Mukhtar, A., A. Rady, A. Hasanin, ahmed lotfy, akram eladawy, A. Hussein, I. El-Hefnawy, M. Hassan, and hanan mostafa, "Admission SpO and ROX index predict outcome in patients with COVID-19.", The American journal of emergency medicine, vol. 50, pp. 106-110, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of pulse oximetry-derived oxygen saturation (SpO) on room air, determined at hospital admission, as a predictor for the need for mechanical ventilatory support in patients with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19).

METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, demographic and clinical details of the patients were obtained during ICU admission. SpO and respiratory rate (RR) on room air were determined within the first 6 h of hospital admission. As all measurements were obtained on room air, we calculated the simplified respiratory rate‑oxygenation (ROX) index by dividing the SpO by the RR. Based on the use of any assistance of mechanical ventilator (invasive or noninvasive), patients were divided into mechanical ventilation (MV) group and oxygen therapy group. The accuracy of the SpO, CT score, and ROX index to predict the need to MV were determined using the Area under receiver operating curve (AUC).

RESULTS: We included 72 critically ill patients who tested COVID-19-positive. SpO on the room air could predict any MV requirement (AUC [95% confidence interval]: 0.9 [0.8-0.96], sensitivity: 70%, specificity 100%, cut-off value ≤78%, P < 0.001). Within the MV group, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was successful in 37 (74%) patients, whereas 13 patients (26%) required endotracheal intubation. The cut-off ROX value for predicting early NIV failure was ≤1.4, with a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 86%, and an AUC of 0.86 (95% confidence interval of 0.73-0.94, P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: A baseline SpO ≤78% is an excellent predictor of MV requirement with a positive predictive value of 100%. Moreover, the ROX index measured within the first 6 h of hospital admission is a good indicator of early NIV failure.

Abdelhakeem, A. K., A. Amin, A. Hasanin, A. Mukhtar, akram eladawy, and S. Kassem, "Validity of Pulse Oximetry-derived Peripheral Perfusion Index in Pain Assessment in Critically Ill Intubated Patients.", The Clinical journal of pain, vol. 37, issue 12, pp. 904-907, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of pain in critically ill intubated patients is difficult and subjective. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of oximetry-derived peripheral perfusion index (PPI) in pain assessment in critically ill intubated patients using the behavioral pain scale (BPS) as a reference.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study included 35 adult mechanically ventilated surgical patients during their first 2 postoperative days in the intensive care unit. Values of PPI, BPS, Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained before and after a standard painful stimulus (changing the patient position) and the ratio between the second and the first reading was calculated to determine the change (Δ) in all variables. The outcomes were the correlation between ΔBPS and ΔPPI as well as other hemodynamic parameters. The ability of the PPI to detect pain (defined as BPS ≥6) was analyzed using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve.

RESULTS: Paired readings were obtained from 35 patients. After the standard painful stimulus, the PPI decreased while the BPS and the Richmond agitation sedation scale increased. The Spearman correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval) between Δ PPI and Δ BPS was 0.41 (0.09-0.65). PPI values showed poor accuracy in detecting pain with area under receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval): 0.65 (0.53-0.76), with best cutoff value of ≤2.7.

CONCLUSION: The PPI decreased after application of a standard painful stimulus in critically ill intubated patients. ∆PPI showed a low correlation with ∆BPS, and a PPI of ≤2.7 showed a low ability to detect BPS ≥6. Therefore, PPI should not be used for pain evaluation in critically ill intubated surgical patients.

Helmy, M. A., L. Magdy Milad, A. Hasanin, and M. Mostafa, "The novel use of diaphragmatic excursion on hospital admission to predict the need for ventilatory support in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 6, pp. 100976, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the ability of diaphragmatic excursion at hospital admission to predict outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).

METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we included adult patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary hospital. Ultrasound examination of the diaphragm was performed within 12 h of admission. Other collected data included peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO), respiratory rate, and computed tomography (CT) score. The outcomes included the ability of diaphragmatic excursion, respiratory rate, SpO, and CT score at admission to predict the need for ventilatory support (need for non-invasive or invasive ventilation) and patient mortality using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. Univariate and multivariable analyses about the need for ventilatory support and mortality were performed.

