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2022
Bioactive Phenolics Fraction of Hedera helix L. (Common Ivy Leaf) Standardized Extract ameliorates LPS-induced Acute Lung Injury in The Mouse Model Through The Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress, Shokry, Aya, El-Shiekh Riham, Kamel Gehan, Bakr Alaa, and Ramadan Amer , 2022/05/01, p.e09477, (2022) Abstract

Hedera helix L. (family Araliaceae) is classified as a conventional plant used as a medicinal product in the cure and prevention of upper respiratory tract inflammation and infection due to its secretolytic and broncholytic effects. Our research was conducted to authenticate the anti-inflammatory effect of ivy leaves extract in the prevention of acute lung injury (ALI) caused by intranasal administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In-vitro antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant were evaluated, in addition to the in-vivo acute lung inflammation model induced by LPS in mice. The animals were divided into seven groups randomly (each group containing 10 mice): control negative (saline only), control positive (LPS group), standard (Dexamethasone 2 mg/kg), ethanolic ivy leaves extract (EIE, 100 mg/kg), ethanolic ivy leaves extract (EIE, 200 mg/kg), saponin rich fraction (SRF, 100 mg/kg) and phenolic rich fraction (PRF,100 mg/kg). Right lungs were homogenized to determine the levels of SOD, MDA, catalase, IL-10, TNF-α, NO, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2, and MPO. Left lungs were excised for histopathology and histomorphometry. Immunohistochemistry of Cox-2 and TNF-α levels were measured. Additionally, Western blotting was used to determine the levels of phosphorylated MAPK. The data showed that the oral supplementation with EIE, 200 mg/kg significantly (P<0.05) decreased the pro-inflammatory mediators, and oxidative stress biomarkers induced by LPS. Interestingly, the phenolics showed promising activity, therefore they are responsible for the action. The ethanolic extract was also standardized through HPLC analysis for its content of rutin. In conclusion, the standardized ivy leaf extract could be advised for acute lung injury for its antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.

2021
Carvacrol hinders the progression of hepatic fibrosis via targeting autotaxin and thioredoxin in thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rat, El-gendy, Zeinab, Ramadan A., El-Batran Seham, Ahmed R., El-Marasy Salma, Ss Abd, Abdelrahman Sahar, and Youssef S. A. H. , 2021/06/22, Volume 7, p.1 - 14, (2021) Abstract

Fibrosis is a common outcome of nearly all chronic diseases of liver that results in changes of its functions which requires medical attention. The current research aims to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic efficacy of Carvacrol against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in male rats using Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as a reference anti-fibrotic product. Carvacrol (25 and 50 mg/kg) markedly declined TAA-increased serum liver enzymes; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) as well as total bilirubin (TB) and direct bilirubin (DB) levels as well as increased levels of total protein (TP) and albumin. Carvacrol significantly reduced glutathione depletion (GSH), Nitric oxide (NO X) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in liver tissue. Additionally, its anti-oxidant effect brightened up via affecting markers of stress found in the cell as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) where it still had high content and decreased Thioredoxin (Trx) level. The anti-inflammatory effect of Carvacrol was confirmed by decreasing nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), interleukin-1beta (IL-1b) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contents. Carvacrol showed anti-fibrotic effect clarified by turning down fibrosis-related markers; TGF-b1, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and 9 (MMP-3 and 9) and Autotaxin (ATX) contents. Furthermore, it decreased alpha smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) and caspase-3 immune-expression. The overall outcome of aforementioned markers results showed that Carvacrol suppresses the progression of liver fibrosis via its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic effect and its ability in lowering Thioredoxin and Autotaxin; hence it can be categorized as a hepatoprotective natural substance.

Hepatoprotective effect of Omega-3 PUFAs against acute paracetamolinduced hepatic injury confirmed by FTIR, El-Gendy, Zeinab A., El-Batran Seham A., Youssef S. A. H., Ramadan2 A., and and Walid El Hotaby3, Rofanda M Bakeer4 Rania Ahmed1 5 F. , Human and Experimental Toxicology, (2021)
Hepatoprotective effect of Saccharomyces Cervisciae Cell Wall Extract against thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats., El-Gendy, Zeinab A., El-Marasy Salma A., Ahmed Rania F., El-Batran Seham A., Abd El-Rahman Sahar S., Ramadan A., and Youssef S. A. H. , Heliyon, Volume 7, Issue 6, p.e07159, (2021) Abstract

Fibrosis represents a common outcome of almost all chronic liver diseases and leads to an impairment of liver function that requires medical intervention. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-fibrotic effect of cell wall extract (SCCWE) against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in rats (200mg/kg b.w. i.p. twice weekly for 6 weeks) using Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as a reference anti-fibrotic product. SCCWE at two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the rise in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamide transferase (GGT) activities, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin, increased total protein and albumin. SCCWE significantly reduced glutathione depletion (GSH), Nitric oxide (NOx) and malondialdehyde (MDA), thioredoxin (Trx) contents and elevated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) content. Its anti-inflammatory effects were confirmed by observing a decrease in nuclear factor-κB (NF- κβ), interleukin-1b (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) content. The anti-fibrotic effects of SCCWE were explored by assessing fibrosis related markers as it significantly reduced transform growth factor-β (TGF-β) and autotaxin (ATX) contents. Administration of SCCWE significantly decreased matrix metalloproteinase-3 and 9 (MMP-3 and -9). Furthermore, it also decreased alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and caspase-3 as assessed immunohistochemically those results were similar to that of the standard drug UDCA. This study shows that SCCWE protects against TAA-induced liver fibrosis in rats, through attenuating oxidative stress, and inflammation, ameliorating MMPs, combating apoptosis and thereby fibrotic biomarkers in addition to improving histopathological changes.

