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Abdelatty, A. M., M. A.Tony, B. M. Edrees, and E. Y.Ismail, impact of some phytobiotic feed additives upon health and zootechnical parameters in broiler chicken, , Cairo, Cairo University, 2011.
Abdelatty, A. M., F. F. Mohamed, M. A. Tony, B. B. Teter, and R. A. Erdman, Short Term Dietary Modifications Alter Mammary Lipogenic Gene Expression in Mid-Lactating Dairy Cow Using Novel Non-Invasie RNA Extraction Technique, , Maryland, University of Maryland, 2016.
Journal Article
Abdelatty, A. M., M. I. Mandouh, S. A. Mohamed, S. Busato, O. A. M. Badr, M. Bionaz, A. A. Elolimy, M. M. A. Moustafa, O. A. A. Farid, and A. K. Al-Mokaddem, "Azolla leaf meal at 5% of the diet improves growth performance, intestinal morphology and p70S6K1 activation, and affects cecal microbiota in broiler chicken.", Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, vol. 15, issue 10, pp. 100362, 2021. Abstract

With growing concern about including unconventional dietary protein sources in poultry diets to substitute the protein sources that are essential for human consumption such as soybean meal, Azolla leaf meal (ALM) has grown in popularity. In our prior experiment, ALM was used at inclusion rates of 5 and 10%. Five per cent inclusion of ALM increased broiler chicken growth performance, the concentration of cecal propionic acid, and activation of skeletal muscle p70S6 Kinase1 (p70S6K1) without having detrimental effects on the meat quality. Those results prompted us to further evaluate the effect of the same inclusion rates of ALM on phase feeding and intestine and liver health of the broiler chicks. The current study hypothesis is that dietary ALM positively affects phase feeding, intestinal morphology and p70S6K1 activation, cecal microbial gene expression, and improves the liver energy status. For this, we enrolled 135 one-day-old broiler chicks and collected growth performance data (starter, grower, and finisher stages) and samples of the gastrointestinal tract to analyse the morphology of the villi, immune-related organs, mucin, and abundance of intestinal p70S6K1. Cecal bacterial species were analysed using qPCR and liver samples were collected to analyse adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and ATP content and selected oxidative stress biomarkers. ALM increased BW and feed intake during the starter and grower phases but did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Liver oxidative stress and AMP: ATP ratio increased in chickens fed on a diet containing 10% ALM (AZ10; P < 0.05). Jejunum villi length and abundance of duodenal neutral mucin increased but villi of the ileum decreased in chickens fed on a diet containing 5% ALM (AZ5), while lymphoid follicle areas of the cecal tonsils decreased with both doses of ALM. Activation of p70S6K1 increased with AZ10 in the duodenum and AZ5 in the jejunum. In the gut, the family of Enterobacteriaceae decreased with both ALM doses. In conclusion, our results indicate an overall positive effect of dietary inclusion of ALM in the broiler chicken diet via its positive effect on intestinal morphology and function; however, a negative effect on the liver was observed with 10% ALM.

El-Attrouny, M. M., M. M. Iraqi, I. I. Sabike, A. M. Abdelatty, M. M. Moustafa, and O. A. Badr, "Comparative evaluation of growth performance, carcass characteristics and timed series gene expression profile of GH and IGF-1 in two Egyptian indigenous chicken breeds versus Rhode Island Red.", Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie, vol. 138, issue 4, pp. 463-473, 2021. Abstract

Indigenous chicken breeds in developing countries have diverse benefits to rural economy as a source of high-quality animal protein. However, there are few reports on the evaluation of economic traits in Egyptian indigenous breeds. Hence, this study aimed to investigate growth performance, carcass characteristics, body measurements and meat quality traits in two indigenous breeds of chickens (Benha line and Golden Montazah) versus Rhode Island Red as a reference worldwide breed. Besides, a time series expression profile of somatotropic axis genes including GH and IGF-1 and their plasma level concentrations were investigated. Benha line chickens (BL) revealed the highest improved estimates of growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits. In the same manner, it displayed the highest levels of hepatic GH and IGF-1 and muscle IGF-1 gene expression compared to Rhode Island Red (RIR) and Golden Montazah (GM) chickens. Accordingly, BL exhibited the highest levels of plasma IGF-1 and the lowest levels of plasma GH. This result suggests the direct association between growth performance, carcass characteristics and levels of IGF-1 gene expression in the selected chicken breeds. BL is a superior Egyptian genotype with candidate productive traits and competing characteristics, it could be used widely as a proven ancestor of commercial hybrid breeds.

