotic and acyanotic, and separate analysis was performed for each group. The values of both measurements were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Correlation was performed between Sp-Hb and Lab-Hb bias and each of arterial oxygen saturation and perfusion index.

RESULTS: One-hundred and eleven pairs of readings were obtained from 65 children. The median (quartiles) age and weight of the children were 1 (1.2-4) years and 11 (8-17) kg, respectively. There was moderate correlation between Lab-Hb and Sp-Hb with a correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.75 (0.63-0.83) in acyanotic children and 0.62 (0.37-0.79) in cyanotic children. The mean bias (95% limits of agreements) was -0.4 g/dL (-2.4 to 1.6 g/dL) and 1 g/dL (-2.7 to 4.6 g/dL) in acyanotic and cyanotic children, respectively. The mean bias between Sp-Hb and Lab-Hb showed a weak negative correlation with oxygen saturation (r [95% CI]): (-0.36 [-0.51--0.18]), and a weak positive correlation with the perfusion index (r [95% CI]): (0.19 [0.01-0.37]).

CONCLUSION: The large bias and the wide limits of agreement between Sp-Hb and Lab-Hb denote that Masimo-derived Sp-Hb is not accurate in children with congenital heart disease especially in the cyanotic group; the error in Sp-Hb increases when oxygen saturation decreases.

Hasanin, A., H. Tarek, M. M. A. Mostafa, A. Arafa, A. G. Safina, M. H. Elsherbiny, Osama Hosny, A. A. Gado, T. Almenesey, G. A. Hamden, et al., "Modified-ramped position: a new position for intubation of obese females: a randomized controlled pilot study.", BMC anesthesiology, vol. 20, issue 1, pp. 151, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Endotracheal intubation requires optimum position of the head and neck. In obese females, the usual ramped position might not provide adequate intubating conditions. We hypothesized that a new position, termed modified-ramped position, during induction of anesthesia would facilitate endotracheal intubation through bringing the breasts away from the laryngoscope and would also improve the laryngeal visualization.

METHODS: Sixty obese female patients scheduled for general anesthesia were randomly assigned into either ramped or modified-ramped position during induction of anesthesia. In the ramped position (n = 30), the patient head and shoulders were elevated to achieve alignment of the sternal notch and the external auditory meatus; while in the modified-ramped position (n = 30), the patient shoulders were elevated using a special pillow, and the head was extended to the most possible range. Our primary outcome was the incidence of failed laryngoscopic insertion in the oral cavity (the need for patient repositioning). Other outcomes included time till vocal cord visualization, time till successful endotracheal intubation, difficulty of the mask ventilation, and Cormack-Lehane grade for laryngeal view.

RESULTS: Fourteen patients (47%) in ramped group required repositioning to facilitate introduction of the laryngoscope in the oral cavity in comparison to one patient (3%) in the modified-ramped position (p < 0.001). Modified-ramped position showed lower incidence of difficult mask ventilation, shorter time for glottic visualization, and shorter time for endotracheal tube insertion compared to the ramped position. The Cormack-Lehane grade was better in the modified-ramped position.

CONCLUSION: Modified-ramped position provided better intubating conditions, improved the laryngeal view, and eliminated the need for repositioning of obese female patients during insertion of the laryngoscope compared to ramped position.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT03640442. Date: August 2018.

Mukhtar, A., ahmed lotfy, A. Hasanin, I. El-Hefnawy, and A. El-adawy, "Outcome of non-invasive ventilation in COVID-19 critically ill patients: A Retrospective observational Study", Anaesthesia Critical care & Pain Medicine, vol. 39, pp. 579-580, 2020.
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