RESULTS: Diaphragmatic excursion showed an excellent ability to predict the need for ventilatory support, which was the highest among respiratory rate, SpO, and CT score; the AUCs (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 0.96 (0.85-1.00) for the right diaphragmatic excursion and 0.94 (0.82-0.99) for the left diaphragmatic excursion. The right diaphragmatic excursion also had the highest AUC for predicting mortality in relation to respiratory rate, SpO, and CT score. Multivariable analysis revealed that low diaphragmatic excursion was an independent predictor of mortality with an odds ratio (95% CI) of 0.55 (0.31-0.98).

CONCLUSION: Diaphragmatic excursion on hospital admission can accurately predict the need for ventilatory support and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19. Low diaphragmatic excursion was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality.

Refaat, S., M. Mostafa, A. Hasanin, N. Rujubali, R. Fouad, and Y. Hassabelnaby, "Accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure measured at the ankle during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia.", Journal of clinical monitoring and computing, vol. 35, issue 5, pp. 1211-1218, 2021. Abstract

In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of oscillometric noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measured at the ankle in detecting low arm NIBP during cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. In this prospective observational study, a cohort of full-term mothers undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia was examined. Simultaneous NIBP measurements were obtained from the arm and the ankle. The primary outcome was the accuracy of the ankle NIBP in detecting arm systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 90 mmHg. Other outcomes included the accuracy of ankle NIBP in detecting SBP < 80% of the baseline value. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the accuracy of ankle NIBP in detecting low arm NIBP. The Bland-Altman analysis was conducted to evaluate the agreement between values. We analyzed 1729 pairs of readings obtained from 97 mothers. Ankle SBP showed good accuracy in detecting SBP < 90 mmHg, with an AUC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.90 (0.89-0.91) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99 (98-99%) at a cutoff value of ≤ 103 mmHg. Furthermore, ankle SBP showed good accuracy in detecting SBP < 80% of the baseline value, with an AUC (95% CI) of 0.84 (0.82-0.89) and an NPV of 95 (93-96%) at a cutoff value of ≤ 76% of the ankle baseline SBP. The mean bias between the two sites of measurement was - 5.4 ± 15.5, - 2.0 ± 11, and 0.5 ± 12.1 mmHg for SBP, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure, respectively. In conclusion, ankle NIBP measurement is not interchangeable with arm NIBP measurement. However, ankle NIBP measurement showed good accuracy for ruling out low arm NIBP during a cesarean delivery.Clinical trial rejistration: NCT04199156.

Mostafa, M., A. M. Hasanin, O. S. Elsayed, M. M. Mostafa, and K. Sarhan, "Accuracy of oscillometric blood pressure measurement at both arms in the lateral position.", Blood pressure monitoring, vol. 26, issue 5, pp. 364-372, 2021. Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurement at the dependent- and nondependent arms in the lateral position, using invasive blood pressure (IBP) as reference.

METHODS: This prospective observational study included 42 adult patients undergoing surgery in the lateral position. Paired readings of IBP and NIBP were obtained at either arm. The accuracy of both arms in detecting mean arterial pressure (MAP) <70 mmHg was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The agreement between the IBP and NIBP was evaluated using the Bland-Altman and error grid analyses.

RESULTS: We analyzed 350 and 347 paired readings at the dependent- and nondependent arms. The AUC for detecting hypotension was comparable in both arms. The negative and positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) were 100% (99-100%) and 24% (14-34%), respectively for the dependent arm at cutoff value MAP ≤86 mmHg; and were 99% (96-100%) and 21% (13-30%), respectively for the nondependent arm at cutoff value MAP ≤75 mmHg. The mean bias for MAP was -6.0 ± 9.1 and 6.3 ± 10.1 mmHg; and for systolic blood pressure was 0.3 ± 11.6 and 13.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, in the dependent- and nondependent arm, respectively. Error grid analysis showed that the proportions of paired MAP readings in risk zone A were 71 and 82% in the dependent- and the nondependent arms, respectively.