2020
Synergistic effect of Aminoguanidine and L-Carnosine against Thioacetamide-induced Hepatic Encephalopathy in rats: Behavioral, Biochemical and Ultra Structural Evidences, Afifi, Nehal, Ramadan Amer, Erian Emad, Sedik Ahmed, Amin Mohamed, Hassan Azza, and Saleh Dalia , 2020/07/28, Volume 99, (2020) Abstract

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) depicts the cluster of neurological alterations that occur during acute or chronic hepatic injury. This study was aimed to evaluate the possible synergistic effect between aminoguanidine (AG; 100 mg/kg; p.o.) and l-carnosine (CAR; 100 mg/kg; p.o.) on HE that was induced by thioacetamide (TAA; 100 mg/kg; i.p) thrice weekly for six weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment; behavioral changes, biochemical parameters, histopathological analysis, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies were conducted. Combining AG with CAR improved TAA-induced locomotor impairment and motor incoordination evidenced by; reduced locomotor activity and decline in motor skill performance as well as ameliorated cognitive deficits. Moreover, both drugs restored the levels of serum hepatic enzymes as well as serum and brain levels of ammonia. In addition to, the combination significantly modulated hepatic and brain oxidative stress biomarkers, inflammatory cytokines and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, they succeeded to activate nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and ameliorate markers of HE including hepatic necrosis and brain astrocyte swelling. This study depicts that combining AG with CAR exerted new intervention for hepatic and brain damage in HE due to their complementary antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effect and hypoammonemic effects via Nrf2/HO-1 activation and NO inhibition.

The pharmacological effect of apricot seeds extracts and amygdalin in experimentally induced liver damage and hepatocellular carcinoma, Ramadan, Amer, Kamel Gehan, Awad Nagwa, Shokry Aya, and Fayed Hany M. , 2020/07/01, Volume 9, (2020) Abstract

Introduction : Apricot ( Prunus armeniaca L.) has been widely used for the treatment of several disorders such as liver diseases, but the hepatoprotective and anticancer activities of its seeds were not studied before. In this study, we evaluated the pharmacological effects of apricot seeds extracts and amygdalin on prevention of liver damage and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods : Amygdalin contents of apricot seeds in ethanolic extracts were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) then, the ethanolic apricot seeds extract and amygdalin were evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachlorideinduced hepatotoxicity and anticancer activity against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)- induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Results : The amount of amygdalin was 5.72 g and 10.22 g/100 g extract for 70% and 99.9% ethanolic apricot seeds extracts, respectively. Pretreatment of the rats with 70% and 99.9% ethanolic apricot seeds extracts (100 mg/kg), amygdalin and silymarin (50 mg/kg) prevented elevation in liver function parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) caused by carbon tetrachloride injection with significant increase in albumin, total proteins, and no effect on total direct bilirubin when compared to those in hepatotoxic group. Both extracts also showed anticancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma via diminishing the elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, total, direct bilirubin, albumin, total proteins, alpha-fetoprotein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and elevating the decreased hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) level when compared with NDEA- intoxicated group. Conclusion : Apricot seeds possess hepatoprotective and anticancer activities that justify its traditional use, and its potential for the treatment of liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma

2018
Mesalazine, an osteopontin inhibitor: The potential prophylactic and remedial roles in induced liver fibrosis in rats., Ramadan, A., Afifi Nehal, Yassin Nemat Z., Abdel-Rahman Rehab F., Abd El-Rahman Sahar S., and Fayed Hany M. , Chemico-biological interactions, 2018 Jun 01, Volume 289, p.109-118, (2018) Abstract

Liver fibrosis is a major health issue leading to high morbidity and mortality. The potential anti-fibrotic activity and the effect of mesalazine on osteopontin (OPN), an extra cellular matrix (ECM) component were evaluated in TAA-induced liver fibrosis in rats. For this purpose, forty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. All animals, except the normal control, were intraperitoneally injected with TAA (200 mg/kg) twice per week for 6 weeks. In the hepato-protective study, animals were administered mesalazine (50 and 100 mg/kg, orally) for 4 weeks before induction of liver fibrosis then concomitantly with TAA injection. In the hepato-therapeutic study, animals were administered mesalazine for 6 weeks after TAA discontinuation with the same doses. In both studies, mesalazine administration improved liver biomarkers through decreasing serum levels of AST, ALT and total bilirubin when compared to fibrotic group with significant increase in total protein and albumin levels. Mesalazine significantly decreased hepatic MDA level and counteracted the depletion of hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. Additionally, it limits the elevation of OPN and TGF-β1 concentrations and suppressed TNF-α as well as α-SMA levels in hepatic tissue homogenate. Histopathologically, mesalazine as a treatment showed a good restoration of the hepatic parenchymal cells with an obvious decreased intensity and retraction of fibrous proliferation, while as a prophylaxis it didn't achieve enough protection against the harmful effect of TAA, although it decreased the intensity of portal to portal fibrosis and pseudolobulation. Furthermore, mesalazine could suppress the expression of both α-SMA and caspase-3 in immunohistochemical sections. In conclusion, mesalazine could have a potential new indication as anti-fibrotic agent through limiting the oxidative damage and altering TNF-ɑ pathway as an anti-inflammatory drug with down-regulating TGF-β1, OPN, α-SMA and caspase-3 signaling pathways.