Mandouh, M. I., I. B. Shaheed, M. Bionaz, A. A. Elolimy, H. A. Mansour, S. A. Mohamed, M. M. El-Attrouny, O. A. A. Farid, M. R. Mousa, and A. M. Abdelatty, "Dietary hydrolyzed soya lecithin affects feed intake, abundance of bacteria in the caecum, fatty acid composition and area of adipocytes in pre-mating primiparous V-line female rabbit.", Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, vol. 108, issue 3, pp. 557-565, 2024. Abstract

This study aimed at investigating the effect of hydrolyzed soya lecithin; also called lysolecithin or lysophosphatidylcholine, on growth performance, caecal microbiota and fat depots in pre-breeding primiparous rabbits does. For this, 60 V-Line primiparous rabbits does (5-6 months) were used in a 30-day experiment. Does were allotted into three iso-nitrogenous iso-caloric dietary treatments (n = 20/group) as follows: (1) CON received 0% soya lecithin, (2) LECL group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% soya lecithin and (3) LECH group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1% soya lecithin. Growth performance indices were measured, caecum samples were collected for measurement of specific bacteria via qPCR, and several fat depots including periovarian fat were sampled for adipocyte morphometry and fatty acid profiling. Statistical analysis was performed using GLM procedures of SAS v9.4. Soya lecithin increased feed intake (p < 0.05). The abundance of caecal Bifidobacteria species, Ruminococcus species and phylum Butryvibrio-specific genes increased (p < 0.05) in rabbits receiving soya lecithin in their diet, soya lecithin increased the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in subcutaneous and perirenal fat (p < 0.05) and increased the level of monounsaturated fatty acids in periovarian fat (p < 0.05); additionally, the adipocyte area increased in periovarian and perirenal fat (p < 0.05). In conclusion, soya lecithin at a dose of 0.5% increased feed intake and energy storage in adipocytes and improved the fatty acid profile of periovarian fat.

Elokil, A. A., W. Chen, K. Mahrose, M. M. Elattrouny, K. F. M. Abouelezz, H. I. Ahmad, H. - Z. Liu, A. A. Elolimy, M. I. Mandouh, A. M. Abdelatty, et al., "Early life microbiota transplantation from highly feed-efficient broiler improved weight gain by reshaping the gut microbiota in laying chicken.", Frontiers in microbiology, vol. 13, pp. 1022783, 2022. Abstract

Starting phase of laying chicken life is the building stone for rearing and production stages. Since, fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) regulates the gut microbial diversity and affects the productive performance of the bird. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of FMT from feed-efficient broiler chicken could program the diversity of gut microbiota and growth of recipient native slow growing egg-laying chicks. For this, a total of 150 (one-day-old) Jing Hong chicks were randomly assigned into two groups, each group consisted of 5 replicates ( = 15 bird/ replicate). The control group (CON) and FMT recipient birds (FMT) fed on basal diet, the FMT group received an oral daily dose of FMT prepared from Cobb-500 chickens. The FMT performed from the 1d to 28d of age, through the experimental period, feed intake and body weight were recorded weekly. At the end of a 28-day trial, carcass traits were assessed and cecal samples were collected for microbiome assessment 16S rRNA-based metagenomic analysis to characterize the diversity and functions of microbial communities. The data were statistically analyzed using R software. Body weight and body weight gain increased, and FCR decreased ( = 0.01) in FMT group. The relative abundance of and the (F/B) ratio were increased due to FMT administration ( = 0.01). A higher relative abundance of , , and were presented in the FMT group. Meanwhile, , , and were more abundant in the CON group ( < 0.01). Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways for microbial functions regarding amino acid metabolism, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and enzyme families, cofactors, and vitamins were significantly annotated in the FMT group. Overall, FMT administration from the donor of highly feed-efficient broilers improved weight gain by reshaping a distinct gut microbiome, which may be related to the metabolism and health in the recipients laying chicks, providing new insight on the application of the FMT technique for early life programming of laying chickens.

Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E., A. Elolimy, and A. M. Abdelatty, "Editorial: Nutrigenomics: omics of maternal nutrition and foetal programming.", Frontiers in genetics, vol. 15, pp. 1327341, 2024.
Bakeer, M. R., S. Y. Saleh, N. Gazia, H. A. Abdelrahman, A. Elolimy, and A. A.M., "Effect of dietary pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seed oil supplementation on reproductive performance and serum antioxidant capacity in male and nulliparous female V-Line rabbits", Italian Journal of Animal Science, vol. 20, issue 1, pp. 419-425, 2021.
Eissa, A. E., M. S. Yusuf, N. A. Younis, MohamedFekry, A. A. Dessouki, G. A. Ismail, H. Ford, and A. M. Abdelatty, "Effect of poultry offal silage with or without betaine supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphometry, spleen histomorphology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings.", Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, vol. 106, issue 5, pp. 1189-1195, 2022. Abstract

Fishmeal (FM) is the main protein source in fish feed. However, it is quite expensive due to its limited resources. Therefore, finding a dietary alternative to the FM to sustain fish production is crucial, and the current study was performed to assess the impact of poultry offal silage (POS) with or without betaine supplementation; as an effective and cheaper alternative to FM; on feed efficiency, growth performance, spleen morphology and intestinal morphometry of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. Four dietary treatments were formulated: (1) FM based diet, (2) FM-B; FM diet +0.7% betaine, (3) POS diet and (4) POS-B; POS diet +0.7% betaine. Each dietary treatment consisted of three replicates (n = 10/replicate), and the experiment was continued for 16 weeks. By the end of the experiment, spleen and intestine specimens were collected from 15 fish (n = 5/replicate) for histopathological assessment. The results were statistically analysed using GLM procedures of SAS 9.4. Feed efficiency increased in both POS-B and FM-B groups (p = 0.01), while body weight and body weight gain showed only weak tendencies towards an increase (p = 0.10 and 0.12, respectively). The villi length was the highest in POS-B fed group (p < 0.01). In addition, melanomacrophage centres of the spleen increased in both betaine-supplemented groups (p < 0.01). From our findings, we conclude that betaine supplementation with poultry offal silage improved production performance and immune status of Nile tilapia fish.

Abdelatty, A. M., M. E. Iwaniuk, M. Garcia, K. M. Moyes, B. B. Teter, P. Delmonte, A. K. G. Kadegowda, M. A. Tony, F. F. Mohamad, and R. A. Erdman, "Effect of short-term feed restriction on temporal changes in milk components and mammary lipogenic gene expression in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.", Journal of dairy science, vol. 100, issue 5, pp. 4000-4013, 2017 May. Abstract

Investigations of the temporal changes in mammary gene expression that occur during sudden diet change have been limited by the use of mammary tissue as the source of RNA because of the invasive nature of mammary biopsy procedures. However, the cytosolic crescent, present in 1% of the largest milk fat globules, contains mammary epithelial cell RNA that has become trapped between the inner and outer milk fat globule membranes during final formation and secretion of milk fat into the lumen of the mammary alveoli. We hypothesized that cytosolic crescent RNA extracted from milk fat could be used as an alternative source of mammary epithelial cell RNA to measure the immediate temporal changes in gene expression as a result of changes in diet. In this experiment, feed restriction was used to mimic the state of negative energy balance observed in early lactation and induce a rapid change in milk fat yield and lipogenic gene expression. Ten multiparous Holstein dairy were fed a basal diet ad libitum during a 14-d preliminary period followed by a 4-d experimental period where 5 cows remained on ad libitum feeding and 5 cows were fed at 60% of their d 8-14 intakes (restricted) on d 15 to 18 and then returned to ad libitum feeding on d 19 to 21. Milk samples were collected from each milking on d 13 to 20 and the milk fat was immediately isolated, mixed with Trizol LS, and stored at -80°C for subsequent extraction of RNA that was used for measurement of gene expression. Feed restriction tended to increase milk fat percentage. However, total milk and milk fat production were reduced by 21 and 18%, respectively. Consistent with increased use of body fat for milk synthesis, serum nonesterified fatty acids increased 6-fold (0.78 mEq/L in the feed restriction vs. 0.13 mEq/L ad libitum group), whereas the milk fatty acids

