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2015
H, S., F. F, E. R, B. A, and S. A, "- Causes of chronic kidney disease in Egyptian children.", Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2015 , issue Jul-Aug;26(4), pp. 806-9, 2015.
2016
Fadel, F. I., M. F. Elshamaa, A. Salah, M. Nabhan, M. Rasheed, S. Kamel, D. Kandil, and E. H. Thabet, "Fas/Fas Ligand pathways gene polymorphisms in pediatric renal allograft rejection.", Transplant immunology, vol. 37, pp. 28-34, 2016. Abstract

BACKGROUND: An essential milestone in pediatric transplantation is to find noninvasive biomarkers to monitor acute rejection (AR). In this retrospective (Case-control) study, we examined the role of Fas -670A/G and Fas Ligand (FasL) -843C/T gene polymorphisms in allograft nephropathy in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

METHODS: In 47 pediatric kidney transplant recipients and 20 healthy controls, Fas -670A/G and FasL -843C/T gene polymorphisms as well as serum soluble Fas Ligand level (sFasL) were measured.

RESULTS: Serum sFasL levels were significantly higher in transplant recipients children than that in controls (548.25±298.64pg/ml vs 143.17±44.55pg/ml, p=0.0001). There was no significant difference between patients with AR and those without AR in regards to serum sFasL levels (567.70±279.87pg/ml vs 507.85±342.80pg/ml, p=0.56). Fas -670A/G genotypes or alleles were not significantly different between controls and transplant recipients and among transplant recipients with and without AR. (P>0.05 for all). FasL -843C/T genotypes were not different between transplant recipients and controls and among transplant recipients with and without AR (P>0.05 for all). However, Frequency of C allele in transplant patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (44.68% vs 25%, P=0.03). FasL -843C/T alleles were significantly different between patients with and without AR (P=0.03). The percentages of C allele were higher in children with AR (58.82% vs 36.67%). We found that serum FasL and serum creatinine were variables that were independently associated with AR.

CONCLUSION: This study suggests that FasL gene polymorphisms in peripheral blood might be accurate in detecting cellular AR.

Lofty, H. M., huda marzouk, yomna farag, M. Nabih, I. A. S. Khalifa, N. Mostafa, A. Salah, L. Rashed, and K. E. Garf, "Serum Amyloid A Level in Egyptian Children with Familial Mediterranean Fever.", International journal of rheumatology, vol. 2016, pp. 7354018, 2016. Abstract

. SAA is an acute-phase reactant detected during an FMF attack or other inflammatory conditions. High SAA levels may increase the risk of amyloidosis. The aim of the study is to measure the serum amyloid A (SAA) level in a group of Egyptian children with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and study its various correlates, if any. . The study enrolled seventy-one children with FMF. . SAA level was high in 78.9% of the studied patients with a mean of 81.62 ± 31.6 mg/L, and CRP was positive in 31% of patients. There was no significant releation between SAA level and any demographic or clinical manifestation. High SAA was more frequent in V726A allele (16.9%) followed by M694V allele (12.3%). Elevated SAA levels were more frequent in patients on low colchicine doses. Forty-five percent (45%) of patients have low adherence to colchicine therapy. . High SAA levels were detected two weeks after last FMF attack in a large percentage of Egyptian FMF children. This indicates that subclinical inflammation continues during attack-free periods, and SAA could be used as a marker of it.

2017
Fadel, F. I., M. F. Elshamaa, A. Salah, E. A. Elghoroury, S. A. El-Rahman, M. Hamed Ibrahim, and S. Kamel, "FcγRIIa defunctioning polymorphism in paediatric patients with renal allograft.", Central-European journal of immunology, vol. 42, issue 4, pp. 363-369, 2017. Abstract

Introduction: Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) IIa is considered the most widely distributed of the three classes of Fc receptors, and it expresses an allelic polymorphism. This type of polymorphism may modify the immune response and may be an important factor for some diseases. The aim of the study reported herein was to evaluate the association between the FcγRIIa polymorphism and susceptibility to both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and acute kidney graft rejection (AR) in children who have undergone renal transplantation.

Material and methods: The study evaluated 70 children who had undergone transplantation and 60 healthy subjects. AR was observed in 25 children.

Results: FcγRIIa genotypes and alleles were significantly different between transplantation patients and the control group. The assessment for FcγR of the groups in which AR was present showed that there was only a risk of having an acute rejection in homozygous genotype RR.

Conclusions: FcγRIIa RR genotype and allele frequency was increased in paediatric renal transplant recipients. The present findings showed that FcγRIIa genotype may be related to ESRD disease susceptibility, and FcγRIIa polymorphisms seemed to affect AR.

Lotfy, H. M., huda marzouk, yomna farag, A. Salah, H. Taher, M. Nabih, L. Rashed, and K. El-Garf, "Serum vitamin D level in Egyptian children with Familial Mediterranean fever.", Immunology letters, vol. 185, pp. 74-78, 2017. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to measure plasma vitamin D levels in a group of Egyptian children with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) compared to healthy children.