Development and validation of modified QuEChERS method coupled with LC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of cymiazole, fipronil, coumaphos, fluvalinate, amitraz, and its metabolite in various types of honey and royal jelly., Zheng, Weijia, Park Jin-A, Abd El-Aty A. M., Kim Seong-Kwan, Cho Sang-Hyun, Choi Jeong-Min, Yi Hee, Cho Soo-Min, Ramadan Amer, Jeong Ji Hoon, et al. , Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences, 2018 Jan 01, Volume 1072, p.60-69, (2018) Abstract

Over the past few decades, honey products have been polluted by different contaminants, such as pesticides, which are widely applied in agriculture. In this work, a modified EN - quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of pesticide residues, including cymiazole, fipronil, coumaphos, fluvalinate, amitraz, and its metabolite 2,4-dimethylaniline (2,4-DMA), in four types of honey (acacia, wild, chestnut, and manuka) and royal jelly. Samples were buffered with 0.2M dibasic sodium phosphate (pH 9), and subsequently, acetonitrile was employed as the extraction solvent. A combination of primary secondary amine (PSA) and C18 sorbents was used for purification prior to liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS-MS) analysis. The estimated linearity measured at six concentration levels presented good correlation coefficients (R)≥0.99. The recovery, calculated from three different spiking levels, was 62.06-108.79% in honey and 67.58-106.34% in royal jelly, with an RSD<12% for all the tested compounds. The matrix effect was also evaluated, and most of the analytes presented signal enhancement. The limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged between 0.001 and 0.005mg/kg in various samples. These are considerably lower than the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by various regulatory authorities. A total of 43 market (domestic and imported) samples were assayed for method application. Among the tested samples, three samples were tested positive (i.e. detected and quantified) only for cymiazole residues. The residues in the rest of the samples were detected but not quantified. We concluded that the protocol developed in this work is simple and versatile for the routine quantification of cymiazole, 2,4-DMA, fipronil, coumaphos, amitraz, and fluvalinate in various types of honey and royal jelly.

Development and validation of modified QuEChERS method coupled with LC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of cymiazole, fipronil, coumaphos, fluvalinate, amitraz, and its metabolite in various types of honey and royal jelly., Zheng, Weijia, Park Jin-A, Abd El-Aty A. M., Kim Seong-Kwan, Cho Sang-Hyun, Choi Jeong-Min, Yi Hee, Cho Soo-Min, Ramadan Amer, Jeong Ji Hoon, et al. , Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences, 2018 Jan 01, Volume 1072, p.60-69, (2018) Abstract

Over the past few decades, honey products have been polluted by different contaminants, such as pesticides, which are widely applied in agriculture. In this work, a modified EN - quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of pesticide residues, including cymiazole, fipronil, coumaphos, fluvalinate, amitraz, and its metabolite 2,4-dimethylaniline (2,4-DMA), in four types of honey (acacia, wild, chestnut, and manuka) and royal jelly. Samples were buffered with 0.2M dibasic sodium phosphate (pH 9), and subsequently, acetonitrile was employed as the extraction solvent. A combination of primary secondary amine (PSA) and C18 sorbents was used for purification prior to liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS-MS) analysis. The estimated linearity measured at six concentration levels presented good correlation coefficients (R)≥0.99. The recovery, calculated from three different spiking levels, was 62.06-108.79% in honey and 67.58-106.34% in royal jelly, with an RSD<12% for all the tested compounds. The matrix effect was also evaluated, and most of the analytes presented signal enhancement. The limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged between 0.001 and 0.005mg/kg in various samples. These are considerably lower than the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by various regulatory authorities. A total of 43 market (domestic and imported) samples were assayed for method application. Among the tested samples, three samples were tested positive (i.e. detected and quantified) only for cymiazole residues. The residues in the rest of the samples were detected but not quantified. We concluded that the protocol developed in this work is simple and versatile for the routine quantification of cymiazole, 2,4-DMA, fipronil, coumaphos, amitraz, and fluvalinate in various types of honey and royal jelly.

2017
Trigonelline attenuates hepatic complications and molecular alterations in high-fat high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats., Afifi, Nehal A., Ramadan Amer, Erian Emad Y., Saleh Dalia O., Sedik Ahmed A., Badawi Manal, and El Hotaby Walid , Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 2017 Apr, Volume 95, Issue 4, p.427-436, (2017) Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trigonelline (TRG) on the hepatic complications associated with high-fat high-fructose (HFHF) diet-induced insulin resistance (IR) in rats. IR was induced by giving a saturated fat diet and 10% fructose in drinking water to rats for 8 weeks. Insulin-resistant rats were orally treated with TRG (50 and 100 mg/kg), sitagliptin (SIT; 5 mg/kg), or a combination of TRG (50 mg/kg) and SIT (5 mg/kg) for 14 days. Liver homogenates were used for assessment of hepatic lipids, oxidative stress biomarkers, and inflammatory cytokines. Histopathological and DNA cytometry examinations were carried out for hepatic and pancreatic tissues. Hepatic tissues were examined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for assessment of any molecular changes. Results of the present study revealed that oral treatment of insulin-resistant rats with TRG or TRG in combination with SIT significantly decreased homeostatic model assessment of IR, hepatic lipids, oxidative stress biomarkers, and the inflammatory cytokines. TRG or TRG in combination with SIT ameliorated the histopathological, DNA cytometry, and molecular alterations induced by a HFHF diet. Finally, it can be concluded that TRG has beneficial effects on the hepatic complications associated with IR due to its hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant potential.

2016
Trigonelline attenuates hepatic complications and molecular alterations in high-fat high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats., Afifi, Nehal A., Ramadan Amer, Erian Emad Y., Saleh Dalia O., Sedik Ahmed A., Badawi Manal, and El Hotaby Walid , Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 2016 Oct 12, p.1-10, (2016) Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trigonelline (TRG) on the hepatic complications associated with high-fat high-fructose (HFHF) diet-induced insulin resistance (IR) in rats. IR was induced by giving a saturated fat diet and 10% fructose in drinking water to rats for 8 weeks. Insulin-resistant rats were orally treated with TRG (50 and 100 mg/kg), sitagliptin (SIT; 5 mg/kg), or a combination of TRG (50 mg/kg) and SIT (5 mg/kg) for 14 days. Liver homogenates were used for assessment of hepatic lipids, oxidative stress biomarkers, and inflammatory cytokines. Histopathological and DNA cytometry examinations were carried out for hepatic and pancreatic tissues. Hepatic tissues were examined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for assessment of any molecular changes. Results of the present study revealed that oral treatment of insulin-resistant rats with TRG or TRG in combination with SIT significantly decreased homeostatic model assessment of IR, hepatic lipids, oxidative stress biomarkers, and the inflammatory cytokines. TRG or TRG in combination with SIT ameliorated the histopathological, DNA cytometry, and molecular alterations induced by a HFHF diet. Finally, it can be concluded that TRG has beneficial effects on the hepatic complications associated with IR due to its hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant potential.

