Hassan, S. A., P. Agrawal, T. Ganesh, and A. W. Mohamed,
"Optimum Distribution of Protective Materials for COVID−19 with a Discrete Binary Gaining-Sharing Knowledge-Based Optimization Algorithm",
*Computational Intelligence Techniques for Combating COVID-19*, Cham, Springer International Publishing, pp. 135 - 157, 2021.

AbstractMany application problems are formulated as nonlinear binary programming models which are hard to be solved using exact algorithms especially in large dimensions. One of these practical applications is to optimally distribute protective materials for the newly emerged COVID-19. It is defined for a decision-maker who wants to choose a subset of candidate hospitals comprising the maximization of the distributed quantities of protective materials to a set of chosen hospitals within a specific time shift. A nonlinear binary mathematical programming model for the problem is introduced with a real application case study; the case study is solved using a novel discrete binary gaining-sharing knowledge-based optimization algorithm (DBGSK). The solution algorithm proposes a novel binary adaptation of a recently developed gaining-sharing knowledge-based optimization algorithm (GSK) to solve binary optimization problems. GSK algorithm is based on the concept of how humans acquire and share knowledge through their life span. Discrete binary version of GSK named novel binary gaining-sharing knowledge-based optimization algorithm (DBGSK) depends mainly on two binary stages: binary junior gaining-sharing stage and binary senior gaining-sharing stage with knowledge factor 1. These two stages enable DBGSK for exploring and exploitation of the search space efficiently and effectively to solve problems in binary space.

Said Ali Hassan, Khalid Alnowibet, P. A. A. W. M.,
"Optimum Location of Field Hospitals for COVID-19: A Nonlinear Binary Metaheuristic Algorithm",
*Computers, Materials & Continua*, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 1183–1202, 2021.

AbstractDetermining the optimum location of facilities is critical in many fields, particularly in healthcare. This study proposes the application of a suitable location model for field hospitals during the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The used model is the most appropriate among the three most common location models utilized to solve healthcare problems (the set covering model, the maximal covering model, and the P-median model). The proposed nonlinear binary constrained model is a slight modification of the maximal covering model with a set of nonlinear constraints. The model is used to determine the optimum location of field hospitals for COVID-19 risk reduction. The designed mathematical model and the solution method are used to deploy field hospitals in eight governorates in Upper Egypt. In this case study, a discrete binary gaining–sharing knowledge-based optimization (DBGSK) algorithm is proposed. The DBGSK algorithm is based on how humans acquire and share knowledge throughout their life. The DBGSK algorithm mainly depends on two junior and senior binary stages. These two stages enable DBGSK to explore and exploit the search space efficiently and effectively, and thus it can solve problems in binary space.

Hassan, S. A., K. Alnowibet, P. Agrawal, and A. W. Mohamed,
"Optimum Scheduling the Electric Distribution Substations with a Case Study: An Integer Gaining-Sharing Knowledge-Based Metaheuristic Algorithm",
*Complexity*, vol. 2020: Hindawi, pp. 6675741, 2020.

AbstractThis work is dedicated to the economic scheduling of the required electric stations in the upcoming 10-year long-term plan. The calculation of the required electric stations is carried out by estimating the yearly consumption of electricity over a long-time plan and then determining the required number of stations. The aim is to minimize the total establishing and operating costs of the stations based on a mathematical programming model with nonlinear objective function and integer decision variables. The introduced model is applied for a real practical case study to conclude the number of yearly constructed stations over a long-term plan in the electricity sector in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. The current planning method is based only on intuition by constructing the same number of required stations in each year without searching for better solutions. To solve the introduced mathematical model, a novel recent gaining sharing knowledge-based algorithm, named GSK, has been used. The Augmented Lagrangian Method (ALM) is applied to transform the constrained formulation to become unconstrained with penalization to the objective function. According to the obtained results of the real case study, the proposed GSK with ALM approved an ability to solve this case with respect to convergence, efficiency, quality, and robustness.