Said Ali Hassan, Khalid Alnowibet, P. A. A. W. M.,
"Managing Delivery of Safeguarding Substances as a Mitigation Against Outbreaks of Pandemics",
*Computers, Materials & Continua*, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 1161–1181, 2021.

AbstractThe optimum delivery of safeguarding substances is a major part of supply chain management and a crucial issue in the mitigation against the outbreak of pandemics. A problem arises for a decision maker who wants to optimally choose a subset of candidate consumers to maximize the distributed quantities of the needed safeguarding substances within a specific time period. A nonlinear binary mathematical programming model for the problem is formulated. The decision variables are binary ones that represent whether to choose a specific consumer, and design constraints are formulated to keep track of the chosen route. To better illustrate the problem, objective, and problem constraints, a real application case study is presented. The case study involves the optimum delivery of safeguarding substances to several hospitals in the Al-Gharbia Governorate in Egypt. The hospitals are selected to represent the consumers of safeguarding substances, as they are the first crucial frontline for mitigation against a pandemic outbreak. A distribution truck is used to distribute the substances from the main store to the hospitals in specified required quantities during a given working shift. The objective function is formulated in order to maximize the total amount of delivered quantities during the specified time period. The case study is solved using a novel Discrete Binary Gaining Sharing Knowledge-based Optimization algorithm (DBGSK), which involves two main stages: discrete binary junior and senior gaining and sharing stages. DBGSK has the ability of finding the solutions of the introduced problem, and the obtained results demonstrate robustness and convergence toward the optimal solutions.

Said Ali Hassan, Khalid Alnowibet, P. A. A. W. M.,
"Optimum Location of Field Hospitals for COVID-19: A Nonlinear Binary Metaheuristic Algorithm",
*Computers, Materials & Continua*, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 1183–1202, 2021.

AbstractDetermining the optimum location of facilities is critical in many fields, particularly in healthcare. This study proposes the application of a suitable location model for field hospitals during the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The used model is the most appropriate among the three most common location models utilized to solve healthcare problems (the set covering model, the maximal covering model, and the P-median model). The proposed nonlinear binary constrained model is a slight modification of the maximal covering model with a set of nonlinear constraints. The model is used to determine the optimum location of field hospitals for COVID-19 risk reduction. The designed mathematical model and the solution method are used to deploy field hospitals in eight governorates in Upper Egypt. In this case study, a discrete binary gaining–sharing knowledge-based optimization (DBGSK) algorithm is proposed. The DBGSK algorithm is based on how humans acquire and share knowledge throughout their life. The DBGSK algorithm mainly depends on two junior and senior binary stages. These two stages enable DBGSK to explore and exploit the search space efficiently and effectively, and thus it can solve problems in binary space.