QuEChERS method for the simultaneous quantification of phorate and its metabolites in porcine and chicken muscle and table eggs using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry., Rahman, Md Musfiqur, Kim Sung-Woo, Na TaeWoong, Abd El-Aty A. M., Lee Young-Jun, Park Joon-Seong, Ramadan Amer, Lee Han Sol, Chung Hyung Suk, Choi Jeong-Heui, et al. , Journal of separation science, 2016 Jun, Volume 39, Issue 11, p.2079-86, (2016) Abstract

An analytical method to detect phorate and its metabolites, including phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, phoratoxon, phoratoxon sulfone, and phoratoxon sulfoxide, in porcine and chicken muscles and table eggs was developed and validated. Extraction was performed using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and analysis was conducted using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Matrix-matched calibrations were linear over the tested concentrations, with determination coefficient ≥ 0.995 for all tested analytes in the different matrices. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.001 and 0.004 mg/kg, respectively. The calculated recovery rates at three fortification levels were satisfactory, with values between 74.22 and 119.89% and relative standard deviations < 10%. The method was applied successfully to commercial samples collected from locations throughout the Korean Peninsula, and none of them showed any traces of the tested analytes. Overall, the developed method is simple and versatile, and can be used for monitoring phorate and its metabolites in animal products rich in protein and fat.

QuEChERS method for the simultaneous quantification of phorate and its metabolites in porcine and chicken muscle and table eggs using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry., Rahman, Md Musfiqur, Kim Sung-Woo, Na TaeWoong, Abd El-Aty A. M., Lee Young-Jun, Park Joon-Seong, Ramadan Amer, Lee Han Sol, Chung Hyung Suk, Choi Jeong-Heui, et al. , Journal of separation science, 2016 Jun, Volume 39, Issue 11, p.2079-86, (2016) Abstract

An analytical method to detect phorate and its metabolites, including phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, phoratoxon, phoratoxon sulfone, and phoratoxon sulfoxide, in porcine and chicken muscles and table eggs was developed and validated. Extraction was performed using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and analysis was conducted using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Matrix-matched calibrations were linear over the tested concentrations, with determination coefficient ≥ 0.995 for all tested analytes in the different matrices. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.001 and 0.004 mg/kg, respectively. The calculated recovery rates at three fortification levels were satisfactory, with values between 74.22 and 119.89% and relative standard deviations < 10%. The method was applied successfully to commercial samples collected from locations throughout the Korean Peninsula, and none of them showed any traces of the tested analytes. Overall, the developed method is simple and versatile, and can be used for monitoring phorate and its metabolites in animal products rich in protein and fat.

2012
Evaluation of the safety and antioxidant activities of Crocus sativus and Propolis ethanolic extracts, Ramadan, A., Soliman G. b, Mahmoud S. S., Nofal S. M., and Abdel-Rahman RF , Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, Volume 16, Issue 1, p.13-21, (2012) Abstract

The possible toxicological effects and in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus and Propolis were investigated. Both extracts did not cause any mortalities or signs of toxicity in mice when administered orally at doses up to 5. g/kg. b.wt. In the sub-chronic study; the tested extracts did not produce any significant change in liver and kidney functions of rats, following oral administration for 8 successive weeks at doses of 500. mg/kg. b.wt. of each. Propolis showed remarkable in vitro antioxidant activity at concentrations of (40-100. mg/ml). In contrast, the ethanolic extract of C. sativus ethanolic extract showed weak antioxidant activity in concentrations of (1-10. mg/ml) while at concentrations of (20-100. mg/ml) failed to exhibit any antioxidant activity. It was concluded that: both extracts were non-toxic, as they did not cause any mortalities or signs of toxicity in mice when administered orally at doses up to 5. g/kg. b.wt. Daily oral administration of C. sativus, Propolis ethanolic extracts alone or in combination for 8 successive weeks to rats was quiet safe and didn't cause any toxic changes in liver and kidney. Antioxidant study showed that Propolis ethanolic extract was a more potent antioxidant than C. sativus extract. © 2010.

2009
Effect of albendazole administration on pharmacokinetic aspects of tylosin in lactating goats., Atef, M., Ramadan A., Darwish AS, and Fahim Aisha MM , Drug metabolism letters, 2009 Aug, Volume 3, Issue 3, p.137-43, (2009) Abstract

Tylosin concentrations and its disposition kinetics in serum, urine, and milk of lactating goats following a single intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injection (10 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) were carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).The concentration-time curve of tylosin after i.v. injection could be described by a two-compartment open model. Tylosin was rapidly distributed and eliminated from goat's bodies with t(1/2(beta)) value of 1.25 h. The V((d)) was less than one litre/kg and the MRT was 1.40 h. Concomitant administration with albendazole decreased tylosin concentrations in serum after its i.v. injection and the MRT was 1.17 h. The AUC and AUMC showed a significant decrease in goats given albendazole prior to injection as compared with those given tylosin only. Following i.m. administration, the absorption half-life and the corresponding t(max) revealed rapid absorption rate with systemic bioavailability (F%) of 76.2 %. Albendazole when given concurrently with tylosin decreased its serum concentrations due to lower bioavailability (43.25 %). Following i.v. or i.m. injection, tylosin was excreted rapidly in urine in concentration much higher than those determined in serum and milk. Tylosin administered in goats pretreated with albendazole was excreted at lower concentration in urine, with a significant decrease from 1(st) to 10(th) hours as compared with animals given tylosin only. Following i.v. or i.m. administration of tylosin, the drug was excreted in high concentrations in milk. A significant decrease in milk concentrations was reported in goats pretreated with albendazole.