Abdelatty, A. M., M. I. Mandouh, A. K. Al-Mokaddem, H. A. Mansour, H. M. A. Khalil, A. A. Elolimy, H. Ford, O. A. A. Farid, A. Prince, O. G. Sakr, et al., "Influence of level of inclusion of Azolla leaf meal on growth performance, meat quality and skeletal muscle p70S6 kinase α abundance in broiler chickens.", Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, vol. 14, issue 11, pp. 2423-2432, 2020. Abstract

The interest in biodiesel production from oil-bearing seeds rather than soybean necessitates the scientific validation of other good quality protein sources that could substitute soybean meal in animal diets, particularly, broiler chickens where soybean meal constitutes a large portion of their diet. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of sun-dried Azolla leaf meal (ALM) as an unconventional dietary protein source in broiler chicken diet on growth performance, meat quality, skeletal muscle cell growth and protein synthesis through regulation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6 kinase α). A total of 120 male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments. Each treatment had four cages (i.e. replicates) with 10 birds/cage. The control group was fed with a corn-soy-based diet, the AZ5 group was supplemented with 5% ALM and the AZ10 group was supplemented with 10% ALM for 37 days. A 5-day trial was also conducted to measure the apparent nutrient digestibility. Growth performance parameters were measured weekly. At the end of the experiment, 12 birds from each group (3/cage) were euthanized and used for samplings. Inclusion of ALM tended to improve BW gain (P = 0.06) and increased feed intake (P < 0.01). Additionally, ALM decreased the percentage of breast meat cooking loss linearly (P < 0.01). In addition, ALM at a dose of 5% increased the production of propionate in the cecum (P = 0.01). Activation of breast muscle p70S6 kinase was higher when ALM was included in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). The inclusion of ALM increased breast meat redness (P < 0.01); however, the lightness was within the normal range in all groups. Findings from our study suggest that ALM could be included in a broiler chicken diet up to 5% without any major negative effect on meat quality or performance, and it regulates muscle protein synthesis through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin/6S kinase signaling.

Esmael, A., E. Azab, A. A. Gobouri, M. A. Nasr-Eldin, M. M. A. Moustafa, S. A. Mohamed, O. A. M. Badr, and A. M. Abdelatty, "Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic BacteriophagesInfecting a Multi-Drug ResistantSalmonellaTyphimurium andTheir Efficacy to Combat Salmonellosis in Ready-to-Use Foods", Microorgansims, vol. 9, pp. 423, 2021.
Abdelatty, A. M., O. A. M. Badr, S. A. Mohamed, M. S. Khattab, S. H. M. Dessouki, O. A. A. Farid, A. A. Elolimy, O. G. Sakr, M. A. El Hady, G. Mehesen, et al., "Long term conjugated linoleic acid supplementation modestly improved growth performance but induced testicular tissue apoptosis and reduced sperm quality in male rabbit.", PloS one, vol. 15, issue 1, pp. e0226070, 2020. Abstractjournal.pone_.0226070.pdf

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is known for its multiple benefits including improvement of growth, increasing lean mass, and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, when used in long-term supplementations CLA does not improve semen parameters in boar and bull and reduces fertility in Japanese quails. The content of unsaturated fatty acids in dietary lipids plays a significant role in spermatogenesis owning the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in plasma membrane of sperms. Whether CLA plays a role in testicular tissue and epididymal fat is still unknown. Therefore, in this study we hypothesize that long-term supplementation of equal proportion of CLA isomer mix (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12- CLA) in rabbit bucks might alter male reproductive potentials. Twelve V-Line weaned male rabbits were used in 26 weeks trial, rabbits were individually raised and randomly allocated into three dietary groups. Control group (CON) received a basal diet, a group received 0.5% CLA (CLA 0.5%), and a group received 1% CLA (CLA 1%). Rabbits were euthanized at the end of the trial and several parameters were evaluated related to growth, semen quality, and testicular and epididymal tissue histopathology and transcriptome. The long-term supplementation of CLA increased feed intake by 5% and body weight by 2-3%. CLA 1% decreased sperm progressive motility. In testicular tissue L-carnitine and α-tocopherol were decreased by CLA supplementation. In epididymal fat, CLA tended to decrease concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the expression of SCD5 gene was upregulated by CLA 1% and CASP3 gene was upregulated by CLA 0.5%. Transcription of PPARG was downregulated by CLA. Feeding 1% CLA also decreased testicular epithelial thickness. Long-term supplementation of CLA modestly enhanced male rabbit growth, but negatively impacted male reproduction, especially at high dose of CLA.

