Carvacrol hinders the progression of hepatic fibrosis via targeting autotaxin and thioredoxin in thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rat

Citation:
Carvacrol hinders the progression of hepatic fibrosis via targeting autotaxin and thioredoxin in thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rat, El-gendy, Zeinab, Ramadan A., El-Batran Seham, Ahmed R., El-Marasy Salma, Ss Abd, Abdelrahman Sahar, and Youssef S. A. H. , 2021/06/22, Volume 7, p.1 - 14, (2021)

Abstract:

Fibrosis is a common outcome of nearly all chronic diseases of liver that results in changes of its functions which requires medical attention. The current research aims to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic efficacy of Carvacrol against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in male rats using Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as a reference anti-fibrotic product. Carvacrol (25 and 50 mg/kg) markedly declined TAA-increased serum liver enzymes; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) as well as total bilirubin (TB) and direct bilirubin (DB) levels as well as increased levels of total protein (TP) and albumin. Carvacrol significantly reduced glutathione depletion (GSH), Nitric oxide (NO X) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in liver tissue. Additionally, its anti-oxidant effect brightened up via affecting markers of stress found in the cell as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) where it still had high content and decreased Thioredoxin (Trx) level. The anti-inflammatory effect of Carvacrol was confirmed by decreasing nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), interleukin-1beta (IL-1b) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contents. Carvacrol showed anti-fibrotic effect clarified by turning down fibrosis-related markers; TGF-b1, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and 9 (MMP-3 and 9) and Autotaxin (ATX) contents. Furthermore, it decreased alpha smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) and caspase-3 immune-expression. The overall outcome of aforementioned markers results showed that Carvacrol suppresses the progression of liver fibrosis via its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic effect and its ability in lowering Thioredoxin and Autotaxin; hence it can be categorized as a hepatoprotective natural substance.

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