Effect of albendazole administration on pharmacokinetic aspects of tylosin in lactating goats., Atef, M., Ramadan A., Darwish AS, and Fahim Aisha MM , Drug metabolism letters, 2009 Aug, Volume 3, Issue 3, p.137-43, (2009) Abstract

Tylosin concentrations and its disposition kinetics in serum, urine, and milk of lactating goats following a single intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injection (10 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) were carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).The concentration-time curve of tylosin after i.v. injection could be described by a two-compartment open model. Tylosin was rapidly distributed and eliminated from goat's bodies with t(1/2(beta)) value of 1.25 h. The V((d)) was less than one litre/kg and the MRT was 1.40 h. Concomitant administration with albendazole decreased tylosin concentrations in serum after its i.v. injection and the MRT was 1.17 h. The AUC and AUMC showed a significant decrease in goats given albendazole prior to injection as compared with those given tylosin only. Following i.m. administration, the absorption half-life and the corresponding t(max) revealed rapid absorption rate with systemic bioavailability (F%) of 76.2 %. Albendazole when given concurrently with tylosin decreased its serum concentrations due to lower bioavailability (43.25 %). Following i.v. or i.m. injection, tylosin was excreted rapidly in urine in concentration much higher than those determined in serum and milk. Tylosin administered in goats pretreated with albendazole was excreted at lower concentration in urine, with a significant decrease from 1(st) to 10(th) hours as compared with animals given tylosin only. Following i.v. or i.m. administration of tylosin, the drug was excreted in high concentrations in milk. A significant decrease in milk concentrations was reported in goats pretreated with albendazole.

1997
Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue distribution of apramycin in broiler chickens., Afifi, N. A., and Ramadan A. , Research in veterinary science, 1997 May-Jun, Volume 62, Issue 3, p.249-52, (1997) Abstract

Apramycin was administered to chickens orally, intramuscularly and intravenously to determine blood concentration, kinetic behaviour, bioavailability and tissue residues. Single doses of apramycin at the rate of 75 mg kg-1 body weight were given to broiler chickens by intracrop, i.m. and i.v. routes. The highest serum concentrations of apramycin were reached 0.20 and 0.76 hours after the oral and i.m. doses with an absorption half-life (t1/2(ab.)) of 0.10 and 0.19 hours and an elimination half life (t1/2(beta)) of 1.22 and 2.31 hours respectively. The systemic bioavailability was 2.0 and 58 per cent after intracrop and i.m. administration, respectively, indicating poor absorption of the drug when given orally. Following i.v. injection, the kinetics of apramycin was described by a two-compartment open model with a (t1/2(alpha)) of 1.5 hours, (t1/2(beta)) of 2.1 hours. Vd(ss) (volume of distribution) of 4.82 litre kg-1 and C1(B) (total body clearance) of 1.88 litre kg-1 hour-1. The serum protein-binding of apramycin was 26 per cent. The highest tissue concentrations of apramycin were present in the kidneys and liver. No apramycin residues were detected in tissues after six hours except in the liver and kidneys following intracrop dosing and kidneys following i.m. administration.

Anticoccidial efficacy of toltrazuril and halofuginone against Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens in Egypt., Ramadan, A., Abo El-Sooud K., and El-Bahy M. M. , Research in veterinary science, 1997 Mar-Apr, Volume 62, Issue 2, p.175-8, (1997) Abstract

The anticoccidial activities of toltrazuril and halofuginone against Eimeria tenella were tested in broiler chickens. Comparisons were made between ummedicated infected and uninfected control birds in addition to infected groups given either toltrazuril at 37.5, 75 and 150 ppm in the drinking water, or halofuginone at 1.5, 3 and 6 ppm in the feed. Both drugs were highly efficacious against E tenella. Treatment improved the bodyweight gain and survival percentage in comparison with the unmedicated, infected group. Intestinal lesions, faecal and oocyst scores and oocyst shedding in dropping were significantly reduced by both drugs. Toltrazuril gave better protection than halofuginone; 75 and 150 ppm toltrazuril in drinking water gave good protection when administered four and five days after inoculation.

Pharmacokinetics of tilmicosin in serum and milk of goats., Ramadan, A. , Research in veterinary science, 1997 Jan-Feb, Volume 62, Issue 1, p.48-50, (1997) Abstract

Tilmicosin was administered to goats intravenously and subcutaneously to determine its concentration in blood and milk and its kinetic behaviour. After a slow intravenous injection, the serum concentration-time curve indicated a two compartment open model with a mean (SEM) elimination half-life (t1/2 beta S) of 4.36 (0.04) hours. After a subcutaneous injection the drug was eliminated more slowly from serum and milk, with t1/2 beta S of 29.3 and 41.4 hours, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution of tilmicosin was more than 1 litre kg-1. The peak serum tilmicosin concentration was 1.56 micrograms ml-1 6.39 hours after a subcutaneous injection of 10 mg kg-1. Tilmicosin was extensively secreted into milk, reaching a maximum concentration of 11.6 micrograms ml-1 and having a large AUCmilk/AUCserum ratio of approximately 12:1. Tilmicosin was detectable in milk for 11 days after a single subcutaneous dose.