CONCLUSION: In the lateral position, the NIBP readings at both arms are not interchangeable with the corresponding IBP readings. However, NIBP measurement at both arms can be used to accurately rule out hypotension.

Hasanin, A., M. Abdulatif, and M. Mostafa, "Maternal hypotension and neonatal sequelae. Comment on Br J Anaesth 2020; 125: 588-95.", British journal of anaesthesia, vol. 127, issue 1, pp. e10-e11, 2021.
Hasanin, A., and M. Mostafa, "Tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19: which patient, time, and dose?", Journal of anesthesia, 2021. Abstract

Tocilizumab (TCZ) is a recombinant anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody which showed uprising evidence as an anti-inflammatory agent which modulates the cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. However, proper use of the drug requires selection of the appropriate patient and timing. The two main factors which might improve patient selection are the degree of respiratory failure and systemic inflammation. TCZ can decrease the mortality and progression to invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with severe COVID-19 who are not yet invasively ventilated. However, its use in invasively ventilated patients did not yet gain the same level of evidence especially when administered after > 1 day from mechanical ventilation. Being an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drug, TCZ was mostly used in patients with COVID-19 who have clear signs of cytokine storm. However, the drug still showed positive response in some studies which did not strictly select patients with elevated markers of systemic inflammation. Thus, it is warranted to investigate and/or re-analyze the role of the drug in patients with severe COVID-19 and with no signs of systemic inflammation. TCZ is used in a dose of 8 mg/kg which can be repeated if there was no clinical improvement. However, there are no clear criteria for judgment of the success of the first dose. Being a drug with a major effect on gross outcomes in a serious pandemic with millions of mortalities, TCZ should be meticulously investigated to reach definitive indications and number of doses to avoid drug overuse, shortage, and side effects.

Hasanin, A., K. de Vasconcellos, and M. Abdulatif, "COVID-19 in Africa: Current difficulties and future challenges considering the ACCCOS study.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 4, pp. 100912, 2021.
Mahmoud, M., A. M. Hasanin, M. Mostafa, F. Alhamade, B. A. Elhamid, and M. Elsherbeeny, "Evaluation of super-obesity and super-super-obesity as risk factors for difficult intubation in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.", Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery, vol. 17, issue 7, pp. 1279-1285, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Super-obesity is a serious disorder which requires bariatric surgery. The association of super-obesity and difficult intubation was not adequately established.

OBJECTIVES: To determine if super-obesity and super-super-obesity are associated with difficult intubation or not.

SETTING: University Hospital.

METHODS: A cohort of obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery was prospectively recruited. Super-obesity and super-super-obesity were defined as body mass index ≥50 kg/m and 60 kg/m, respectively. Intubation difficulty was assessed by 2 methods: (1) intubation difficulty scale; (2) number of intubation attempts. Risk factors for difficult intubation were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis for risk factors for difficult intubation and difficult mask ventilation were performed.

RESULTS: A total of 658 patients were enrolled in the study including 205 (31%) super-obese and 52 (8%) super-super-obese patients. Ninety-nine (15%) patients required more than 1 intubation attempt, while 215 (33%) patients had intubation difficulty scale ≥5. Ninety-four (14.4%) patients had mask ventilation of moderate difficulty, while only 2 (.3%) patients needed 2-person ventilation. The independent risk factors for difficult intubation using the two stated definitions were STOP-Bang and Mallampati score values. The independent risk factors for mask ventilation of moderate difficulty were STOP-Bang score, Mallampati score, and limited neck extension.

CONCLUSION: Within obese patients, neither super-obesity nor super-super-obesity was associated with difficult intubation or difficult mask ventilation. High STOP-Bang and Mallampati score are the independent factors for difficult intubation.

Helmy, M. A., L. Magdy Milad, S. H. Osman, M. A. Ali, and A. Hasanin, "Diaphragmatic excursion: A possible key player for predicting successful weaning in patients with severe COVID-19.", Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine, vol. 40, issue 3, pp. 100875, 2021.
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