Abdelatty, A. M., S. A. Mohamed, M. M. A. Moustafa, A. K. Al-Mokaddem, M. R. Baker, A. A. Elolimy, S. A. Elmedany, S. Hussein, O. A. A. Farid, O. G. Sakr, et al., "Nutrigenomic effect of conjugated linoleic acid on growth and meat quality indices of growing rabbit.", PloS one, vol. 14, issue 10, pp. e0222404, 2019. Abstract

Conjugated linoleic acid was detected in rabbit caecotrophs, due to the presence of microbial lipid activity in rabbit cecum. However, the effect of CLA as a functional food in growing rabbit is not well established. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of CLA on production, meat quality, and its nutrigenomic effect on edible parts of rabbit carcass including skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Therefore, seventy five weaned V-Line male rabbits, 30 days old, were randomly allocated into three dietary treatments receiving either basal control diet, diet supplemented with 0.5% (CLAL), or 1% CLA (CLAH). Total experimental period (63 d) was segmented into 7 days adaptation and 56 days experimental period. Dietary supplementation of CLA did not alter growth performance, however, the fat percentage of longissimus lumborum muscle was decreased, with an increase in protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were not increased in CLA treated groups. There was tissue specific sensing of CLA, since subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression of PPARA was downregulated, however, CPT1A tended to be upregulated in liver of CLAL group only (P = 0.09). In skeletal muscle, FASN and PPARG were upregulated in CLAH group only (P ≤0.01). Marked cytoplasmic vacuolation was noticed in liver of CLAH group without altering hepatocyte structure. Adipocyte size was decreased in CLA fed groups, in a dose dependent manner (P <0.01). Cell proliferation determined by PCNA was lower (P <0.01) in adipose tissue of CLA groups. Our data indicate that dietary supplementation of CLA (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12- CLA) at a dose of 0.5% in growing rabbit diet produce rabbit meat rich in PUFA and lower fat % without altering growth performance and hepatocyte structure.

Busato, S., H. R. Ford, A. M. Abdelatty, C. T. Estill, and M. Bionaz, "Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Activation in Precision-Cut Bovine Liver Slices Reveals Novel Putative PPAR Targets in Periparturient Dairy Cows.", Frontiers in veterinary science, vol. 9, pp. 931264, 2022. Abstract

Metabolic challenges experienced by dairy cows during the transition between pregnancy and lactation (also known as peripartum), are of considerable interest from a nutrigenomic perspective. The mobilization of large amounts of non-esterified fatty acids () leads to an increase in NEFA uptake in the liver, the excess of which can cause hepatic accumulation of lipids and ultimately fatty liver. Interestingly, peripartum NEFA activate the Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (), a transcriptional regulator with known nutrigenomic properties. The study of PPAR activation in the liver of periparturient dairy cows is thus crucial; however, current models of the bovine liver are inadequate, and the isolation of primary hepatocytes is time consuming, resource intensive, and prone to errors, with the resulting cells losing characteristic phenotypical traits within hours. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the use of precision-cut liver slices () from liver biopsies as a model for PPAR activation in periparturient dairy cows. Three primiparous Jersey cows were enrolled in the experiment, and PCLS from each were prepared prepartum (-8.0 ± 3.6 DIM) and postpartum (+7.7± 1.2 DIM) and treated independently with a variety of PPAR agonists and antagonists: the PPARα agonist WY-14643 and antagonist GW-6471; the PPARδ agonist GW-50156 and antagonist GSK-3787; and the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone and antagonist GW-9662. Gene expression was assayed through RT-qPCR and RNAseq, and intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration was measured. PCLS obtained from postpartum cows and treated with a PPARγ agonist displayed upregulation of and while those treated with PPARδ agonist had increased expression of , and . In PCLS from prepartum cows, transcription of was increased by all PPAR agonists and NEFA. TAG concentration tended to be larger in tissue slices treated with PPARδ agonist compared to CTR. Use of PPAR isotype-specific antagonists in PCLS cultivated in autologous blood serum failed to decrease expression of PPAR targets, except for , which was confirmed to be a PPARδ target. Transcriptome sequencing revealed considerable differences in response to PPAR agonists at a false discovery rate-adjusted -value of 0.2, with the most notable effects exerted by the PPARδ and PPARγ agonists. Differentially expressed genes were mainly related to pathways involved with lipid metabolism and the immune response. Among differentially expressed genes, a subset of 91 genes were identified as novel putative PPAR targets in the bovine liver, by cross-referencing our results with a publicly available dataset of predicted PPAR target genes, and supplementing our findings with prior literature. Our results provide important insights on the use of PCLS as a model for assaying PPAR activation in the periparturient dairy cow.

