Mohamed, A. K., A. W. Mohamed, E. Z. Elfeky, and M. Saleh, "Solving Constrained Non-linear Integer and Mixed-Integer Global Optimization Problems Using Enhanced Directed Differential Evolution Algorithm", Machine Learning Paradigms: Theory and Application, Cham, Springer International Publishing, pp. 327 - 349, 2019. Abstract

This paper proposes an enhanced modified Differential Evolution algorithm (MI-EDDE) to solve global constrained optimization problems that consist of mixed/non-linear integer variables. The MI-EDDE algorithm, which is based on the constraints violation, introduces a new mutation rule that sort all individuals ascendingly due to their constraint violations (cv) value and then the population is divided into three clusters (best, better and worst) with sizes 100p%, (NP-2) * 100p% and 100p% respectively. Where p is the proportion of the partition with respect to the total number of individuals in the population (NP). MI-EDDE selects three random individuals, one of each partition to implement the mutation process. This new mutation scheme shown to enhance the global and local search capabilities and increases the convergence speed. Eighteen test problems with different features are tested to evaluate the performance of MI-EDDE, and a comparison is made with four state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms. The results show superiority of MI-EDDE to the four algorithms in terms of the quality, efficiency and robustness of the final solutions. Moreover, MI-EDDE shows a superior performance in solving two high dimensional problems and finding better solutions than the known optimal solution.

Agrawal, P., T. Ganesh, and A. W. Mohamed, "Solution of Uncertain Solid Transportation Problem by Integer Gaining Sharing Knowledge Based Optimization Algorithm", 2020 International Conference on Computational Performance Evaluation (ComPE), pp. 158 - 162, 2-4 July 2020, Submitted. Abstract
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Hassan, S. A., K. Alnowibet, P. Agrawal, and A. W. Mohamed, "Optimum Scheduling the Electric Distribution Substations with a Case Study: An Integer Gaining-Sharing Knowledge-Based Metaheuristic Algorithm", Complexity, vol. 2020: Hindawi, pp. 6675741, 2020. AbstractWebsite

This work is dedicated to the economic scheduling of the required electric stations in the upcoming 10-year long-term plan. The calculation of the required electric stations is carried out by estimating the yearly consumption of electricity over a long-time plan and then determining the required number of stations. The aim is to minimize the total establishing and operating costs of the stations based on a mathematical programming model with nonlinear objective function and integer decision variables. The introduced model is applied for a real practical case study to conclude the number of yearly constructed stations over a long-term plan in the electricity sector in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. The current planning method is based only on intuition by constructing the same number of required stations in each year without searching for better solutions. To solve the introduced mathematical model, a novel recent gaining sharing knowledge-based algorithm, named GSK, has been used. The Augmented Lagrangian Method (ALM) is applied to transform the constrained formulation to become unconstrained with penalization to the objective function. According to the obtained results of the real case study, the proposed GSK with ALM approved an ability to solve this case with respect to convergence, efficiency, quality, and robustness.

Nomer, H. A. A., K. A. Alnowibet, A. Elsayed, and A. W. Mohamed, "Neural Knapsack: A Neural Network Based Solver for the Knapsack Problem", IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 224200 - 224210, 2020. Abstract
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Hassan, S. A., P. Agrawal, T. Ganesh, and A. W. Mohamed, "Optimum Distribution of Protective Materials for COVID−19 with a Discrete Binary Gaining-Sharing Knowledge-Based Optimization Algorithm", Computational Intelligence Techniques for Combating COVID-19, Cham, Springer International Publishing, pp. 135 - 157, 2021. Abstract

Many application problems are formulated as nonlinear binary programming models which are hard to be solved using exact algorithms especially in large dimensions. One of these practical applications is to optimally distribute protective materials for the newly emerged COVID-19. It is defined for a decision-maker who wants to choose a subset of candidate hospitals comprising the maximization of the distributed quantities of protective materials to a set of chosen hospitals within a specific time shift. A nonlinear binary mathematical programming model for the problem is introduced with a real application case study; the case study is solved using a novel discrete binary gaining-sharing knowledge-based optimization algorithm (DBGSK). The solution algorithm proposes a novel binary adaptation of a recently developed gaining-sharing knowledge-based optimization algorithm (GSK) to solve binary optimization problems. GSK algorithm is based on the concept of how humans acquire and share knowledge through their life span. Discrete binary version of GSK named novel binary gaining-sharing knowledge-based optimization algorithm (DBGSK) depends mainly on two binary stages: binary junior gaining-sharing stage and binary senior gaining-sharing stage with knowledge factor 1. These two stages enable DBGSK for exploring and exploitation of the search space efficiently and effectively to solve problems in binary space.

Hassan, S. A., P. Agrawal, T. Ganesh, and A. W. Mohamed, "Scheduling shuttle ambulance vehicles for COVID-19 quarantine cases, a multi-objective multiple 0–1 knapsack model with a novel Discrete Binary Gaining-Sharing knowledge-based optimization algorithm", Data Science for COVID-19, pp. 675 - 698, 2021. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of this paper is to present a proposal for scheduling shuttle ambulance vehicles assigned to COVID-19 patients using one of the discrete optimization techniques, namely, the multi-objective multiple 0–1 knapsack problem. The scheduling aims at achieving the best utilization of the predetermined planning time slot; the best utilization is evaluated by maximizing the number of evacuated people who might be infected with the virus to the isolation hospital and maximizing the effectiveness of prioritizing the patients relative to their health status. The complete mathematical model for the problem is formulated including the representation of the decision variables, the problem constraints, and the multi-objective functions. The proposed multi-objective multiple knapsack model is applied to an illustrated case study in Cairo, Egypt, the case study aims at improving the scheduling of ambulance vehicles in the back and forth shuttle movements between patient’ locations and the isolation hospital. The case study is solved using a novel Discrete Binary Gaining-Sharing knowledge-based optimization algorithm (DBGSK). The detail procedure of the novel DBGSK is presented along with the complete steps for solving the case study.