METHODS: The study enrolled 52 children with FMF and 40 apparently healthy controls. Serum vitamin D level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

RESULTS: The mean serum vitamin D level was significantly lower in children with FMF than control group (12.3±3.4 and 21.2±3.5ng/mL, respectively, p<0.001). Vitamin D level was significantly lower in female patients than males (11.3±2.9, 13.2±3.6, respectively p=0.04). No statistically significant relations were detected between vitamin D level and different clinical, laboratory and genetic variables.

CONCLUSION: Vitamin D levels were lower in Egyptian FMF children than healthy controls. There is a speculation that vitamin D deficiency in FMF patients may be related to inflammation. Further studies with larger number of patients before and after Vitamin D, therapy may be needed. Supplementation with high doses of vitamin D seems appropriate for children with FMF.

2019
Elkoumi, M. A., A. A. Emam, M. A. N. Allah, A. H. Sherif, N. M. Abdelaal, A. Mosabah, M. T. Zakaria, M. M. Soliman, A. Salah, Y. M. Sedky, et al., "Association of ficolin-2 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in Egyptian children and adolescents: a multicenter study.", Lupus, vol. 28, issue 8, pp. 995-1002, 2019. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pediatric-onset SLE (pSLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease. Recently, the ficolin-2 (FCN2) gene has emerged as a potential candidate gene for susceptibility to SLE.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of the FCN2 gene polymorphisms at positions -986 (G/A), -602 (G/A), -4 (A/G) and SNP C/T (rs3124954) located in intron 1, with susceptibility to pSLE in Egyptian children and adolescents.

METHODS: This was a multicenter study of 280 patients diagnosed with pSLE, and 280 well-matched healthy controls. The FCN2 promoter polymorphisms at -986 G/A (rs3124952), -602 G/A (rs3124953), -4 A/G (rs17514136) and SNP C/T (rs3124954) located in intron 1 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction, while serum ficolin-2 levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

RESULTS: The frequencies of the FCN2 genotype and allele at -986 and -602 positions were significantly more represented in patients with pSLE than in controls ( < 0.001). Conversely, the FCN2 genotype and allele at position -4 were more common in patients than in controls ( < 0.001). Moreover, patients carrying the FCN2 genotype in -986 position were more likely to develop lupus nephritis (odds ratio: 2.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-4.78);  = 0.006). The FCN2 genotype at position -4 was also identified as a possible risk factor for lupus nephritis (odds ratio: 3.12 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-7.84);  = 0.024).

CONCLUSION: The FCN2 promoter polymorphisms may contribute to susceptibility to pSLE in Egyptian children and adolescents. Moreover, the FCN2 genotype at position -986 and genotype at position -4 were associated with low serum ficolin-2 levels and may constitute risk factors for lupus nephritis in pSLE.

2020
Elkoumi, M. A., S. H. Abdellatif, F. Y. Mohamed, A. H. Sherif, S. S. A. Elashkar, R. M. Saleh, N. F. Boraey, N. E. M. Abdelaal, N. E. Akeel, A. A. Elhewala, et al., "Ficolin-1 gene (FCN1) -144 C/A polymorphism is associated with adverse outcome of severe pneumonia in the under-five Egyptian children: A multicenter study.", Pediatric pulmonology, vol. 55, issue 5, pp. 1175-1183, 2020. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the foremost cause of child death worldwide. M-ficolin is encoded by the FCN1 gene and represents a novel link between innate and adaptive immunity.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the FCN1 -144 C/A (rs10117466) polymorphism as a potential marker for pneumonia severity and adverse outcome namely complications or mortality in the under-five Egyptian children.

METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter study that included 620 children hospitalized with World Health Organization-defined severe pneumonia and 620 matched healthy control children. Polymorphism rs10117466 of the FCN1 gene promoter was analyzed by PCR-SSP, while serum M-ficolin levels were assessed by ELISA.

RESULTS: The FCN1 A/A genotype and A allele at the -144 position were more frequently observed in patients compared to the control children (43.4% vs 27.6%; odds ratio [OR]: 1.62; [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.18-2.2]; for the A/A genotype) and (60.8% vs 52.5%; OR: 1.4; [95% CI: 1.19-1.65]; for the A allele); P < .01. The FCN1 -144 A/A homozygous patients had significantly higher serum M-ficolin concentrations (mean: 1844 ± 396 ng/mL) compared with those carrying the C/C or C/A genotype (mean: 857 ± 278 and 1073 ± 323 ng/mL, respectively; P = .002). FCN1 -144 A/A genotype was an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in children with severe pneumonia (adjusted OR = 4.85, [95% CI: 2.96-10.25]; P = .01).

CONCLUSION: The FCN1 A/A genotype at the -144 position was associated with high M-ficolin serum levels and possibly contributes to enhanced inflammatory response resulting in the adverse outcome of pneumonia in the under-five Egyptian children.

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