1995
Influence of Phoxim on testicular and seminal vesicle organs, testosterone and cholinesterase level and its tissue residues in male rats., Atef, M., Youssef S. A., Ramadan A., Nawito MF, El-Sayed MK, and Abd el-Rahman H. , DTW. Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1995 Aug, Volume 102, Issue 8, p.01-5, (1995) Abstract

The effect of Phoxim (Volaton) at two dosage levels (23 and 46 mg/kg b.wt.) on male reproduction tissues and their residues in rats were studied. The tested doses were given orally to male rats for 60 consecutive days. Sex organs weight analysis, semen picture, testosterone and cholinestrase enzyme (ChE) levels, histochemistry, histopathological changes and mating trials were the criteria used to evaluate the reproductive efficiency of the treated rats. There was a dose-related decrease in the weights of testicles and sperm motility associated with an increase in the percentages of dead and morphologically abnormal spermatozoa of treated rats. A decrease in plasma testosterone levels was observed in the treated groups. Histopathological examination revealed that phoxim caused testicular lesions characterized by moderate to severe degenerative changes of spermatogonial cells and by partial arrest of spermatogenesis. Plasma, brain and testicular ChE levels were reduced in treated rats. Phoxim and its oxygen analog concentrations were progressively increased by the time of exposure and represented double fold in liver as compared to that in skeletal muscles and testicles. The histochemical examination of testicles of treated rats showed a marked decreament in the ChE activity in tunica albuginea and sperms. A decrease in this enzyme was also noticed in liver hepatocytes, granular layer of the cerebral cortex and medulla of suprarenal gland.

1994
Interaction between lead toxicity and some sulphonamides in rabbits: effect on certain blood constituents and serum enzymes., Atef, M., Youssef S. A., Ramadan A., Afifi N. A., and Muity AA , DTW. Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1994 May, Volume 101, Issue 5, p.187-90, (1994) Abstract

Two main equal groups of clinically healthy, non pregnant rabbits were classified into 4 subgroups (5 rabbits each). The 1st and 2nd subgroups were treated with sulphaquinoxaline or sulphadiazine in a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt., while the 3rd and 4th subgroups received a repeated oral dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt., daily for 5 successive days, respectively. The second main group received lead acetate in a dose of 4.2 mg/kg b. wt. per day for 2 months, then was classified as in case of the 1st main group and administered the respective sulphonamides in their recommended doses. The experimental lead intoxication was found to decrease the free delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity in blood of lead intoxicated rabbits after 4 and 8 weeks. Also, the ratio of free and with glutathione reactivated delta-ALA-D was increased 2.9 and 2.2 after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively as compared with before lead administration (1.19), indicating toxicity. The sulphonamide/creatinine ratio was increased after administration of both sulphonamides but higher in lead intoxicated rabbits as compared with healthy ones. The AST/ALT ratio was decreased 4 and 8 weeks after lead exposure. The AST, ALT and AST/ALT ratio, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine were not altered in healthy rabbits. Repeated oral administration of sulphadiazine caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine level in healthy and lead intoxicated rabbits. On the other hand, AST/ALT ratio in both healthy and lead intoxicated rabbits was found to decrease 1 h after the last dose as compared with before treatment.

1993
Comparative neuromuscular blocking potency of pipecuronium and pancuronium., Youssef, S. A., Ramadan A., and Ibrahim E. I. , DTW. Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1993 Oct, Volume 100, Issue 10, p.396-8, (1993) Abstract

The effects of pipecuronium bromide (Pi.) and pancuronium bromide (Pa.) on the contractile response of rat-phrenic nerve diaphragm and frog's musculus rectus abdominis preparation were studied. Pi. and Pa. were found to have a dose-dependent reduction in the contractile response of the tested preparation. Trials were made to estimate the potency of Pi. in a comparison with Pa. In this respect Pi. exhibited a more potent effect than Pa. The duration of action is about twice as long as that of Pa. in equieffective doses. Neostigmine rapidly and completely antagonises the neuromuscular blockade caused by Pi. and Pa.

Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue distribution of salinomycin in chickens., Atef, M., Ramadan A., Youssef S. A., and Abo El-Sooud K. , Research in veterinary science, 1993 Mar, Volume 54, Issue 2, p.179-83, (1993) Abstract

Salinomycin was administered to chickens orally and intravenously to determine blood concentration, kinetic behaviour, bioavailability and tissue residues. The drug was given by intracrop and intravenous routes in a single dose of 20 mg kg-1 body-weight. The highest serum concentrations of salinomycin were reached half an hour after oral dosage with an absorption half-life (t0.5(ab)) of 3.64 hours and elimination half-life (t0.5(beta)) of 1.96 hours. The systemic bioavailability percentage was 73.02 per cent after intracrop administration, indicating the high extent of salinomycin absorption from this route in chickens. Following intravenous injection the kinetics of salinomycin can be described by a two-compartment open model with a t1/2(alpha) of 0.48 hours, Vd ss (volume of distribution) of 3.28 litre kg-1 and Cl(beta) (total body clearance) of 27.39 ml kg-1 min-1. The serum protein-binding tendency of salinomycin as calculated in vitro was 19.78 per cent. Salinomycin concentrations in the serum and tissues of birds administered salinomycin premix (60 ppm) for two weeks were lower than those after administration of a single intracrop dose of pure salinomycin (20 mg kg-1 bodyweight). The highest concentration of salinomycin residues were present in the liver followed by the kidneys, muscles, fat, heart and skin. No salinomycin residues were detected in tissues after 48 hours except in the liver and these had disappeared completely by 72 hours.

Pharmacokinetic profile and tissue distribution of monensin in broiler chickens., Atef, M., Ramadan A., and Abo El-Sooud K. , British poultry science, 1993 Mar, Volume 34, Issue 1, p.195-203, (1993) Abstract

1. The pharmacokinetics of monensin, including half-life, apparent volume of distribution, total body clearance, systemic bioavailability and tissue residues were determined in broiler chickens. The drug was given by intracrop and intravenous routes in a single dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. 2. Following intravenous injection the kinetic disposition of monensin followed a two compartments open model with absorption half life of 0.59 h, volume of distribution of 4.11 l/kg and total body clearance of 28.36 ml/kg/min. The highest serum concentrations of monensin were reached 0.5 h after intracrop dosage with an absorption half-life of 0.27 h and an elimination half life of 2.11 h. The systemic bioavailability was 65.1% after intracrop administration. Serum protein-binding tendency of monensin calculated in vitro was 22.8%. 3. Monensin concentrations in the serum and tissues of chickens after a single intracrop dose of pure monensin (40 mg/kg body weight) were higher than those after feeding a supplemented monensin premix (120 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. Monensin residues were detected in tested body tissues, collected 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after oral administration. The highest concentration was found in the liver. In addition, monensin residues were detected only in liver, kidney and fat 24 h after the last oral dose. No monensin residues could be detected in tissues after 48 h, except in liver which cleared completely by 72 h.