Abdelatty, A. M., M. I. Mandouh, M. R. Mousa, H. A. Mansour, H. Ford, I. B. Shaheed, A. A. Elolimy, A. Prince, M. A. El-Sawy, H. O. AboBakr, et al., "Sun-dried Azolla leaf meal at 10% dietary inclusion improved growth, meat quality, and increased skeletal muscle Ribosomal protein S6 kinase β1 abundance in growing rabbit.", Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, vol. 15, issue 10, pp. 100348, 2021. Abstract

Rapidly growing human populations and the increased need for high nutritive value meat in terms of low fat, high protein, and low sodium content are the driving reasons for the increase in rabbit meat production. However, dietary protein alternatives to sustain rabbit meat production, without competing with humans for strategic crops are needed. Therefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the effect of Azolla leaf meal (ALM) as a dietary protein source on growth performance, meat quality, and abundance and activation of Ribosomal protein S6 kinase β1 (p70S6K1), a downstream target of mammalian target of rapamycin signalling pathway and, thus, a key player in the regulation of protein synthesis and muscle mass. For this purpose, 60 weaned male V-Line rabbits were blocked for the initial BW and randomly allotted into four dietary treatments, with 15 replicate per treatment (n = 15/group) as follows: (1) CON group was fed on basal diet contains 0% of ALM, (2) AZ10 group fed on diet containing 10% ALM, (3) AZ20 group fed on diet containing 20% ALM, and (4) AZ30 group fed on diet containing 30% ALM. Rabbits were raised individually, and the experimental period was 42 days. At the end of the experiment, rabbits were euthanised and blood and skeletal muscle samples were collected. Body weight and BW gain were the highest in AZ10 group (P = 0.01), while feed intake was the highest in AZ30 (P = 0.01), feed conversion ratio was the lowest in AZ10 and highest in AZ30 (P = 0.01). Dressing % was the highest in AZ10 and lowest in AZ30 groups (P = 0.01). Muscle cross-sectional area was low in both AZ20 and AZ30 groups compared to CON (P = 0.01). The lysine concentration of Longissimus lumborum muscle increased (P = 0.03) while isoleucine tended to decrease in AZ10 vs CON (P = 0.09). The phosphorylation ratio of skeletal muscle p70S6K1 increased in AZ10 and AZ20 groups (P = 0.05). Therefore, ALM could be included in a growing rabbit diet, up to 10%, while higher doses negatively alter production performance, meat quality, and feed efficiency of growing rabbits.

Book Chapter
Elolimy, A. A., M. Zeineldin, M. Abdelmegeid, A. M. Abdelatty, A. S. Alharthi, M. H. Bakr, M. M. M. Y. Elghando, A. Z. M. Salem, and J. J. Loor, "Metabolomics and Proteomics Signatures in Feed-Efficient Beef and Dairy Cattle", Metabolomics and Proteomics Signatures in Feed-Efficient Beef and Dairy Cattle: Springer, 2021. 2021_book_sustainableagriculturereviews5.pdf