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Khayyal, M. T., M. A. El-Ghazaly, and A. S. el-Khatib, "Mechanisms involved in the antiinflammatory effect of propolis extract.", Drugs under experimental and clinical research, vol. 19, issue 5, pp. 197-203, 1993. Abstract

Propolis is a natural product produced by the honey bee. The extract contains amino acids, flavanoids, terpenes and cinnamic acid derivatives. In various in vitro models propolis extract was shown to inhibit platelet aggregation and to inhibit eicosanoid synthesis, suggesting that it might have potent antiinflammatory properties. A 13% aqueous extract was tested orally in three dose levels (1, 5 and 10 ml/kg) on the carrageenan rat paw oedema model and on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In both models, the extract showed potent dose-related antiinflammatory activity, which compared well with that of diclofenac (as a reference standard). The extract was then tested on an isolated sensitized guinea pig lung preparation to study its effect on the release of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and histamine. It is concluded that propolis extract has potent antiinflammatory properties in vivo. Its activity can be well correlated with its effects on the release of various mediators of inflammation.

Agha, A. M., A. S. el-Khatib, and H. Al-Zuhair, "Modulation of oxidant status by meloxicam in experimentally induced arthritis.", Pharmacological research, vol. 40, issue 4, pp. 385-92, 1999 Oct. Abstract

Meloxicam is a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, that possesses a selective inhibition of the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX-2) relative to the constitutive one, COX-1. Oxidative stress has been documented to be involved in the aetiology of many pathological conditions. The present study aims to further explore the relationship between free radical generation and the inflammatory process, and extends more to investigate the effect of meloxicam on the oxidant status in experimentally induced arthritis, namely, Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Results of the present investigation revealed that animals inoculated with Freund's complete adjuvant showed a biphasic response regarding changes in the right hind paw oedema volume. During the chronic phase of the disease, arthritic animals showed an elevated plasma level of lipid peroxides, enhanced blood glutathione peroxidase activity, with depletion of plasma total thiols and albumin; while no significant effects have been observed on erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity and plasma total proteins content, as compared to normal untreated rats. Long-term administration of meloxicam, at two dose levels, produced significant antioedemetous effect and succeeded in modulating the altered parameters affected during arthritis. The selected dose regimens of meloxicam did not show any apparent lesions in the gastric mucosa. The results of the present investigation lend further support to the reported observations concerning selective COX-2 inhibitors. The modulatory influence of meloxicam on the oxidant status, particularly on lipid peroxidation and thiols might be a relevant effect accounting for its anti-inflammatory properties.