Comparative haemodynamic alterations induced by pipecuronium and pancuronium., Youssef, S. A., Afifi N. A., Ramadan A., and Ibrahim E. I. , DTW. Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1993 Aug, Volume 100, Issue 8, p.316-8, (1993) Abstract

Haemodynamic effects of pipecuronium bromide (Pi.) and pancuronium bromide (Pa.) were studied on isolated rabbit's heart, guinea pig's tracheal chain as well as the blood pressure in pentobarbital anaesthetized dogs. Pi. induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on the isolated rabbit's heart especially in lower concentrations. However, higher concentrations provoked two opposite effects, negative chronotropic and positive inotropic activity. In addition, Pa. in lower concentrations caused positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity, while higher concentrations induced negative inotropic and chronotropic activity. Cardioinhibitory actions of both tested drugs are not due to either cholinergic or beta 1-adrenergic blocking effect but it may be due to nicotine-like activity. In anaesthetized dogs, i.v. injections of both tested drugs produced a transient decrease in systolic and diastolic pressure in doses above the therapeutic level. This effect may be referred to the partial ganglion blocking effect of both tested drugs.

1992
Effect of pantothenic acid on disposition kinetics and tissue residues of sulphadimidine in chickens., Ramadan, A., Hanafy MS, and Afifi N. A. , Research in veterinary science, 1992 May, Volume 52, Issue 3, p.337-41, (1992) Abstract

Sulphadimidine was administered to chickens via the intracrop route to determine plasma concentrations of the unchanged sulphonamide and its acetylated derivatives, kinetic disposition, tissue residues and acetylation. The sulphadimidine was given alone (group 1) at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 bodyweight. Pantothenic acid was given via the intracrop route at a dose of 100 mg kg-1 bodyweight one hour before (group 2) and six hours after (group 3) sulphadimidine administration (200 mg kg-1 bodyweight intracrop). The highest plasma concentrations of sulphadimidine in groups 1, 2 and 3 were reached in 1.73, 1.62 and 1.71 hours, respectively, following intracrop administration. In birds of groups 1, 2 and 3 no sulphadimidine was detected at 72, 24 and 48 hours, respectively, following its administration. Estimation of sulphadimidine in most of the body tissues revealed that all tissues examined had lower concentrations than plasma. In chickens given pantothenic acid (groups 2 and 3) before and after sulphadimidine administration, an increase in the concentration of N4 acetylated derivatives of sulphadimidine was observed compared with birds given sulphadimidine alone (group 1).

1991
Influence of dimethoate on testicular and epididymal organs, testosterone plasma level and their tissue residues in rats., Afifi, N. A., Ramadan A., el-Aziz M. I., and Saki E. E. , DTW. Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1991 Nov, Volume 98, Issue 11, p.419-23, (1991) Abstract

The effect of dimethoate at two dosage levels (6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg b. wt.) on male reproduction tissues and their tissue residues in rats were studied. The tested doses were given orally to male rats for 65 consecutive days. Sex organs weight analysis, semen picture, testosterone levels and histopathology of the male genital organs were the criteria used to evaluate the reproductive efficiency of the treated rats. There was a dose-related decrease in the weights of most genital organs and sperm motility associated with an increase in the percentages of dead and morphologically abnormal spermatozoa of treated rats. A decrease in plasma testosterone levels was observed in the treated groups. Histological examination revealed that dimethoate caused testicular lesions characterized by moderate to severe degenerative changes of spermatogonial cells and by partial arrest of spermatogenesis. Sections from liver revealed that the central veins and hepatic sinusoids appeared dilated, with some areas of haemorrhage. The highest concentrations from dimethoate were found in liver and tests and the lowest in skeletal muscle. Dimethoate and its metabolite analog were still present in a detectable concentration 21 days after stopping its oral administration.

Haemodynamic alterations induced by toxic level of sodium taurocholate., Youssef, S. A., Ramadan A., Afifi N. A., and Aziz M. D. , DTW. Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1991 Feb, Volume 98, Issue 2, p.56-60, (1991) Abstract

Haemodynamic effects of sodium taurocholate (S.T.) were studied on isolated guinea pig's auricles, rabbit's heart, rabbit's aortic strip, guinea pig's tracheal chain as well as the blood pressure and ECG pattern changes in pentobarbital anaesthetized dogs. S.T. induced significant negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on the isolated auricles of guinea pig's especially in higher concentrations. Using isolated rabbit's heart, the negative inotropic and chronotropic effects induced by S.T. were found to be depending on the concentration. Cardio-inhibitory actions of the salt are not due to either cholinergic beta 1-adrenergic blocking effect or nicotine like activity. S.T. in all tested concentrations had no effect on the contractile response of isolated rabbit's aortic strip or guinea pig's tracheal chain and did not prevent the contractile response induced by noradrenaline and histamine. In anaesthetized dogs, i.v. injections of the salt in a dose of 30 mg/kg b. wt. produced a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic pressure, but lower doses induced no significant changes. A dose of 30 mg/kg b. wt. of the salt potentiates the decrease in systolic and diastolic pressure when coadministered with the neuromuscular blocking agent, atracurium besylate. Atropine, propranolol and phentolamine did not alter the hypotensive effect of S.T. (neither cholinergic nor beta 1-adrenergic blocking effect). The electrocardiographic pattern induced by S.T. (20-30 mg/kg b. wt.) in dogs were mainly characterized by decrease in heart rate and prolongation of P-T interval.

