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Abdel-Wahab, L. A., A. I. El-Brairy, G. G. El-Hossary, and A. S. el-Khatib, "EFFECT OF GINKGO BILOBA AND GREEN TEA EXTRACTS ON CORTICOSTEROID-INDUCED OCULAR HYPERTENSION IN RABBITS", Rev. Res. J, vol. 5, pp. 1-17, 2015.
El-Marasy, S. A., S. M. El-Shenawy, A. S. el-Khatib, O. A. El-Shabrawy, and S. A. Kenawy, "EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND WHEAT GERM OILS ON SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN RATS", Bull. Fac. Pharm. Cairo Uni, vol. 50, pp. 81-88, 2012.
el-Khatib, A. S., A. M. Moustafa, A. A. Abd El-Aziz, O. A. Al-Shabanah, and H. A. El-Kashef, "Effects of aminoguanidine and desferrioxamine on some vascular and biochemical changes associated with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemia in rats.", Pharmacological research, vol. 43, issue 3, pp. 233-40, 2001 Mar. Abstract

The effects of aminoguanidine (AG; 100 mg x kg(-1)) and desferrioxamine (DFO; 50 mg x kg(-1)) on some vascular and biochemical changes associated with streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg x kg(-1); i.p.)-induced hyperglycaemia were investigated in rats. Both AG and DFO were administered i.p., once daily, for 14 consecutive days to normal and hyperglycaemic animals. The responsiveness of the isolated aortic rings to phenylephrine (PE) was tested. In addition, biochemical markers for oxidative stress such as plasma levels of lipid peroxides and total thiols, as well as the activities of erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were assessed. Results of the present study indicated that induction of hyperglycaemia was associated with increased aortic ring responsiveness to PE, loss in body weight, increase in urine volume, elevation of plasma total thiols and lipid peroxide levels and elevated SOD and GSH-Px enzymatic activities. Treatment of normal rats with AG reduced the response of their aortae to PE. Furthermore, a profound increase in body weight without any significant change in the measured biochemical parameters was observed. In hyperglycaemic animals, AG tended to normalize the enhanced aortic response to PE and modulated STZ-induced biochemical changes without affecting the elevated plasma glucose level. Treatment of normal rats with DFO reduced the response of their aortae to PE and decreased their body weight without altering any of the chosen biochemical parameters. In hyperglycaemic animals, DFO attenuated the responsiveness of their aortae to PE and at the same time, did not affect the loss in body weight and the elevation of plasma glucose level observed in the hyperglycaemic group. Additionally, DFO normalized the elevated plasma level of total thiols and exerted a modulatory influence on the enhanced activities of SOD and GSH-Px as well as on the increased levels of lipid peroxides. Our data lend further credence for the contribution of oxidative stress in the vascular and biochemical changes associated with STZ-induced hyperglycaemia. It is also apparent that advanced glycosylation end products and nitric oxide might be involved. Until clinical studies prove the efficacy and safety of these drugs, specific agents which could scavenge free radicals and block protein glycosylation seem beneficial as a helpful adjunct to the therapy of diabetes.

Mansour, M. A., M. N. Nagi, A. S. El-Khatib, and A. M. Al-Bekairi, "Effects of thymoquinone on antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation and DT-diaphorase in different tissues of mice: a possible mechanism of action.", Cell biochemistry and function, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. 143-51, 2002 Jun. Abstract

The present investigation focused, firstly, on the effects of oral administration of thymoquinone (TQ) on antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation and DT-diaphorase activity in hepatic, cardiac and kidney tissues of normal mice. Superoxide dismutase (SOD; E.C:1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; E.C:1.11.1.6), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px; E.C:1.11.1.9), glutathione-S-transferase (GST; E.C:2.5.1.18), and DT-diaphorase (E.C:1.6.99.2) enzyme activities in each tissue type were determined. Treatment of mice with the different doses of TQ (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) orally) for 5 successive days, produced significant reductions in hepatic SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities. In addition cardiac SOD activity was markedly inhibited with the higher doses of TQ, (namely 50 and 100 mg kg(-1)). Moreover, TQ (100 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced hepatic and cardiac lipid peroxidation as compared with the respective control group. Conversely, TQ (50,100 mg kg(-1)) and TQ (100 mg kg(-1)) enhanced cardiac and renal DT-diaphorase activity respectively. However, the selected doses of TQ neither produced any change in GST activity nor influenced reduced glutathione content in all tissues studied. TQ was tested, secondly, as a substrate for hepatic, cardiac and renal DT-diaphorase of normal mice in the presence of NADPH. Kinetic parameters for the reduction of TQ to dihydrothymoquinone (DHTQ) indicated that DT-diaphorase of different tissues can efficiently reduce TQ to DHTQ. K(m) and V(max) values revealed that hepatic DT-diaphorase exhibited the higher values, while the lower values were associated with renal DT-diaphorase. TQ and DHTQ were tested, thirdly, as specific scavengers for superoxide anion (generated biochemically) or as general scavengers for free radicals (generated photochemically). The results revealed that TQ and DHTQ acted not only as superoxide anion scavengers but also as general free radical scavengers. The IC(50) for TQ and DHTQ in biochemical and photochemical assays were in the nanomolar and micromolar range respectively. Our data may explain at least partly the reported beneficial in vivo protective effects of TQ through the combined antioxidant properties of TQ and its metabolite DHTQ.