Said Ali Hassan, Khalid Alnowibet, P. A. A. W. M., "Managing Delivery of Safeguarding Substances as a Mitigation Against Outbreaks of Pandemics", Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 1161–1181, 2021. AbstractWebsite

The optimum delivery of safeguarding substances is a major part of supply chain management and a crucial issue in the mitigation against the outbreak of pandemics. A problem arises for a decision maker who wants to optimally choose a subset of candidate consumers to maximize the distributed quantities of the needed safeguarding substances within a specific time period. A nonlinear binary mathematical programming model for the problem is formulated. The decision variables are binary ones that represent whether to choose a specific consumer, and design constraints are formulated to keep track of the chosen route. To better illustrate the problem, objective, and problem constraints, a real application case study is presented. The case study involves the optimum delivery of safeguarding substances to several hospitals in the Al-Gharbia Governorate in Egypt. The hospitals are selected to represent the consumers of safeguarding substances, as they are the first crucial frontline for mitigation against a pandemic outbreak. A distribution truck is used to distribute the substances from the main store to the hospitals in specified required quantities during a given working shift. The objective function is formulated in order to maximize the total amount of delivered quantities during the specified time period. The case study is solved using a novel Discrete Binary Gaining Sharing Knowledge-based Optimization algorithm (DBGSK), which involves two main stages: discrete binary junior and senior gaining and sharing stages. DBGSK has the ability of finding the solutions of the introduced problem, and the obtained results demonstrate robustness and convergence toward the optimal solutions.

Said Ali Hassan, Khalid Alnowibet, P. A. A. W. M., "Optimum Location of Field Hospitals for COVID-19: A Nonlinear Binary Metaheuristic Algorithm", Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 1183–1202, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Determining the optimum location of facilities is critical in many fields, particularly in healthcare. This study proposes the application of a suitable location model for field hospitals during the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The used model is the most appropriate among the three most common location models utilized to solve healthcare problems (the set covering model, the maximal covering model, and the P-median model). The proposed nonlinear binary constrained model is a slight modification of the maximal covering model with a set of nonlinear constraints. The model is used to determine the optimum location of field hospitals for COVID-19 risk reduction. The designed mathematical model and the solution method are used to deploy field hospitals in eight governorates in Upper Egypt. In this case study, a discrete binary gaining–sharing knowledge-based optimization (DBGSK) algorithm is proposed. The DBGSK algorithm is based on how humans acquire and share knowledge throughout their life. The DBGSK algorithm mainly depends on two junior and senior binary stages. These two stages enable DBGSK to explore and exploit the search space efficiently and effectively, and thus it can solve problems in binary space.

Hassan, S. A., P. Agrawal, T. Ganesh, and A. W. Mohamed, "A Travelling Disinfection-Man Problem (TDP) for COVID-19: A Nonlinear Binary Constrained Gaining-Sharing Knowledge-Based Optimization Algorithm", Intelligent Data Analysis for COVID-19 Pandemic, Singapore, Springer Singapore, pp. 291 - 318, 2021. Abstract

An improved scheduling the disinfection process of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) is introduced. The scheduling aims at achieving the best utilization of the available day time, which is calculated as the total disinfection time minus the total loss travelling time. In this regard, a new application problem is presented, which is called a travelling disinfection-man problem (TDP). The new problem (TDP) in network optimization resemble somehow the famous travelling salesman problems (TSP) but with basic distinct variations where a disinfection group is likely to select a route to reach a subset of predetermined places to be disinfected with the most utilization of the available day working hours. A nonlinear binary model is introduced with a detailed real application case study involving the improving the scheduling of coronavirus disinfection process for five contaminated faculties in Ain Shams University in Cairo, and the case study is solved using a novel discrete binary gaining-sharing knowledge-based optimization algorithm (DBGSK).

Agrawal, P., T. Ganesh, D. Oliva, and A. W. Mohamed, S-shaped and V-shaped gaining-sharing knowledge-based algorithm for feature selection, , 2021. AbstractWebsite

In machine learning, searching for the optimal feature subset from the original datasets is a very challenging and prominent task. The metaheuristic algorithms are used in finding out the relevant, important features, that enhance the classification accuracy and save the resource time. Most of the algorithms have shown excellent performance in solving feature selection problems. A recently developed metaheuristic algorithm, gaining-sharing knowledge-based optimization algorithm (GSK), is considered for finding out the optimal feature subset. GSK algorithm was proposed over continuous search space; therefore, a total of eight S-shaped and V-shaped transfer functions are employed to solve the problems into binary search space. Additionally, a population reduction scheme is also employed with the transfer functions to enhance the performance of proposed approaches. It explores the search space efficiently and deletes the worst solutions from the search space, due to the updation of population size in every iteration. The proposed approaches are tested over twenty-one benchmark datasets from UCI repository. The obtained results are compared with state-of-the-art metaheuristic algorithms including binary differential evolution algorithm, binary particle swarm optimization, binary bat algorithm, binary grey wolf optimizer, binary ant lion optimizer, binary dragonfly algorithm, binary salp swarm algorithm. Among eight transfer functions, V4 transfer function with population reduction on binary GSK algorithm outperforms other optimizers in terms of accuracy, fitness values and the minimal number of features. To investigate the results statistically, two non-parametric statistical tests are conducted that concludes the superiority of the proposed approach.