1990
Ruminal excretion of sulfadimethoxine and sulfadimethyloxazole in goats and their influence on some enzyme activities and renal clearances., Atef, M., Youssef S. A., Ramadan A., and Issa M. , DTW. Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1990 May, Volume 97, Issue 5, p.203-6, (1990) Abstract

Five clinically health goats were injected with sulfadimethoxine and sulfadimethyloxazole in a single dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt. by intravenous route. Highest concentration levels of sulfadimethoxine and sulfadimethyloxazole in rumen were detected 1 hour following intravenous injection, then the concentration for both compounds declined at 12 and 8 hours post administration, respectively. In addition, both types of sulfonamide completely disappeared in ruminal fluid samples taken after 24 and 12 hours, respectively. The rate of acetylation for sulfadimethoxine and sulfadimethyloxazole were nearly similar and occurred to a high extent in ruminal fluid (22.95 and 23.72%, respectively). On the other hand, both tested drugs increased significantly the ruminal gas production from the first to eight hours after i.v. injection in goats. Changes in the serum enzyme activities (SGOT, SGPT and alkaline phosphatase) observed with sulfadimethoxine and sulfadimethyloxazole, and represented by a significant decrease in the activity of SGOT and SGPT level, alkaline phosphatase 4 hours sulfadimethoxine and in GOT/GPT ratio 24 and 48 hours after i.v. injection, respectively. The creatinine clearance was significantly decreased after 4 hours following the i.v. administration of sulfadimethoxine and sulfadimethyloxazole in goats.

Pharmacokinetic profile of cefotaxime in goats., Atef, M., Ramadan A., Afifi N. A., and Youssef S. A. , Research in veterinary science, 1990 Jul, Volume 49, Issue 1, p.34-8, (1990) Abstract

Cefotaxime was administered to goats intravenously, intramuscularly and subcutaneously to determine blood and urine concentration, kinetic behaviour and bioavailability. Following a single intravenous injection, the blood concentration-time curve indicated a two compartment open model, with an elimination half-life value (t1/2 beta) of 22.38 +/- 0.41 minutes. Both intramuscular and subcutaneous routes showed slower values, that is, 38.64 and 69.58 minutes. The apparent volume of distribution of cefotaxime in goats was less than 1 litre kg-1 and suggested a lower distribution in tissues than in blood. After intramuscular and subcutaneous injections peak plasma cefotaxime concentrations were 77.8 +/- 1.7 and 44.0 +/- 0.8 micrograms ml-1 at 29.6 and 40.4 minutes, respectively. The average bioavailability of cefotaxime given by intramuscular and subcutaneous injection was 1.08 and 1.25 times the intravenous availability, respectively. The cefotaxime concentration remained in urine 24 hours longer after subcutaneous injection than after intramuscular administration.

1989
Kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability, tissue levels and acetylation of some sulphonamides in goats., Atef, M., Youssef S. A., Ramadan A., and Issa M. , Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de therapie, 1989 Nov-Dec, Volume 302, p.27-39, (1989) Abstract

Sulphamethoxazole, sulphadimethyloxazole and sulphadimethoxine were once administered in goats via oral and i.v. route (100 mg/kg b.wt.) for determination of plasma and urine concentrations of the unchanged sulphonamides and their acetylated derivatives, kinetic behavior, systemic bioavailability, tissue levels and acetylation. The highest plasma concentrations of sulphamethoxazole, sulphadimethyloxazole and sulphadimethoxine were reached after 0.64, 1.31 and 0.46 hr following oral administration, with an absorption half-life of 0.84, 1.31 and 0.38 hr and an elimination half-life of 3.51, 5.01 and 5.55 hr, respectively. Following a single i.v. injection, the kinetic disposition of sulphamethoxazole and sulphadimethoxine followed a one-compartmental model with an elimination half-life of 1.48 and 1.76 hr and a total body clearance-time curve of sulphadimethyloxazole, after a single i.v. injection, could be described by a two-compartmental open model with an elimination half-life of 3.27 hr, a volume of distribution of 248.07 ml/kg and a total body clearance of 0.82 ml/kg/min. The systemic bioavailability was 19.95, 11.37 and 23.27% after oral administration of sulphamethoxazole, sulphadimethyloxazole and sulphadimethoxine, respectively. The percentages of serum protein binding of sulphamethoxazole, sulphadimethyloxazole and sulphadimethoxine were determined in most of the body tissues, collected 4 hr after i.v. injection. The highest concentration was found in kidney and liver. On the other hand, sulphamethoxazole, sulphadimethyloxazole and sulphadimethoxine were N4-acetylated in the body tissues to a higher extent than that in plasma. Acetylation was highest in rumen and skeletal muscle.

Comparative studies on the effect of continuous intravenous infusion of some sulphonamides on blood and urine glucose levels in buffaloes., Ramadan, A., Afifi A., and Issa M. , DTW. Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 1989 Jul-Aug, Volume 96, Issue 7, p.376-7, (1989) Abstract

Three groups of five clinically healthy buffaloes each were injected intravenously with sulphadiazine, sulphadimidine and sulphamerazine in a dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt. (as a singly initial dose of 40 mg/kg b. wt. an subsequently the plasma level kept constant by a continuous intravenous infusion of a maintenance dose of 20 mg/kg per hour over a period of 3 hours). It was found that, 1) sulphadiazine, sulphadimidine and sulphamerazine increase the plasma glucose levels at 1, 2, 2.5 and 3.5 hours from the start of i.v. infusion. 2) The glucose concentration in urine increased in the buffaloes infused i.v. with sulphadiazine. 3) The glucose level in urine of buffaloes infused i.v. with sulphadimidine and sulphamerazine was slightly increased. 4) The concentrations of sulphadiazine, sulphadimidine and sulphamerazine in plasma reached its highest level, 2.5, 2 and 2.5 hours during the i.v. infusion, respectively, then declined rapidly. 5) The concentrations of sulphadiazine, sulphadimidine and sulphamerazine in urine reached their highest concentrations 3.5 hours after i.v. infusion.