Mansour, M. A., O. T. Ginawi, T. El-Hadiyah, A. S. el-Khatib, O. A. Al-Shabanah, and H. A. Al-Sawaf, "Effects of volatile oil constituents of Nigella sativa on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice: evidence for antioxidant effects of thymoquinone.", Research communications in molecular pathology and pharmacology, vol. 110, issue 3-4, pp. 239-51, 2001. Abstract

Effects of the volatile oil constituents of Nigella sativa, namely, thymoquinone (TQ), p-cymene and alpha-pinene, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-indued acute liver injury were investigated in mice. A single dose of CCl4 (15 microl/Kg i.p.) induced hepatotoxicity 24 h after administration manifested biochemically as significant elevation of the enzymes activities of serum alanine transaminase (ALT, EC:2.6.1.2), asparate transaminase (AST, EC:2.6.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC: 1.1.1.27). The toxicity was further evidenced by a significant decrease of non-protein sulfhydryl(-SH) concentration, and a significant increase of lipid peroxidation measued as malondialdhyde (MDA) in the liver tissues. Administration of different doses of the TQ (4, 8, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/Kg i.p.) did not alter the chosen biochemical parameters measured, while higher doses of TQ were lethal. The LD50 was 90.3 mg/Kg (77.9-104.7, 95% CL). Pretreatment of mice with different doses of TQ 1 h before CCl4 injection showed that the only dose of TQ that ameliorated hepatotoxicity of CCl4 was 12.5 mg/Kg i.p. as evidenced by the significant reduction of the elevated levels of serum enzymes as well as hepatic MDA content and significant increase of the hepatic nonprotein sulfhydryl(-SH) concentration. Treatment of mice with the other volatile oil constituents, p-cymene or alpha-pinene did not induce any changes in the serum ALT measured. In addition, i.p. administration of these compounds 1 h before CCl4 injection, did not protect mice against CC4-induced hepatotoxicity. The results of the present study indicate that TQ (12.5 mg/Kg, i.p.) may play an important role as antioxidant and may efficiently act as a protective agent against chemically-induced hepatic damage. In contrast, higher doses of TQ were found to induce oxidative stress leading to hepatic injury.

Hammam, O. A., N. Elkhafif, Y. M. Attia, T. Mansour, M. M. Elmazar, R. M. Abdelsalam, S. A. Kenawy, and A. S. el-Khatib, "EFFICACY OF WHARTON'S JELLY-DERIVED MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS COMBINED WITH PRAZIQUANTEL IN SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI-INDUCED LIVER FIBROSIS IN MICE", J. Hepatol, vol. 62, issue S3000, 2015.
El-Ganainy, S. O., A. El-Mallah, D. Abdallah, M. M. Khattab, M. M. Mohy El-Din, and A. S. El-Khatib, "Elucidation of the mechanism of atorvastatin-induced myopathy in a rat model.", Toxicology, vol. 359, pp. 29-38, 2016 06 01. Abstract

Myopathy is among the well documented and the most disturbing adverse effects of statins. The underlying mechanism is still unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction related to coenzyme Q10 decline is one of the proposed theories. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of atorvastatin-induced myopathy in rats. In addition, the mechanism of the coenzyme Q10 protection was investigated with special focus of mitochondrial alterations. Sprague-Dawely rats were treated orally either with atorvastatin (100mg/kg) or atorvastatin and coenzyme Q10 (100mg/kg). Myopathy was assessed by measuring serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin levels together with examination of necrosis in type IIB fiber muscles. Mitochondrial dysfunction was evaluated by measuring muscle lactate/pyruvate ratio, ATP level, pAkt as well as mitochondrial ultrastructure examination. Atorvastatin treatment resulted in a rise in both CK (2X) and myoglobin (6X) level with graded degrees of muscle necrosis. Biochemical determinations showed prominent increase in lactate/pyruvate ratio and a decline in both ATP (>80%) and pAkt (>50%) levels. Ultrastructure examination showed mitochondrial swelling with disrupted organelle membrane. Co-treatment with coenzyme Q10 induced reduction in muscle necrosis as well as in CK and myoglobin levels. In addition, coenzyme Q10 improved all mitochondrial dysfunction parameters including mitochondrial swelling and disruption. These results presented a model for atorvastatin-induced myopathy in rats and proved that mitochondrial dysfunction is the main contributor in statin-myopathy pathophysiology.

Saleh, D. O., S. A. El-Awdan, S. M. Nofel, W. I. El-Eraky, A. S. el-Khatib, and S. A. Kenawy, "ESTROGENS IMPROVE THE CARDIOVASCULAR ALTERATIONS IN FRUCTOSE-INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANT OVARIECTOMIZED RATS", Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci, vol. 7, issue 7, pp. 241-247, 2015.
el-Khatib, A. S., and A. E. Khaleel, "EVALUATION OF SOME PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF BAUHINIA RACEMOSA LAM. LEAF AND BASSIA MURICATA L. WHOLE PLANT", Bull. Fac. Pharm. Cairo Uni, vol. 33, issue 2, pp. 59-65, 1995.