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Abdel-Wahab, L. A., A. I. El-Brairy, G. G. El-Hossary, and A. S. el-Khatib, "EFFECT OF GINKGO BILOBA AND GREEN TEA EXTRACTS ON CORTICOSTEROID-INDUCED OCULAR HYPERTENSION IN RABBITS", Rev. Res. J, vol. 5, pp. 1-17, 2015.
Agha, A. M., A. S. el-Khatib, and H. Al-Zuhair, "Modulation of oxidant status by meloxicam in experimentally induced arthritis.", Pharmacological research, vol. 40, issue 4, pp. 385-92, 1999 Oct. Abstract

Meloxicam is a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, that possesses a selective inhibition of the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX-2) relative to the constitutive one, COX-1. Oxidative stress has been documented to be involved in the aetiology of many pathological conditions. The present study aims to further explore the relationship between free radical generation and the inflammatory process, and extends more to investigate the effect of meloxicam on the oxidant status in experimentally induced arthritis, namely, Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Results of the present investigation revealed that animals inoculated with Freund's complete adjuvant showed a biphasic response regarding changes in the right hind paw oedema volume. During the chronic phase of the disease, arthritic animals showed an elevated plasma level of lipid peroxides, enhanced blood glutathione peroxidase activity, with depletion of plasma total thiols and albumin; while no significant effects have been observed on erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity and plasma total proteins content, as compared to normal untreated rats. Long-term administration of meloxicam, at two dose levels, produced significant antioedemetous effect and succeeded in modulating the altered parameters affected during arthritis. The selected dose regimens of meloxicam did not show any apparent lesions in the gastric mucosa. The results of the present investigation lend further support to the reported observations concerning selective COX-2 inhibitors. The modulatory influence of meloxicam on the oxidant status, particularly on lipid peroxidation and thiols might be a relevant effect accounting for its anti-inflammatory properties.

Agha, A. M., A. S. el-Khatib, S. A. Kenawy, and M. T. Khayyal, "The influence of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage on the inflammatory reaction elicited by carrageenan and its treatment with diclofenac.", Pharmacological research, vol. 32, issue 1-2, pp. 75-84, 1995 Jul-Aug. Abstract

The effect of impaired hepatic function on the development of the inflammatory process as well as on treatment with diclofenac was investigated. Carbon tetrachloride was used to induce liver injury and the elevation of serum transaminases was taken as evidence for impaired hepatic function. The carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema and the granuloma pouch were chosen as models of inflammation. The results of the study revealed that: (1) The intensity of inflammation in both models was markedly attenuated in CCl4-treated animals. (2) Serum total proteins were decreased in liver-injured animals particularly in acute experiments. (3) In liver-injured groups diclofenac showed more pronounced anti-inflammatory activity in chronic experiments, but not in acute ones. (4) Neither CCl4 nor diclofenac affected the levels of histamine and serotonin in the granuloma pouch exudate. The level of prostaglandins was decreased in CCl4 and in diclofenac-treated animals. At the same time, the leukotriene content was elevated. The mechanism by which CCl4 induced liver injury attenuates inflammatory response to carrageenan is not entirely understood. Its effect on protein metabolism and extravasation as well as on PG synthesis could play a possible role. Decreased drug metabolism may be, at least in part, responsible for the enhanced response of diclofenac in the cases of liver-injured animals. Dose adjustment of the drug in case of hepatic impairment might be necessary.

Attia, Y. M., O. A. Hammam, N. Elkhafif, T. Mansour, M. M. Elmazar, R. A. Mohsen, S. A. Kenawy, and A. S. el-Khatib, "SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION OF TRANSPLANTED MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS INTO THE LIVERS OF S. MANSONI-INFECTED MICE", Int. J. Develop. Res, vol. 5, issue 3, pp. 3847-3851, 2015.
Attia, Y. M., E. F. Elalkamy, O. A. Hammam, S. S. Mahmoud, and A. S. El-Khatib, "Telmisartan, an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPAR gamma activator, alleviates liver fibrosis induced experimentally by Schistosoma mansoni infection.", Parasites & vectors, vol. 6, pp. 199, 2013. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hepatic schistosomiasis is considered to be one of the most prevalent forms of chronic liver disease in the world due to its complication of liver fibrosis. The demonstration of the pro-fibrogenic role of angiotensin (Ang) II in chronic liver disease brought up the idea that anti-Ang II agents may be effective in improving hepatic fibrosis by either blocking Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors or inhibiting the angiotensin converting enzyme. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARγ) activation has been also shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation and progression of fibrosis. The present study has aimed at testing the anti-fibrogenic effects of telmisartan; an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPARγ partial agonist, alone or combined with praziquantel (PZQ) on Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

METHODS: To achieve the aim of the study, two sets of experiments were performed in which telmisartan was initiated at the 5th (set 1) and the 10th (set 2) weeks post infection to assess drug efficacy in both acute and chronic stages of liver fibrosis, respectively. Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were randomly divided into the following four groups: infected-control (I), telmisartan-treated (II), PZQ-treated (III), and telmisartan+PZQ-treated (IV). In addition, a normal non-infected group was used for comparison. Parasitological (hepatomesenteric worm load and oogram pattern), histopathological, morphometric, immunohistochemical (hepatic expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2; MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2; TIMP-2), and biochemical (serum transforming growth factor beta 1; TGF-β1 and liver function tests) studies were performed.

RESULTS: Telmisartan failed to improve the parasitological parameters, while it significantly (P<0.05) decreased the mean granuloma diameter, area of fibrosis, and serum TGF-β1. Additionally, telmisartan increased MMP-2 and decreased TIMP-2 hepatic expression. Combined treatment failed to show any additive properties, yet it did not affect the anti-schistosomal activity of PZQ.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest potential anti-fibrotic effects of telmisartan, an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPARγ partial agonist, in acute and chronic stages of Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

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