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2022
Salman, A. A. A., M. A. Salman, M. Said, H. Elkassar, M. El Sherbiny, A. Youssef, M. Elbaz, A. M. Elmeligui, M. B. Hassan, M. G. Omar, et al., "Albuminuria as a predictor of mortality in type II diabetic patients after living-donor liver transplantation.", Annals of medicine, vol. 54, issue 1, pp. 2598-2605, 2022. Abstract

PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of morbidity and mortality after liver resection. Albuminuria is associated with a higher risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This study evaluated albuminuria as a predictor of the outcome of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in patients with pre-existing DM.

METHODS: This retrospective study involved 103 type II diabetic patients with end-stage liver disease who received LDLT. Preoperative spot urine albumin: creatinine ratio was used to determine the degree of albuminuria. The primary outcome measure was the impact of urinary albumin excretion on the 3-year mortality rate after LDLT in this diabetic cohort.

RESULTS: Hepatitis C virus infection was the main cause of cirrhosis. Albuminuria was detected in 41 patients (39.8%); 15 had macroalbuminuria, while 26 had microalbuminuria. Patients with microalbuminuria were significantly older than those with macroalbuminuria and normal albumin in urine. After 3 years, twenty-four patients (23.3%) died within 3 years after LT. Myocardial infarction was the leading cause of death (25%). Albuminuria was an independent factor affecting 3-year mortality with an odds ratio of 5.17 (95% CI: 1.86-14.35).

CONCLUSION: Preoperative albuminuria is an independent factor affecting mortality within 3 years after LDLT in type II diabetic patients. Myocardial infarction was the leading cause of death in 25% of cases, followed by hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence, sepsis, and graft failure.KEY MESSAGESDiabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of morbidity and mortality after liver resection.Albuminuria is associated with a higher risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.Preoperative albuminuria is a significant predictor of mortality within 3 years after LDLT in diabetic patients.

Salman, A. A. A., M. A. Salman, M. Said, M. El Sherbiny, H. Elkassar, M. B. Hassan, A. Marwan, M. A. Morad, O. Ashoush, S. Labib, et al., "Improvement of Pancreatic Steatosis and Indices of Insulin Resistance After Metabolic Surgery.", Frontiers in medicine, vol. 9, pp. 894465, 2022. Abstract

PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with fat accumulation in ectopic sites such as the pancreas, the so-called pancreatic steatosis (PS). Bariatric surgery has been shown to be associated with reducing pancreatic fat. This study investigated the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on pancreatic volume and its fat content and glucose homeostasis.

METHODS: The study enrolled 54 patients subjected to LSG. Metabolic variables and pancreatic exocrine function were assessed immediately before surgery and 12 months after. MRI of the abdomen was performed to measure pancreatic fat content and its total volume and visceral adipose tissue (VAT).

RESULTS: Surgery resulted in a significant reduction in body weight and BMI. HbA1c, fasting insulin, C-peptide levels, HOMA-IR, and Hs-CRP levels decreased significantly. Surgery resulted in significant improvement in lipid profile except for HDL-cholesterol and liver function tests. Total VAT volume decreased significantly. Total pancreas volume decreased by a mean of 9.0 cm (95% CI: 6.6-11.3). The median change of pancreatic fat was -26.1% (range: -55.6 to 58.3%). Pancreatic lipase decreased significantly ( < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between the percentage of total weight loss and decrease in pancreatic fat volume ( = 0.295, = 0.030).

CONCLUSION: Weight loss after LSG is associated with a reduction of total VAT volume, total pancreatic volume, and pancreatic fat content. These changes are associated with improved glucose homeostasis, reduced systemic inflammation, and decreased pancreatic lipase secretion.

Salman, M. A., A. Rabiee, A. Salman, A. Elewa, M. Tourky, A. A. Mahmoud, A. Moustafa, H. E. - D. Shaaban, A. A. Ismail, K. Noureldin, et al., "Predictors of type-2 diabetes remission following bariatric surgery after a two-year follow up.", Asian journal of surgery, 2022. Abstract

PURPOSE: Bariatric surgery is evolving as a successful tool for managing morbid obesity and T2DM. This study aimed to identify predictors of diabetes remission after two types of bariatric procedures.

METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 172 patients with morbid obesity associated with T2DM scheduled for bariatric surgery. Two laparoscopic bariatric procedures were done; single anastomosis gastric bypass (SAGB, n = 83) and sleeve gastrectomy (LSG, n = 68). Lipid accumulation product index (LAP) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were used to evaluate lipid profile and insulin sensitivity. Two years after surgery condition of DM was evaluated as complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR), or improvement. The primary outcome measure was predictors of diabetes remission.

RESULTS: Two years after surgery, 151 patients were available for evaluation, where 75 patients (49.7%) achieved CR, while PR was found in 36 (23.8%). CR was significantly associated with younger age, shorter duration of DM (p < 0.001, for both), higher C-peptide and GLP-1 levels (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively), and bypass surgery (p = 0.027). On multivariate analysis, shorter duration of DM, lower BMI, and higher C-peptide levels were the independent factors predicting CR.

CONCLUSION: Complete remission of T2DM can be achieved in nearly half of the patients two years after SG or SAGB. The duration of diabetes and preoperative BMI and C-peptide levels are the independent factors predicting complete remissions.

Salman, M. A., A. Salman, A. Elewa, A. Rabiee, M. Tourky, H. E. - D. Shaaban, M. Issa, A. Abdalla, M. Khattab, Ahmed Refaat, MD, et al., "Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Before and After Bariatric Surgery: a Prospective Study with 2-Year Follow-Up.", Obesity surgery, 2022. Abstract

PURPOSE: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is linked to obesity. Bariatric surgery may be associated with calcium and vitamin D deficiencies leading to SHPT. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of SHPT before and after bariatric surgery.

METHODS: This prospective study assessed the prevalence of SHPT after sleeve gastrectomy (SG, n = 38) compared to one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB, n = 86). All patients were followed up for 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

RESULTS: Of the 124 patients, 71 (57.3%) were females, and 53 (42.7%) were males, with a mean age of 37.5 ± 8.8 years. Before surgery, 23 patients (18.5%) suffered from SHPT, and 40 (32.3%) had vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of SHPT increased to 29.8% after 1 year and 36.3% after 2 years. SHPT was associated with lower levels of vitamin D and calcium and higher reduction of BMD in the hip but not in the spine. After 2 years, SHPT was associated with a significantly lower T-score in the hip. SHPT and vitamin D deficiency were significantly more common in patients subjected to OAGB compared to SG (p = 0.003, and p < 0.001, respectively). There is a strong negative correlation between vitamin D levels and parathormone levels before and after surgery.

CONCLUSION: Prevalence of SHPT is high in obese patients seeking bariatric surgery, especially with lower vitamin D levels. Bariatric surgery increases the prevalence of SHPT up to 2 years. Gastric bypass is associated with a higher risk of developing SHPT compared to SG.

Salman, M. A., A. Salman, U. S. Mohamed, A. M. Hussein, M. A. Ameen, H. S. E. Omar, A. Elewa, A. Hamdy, A. A. - K. Elias, M. Tourky, et al., "Ursodeoxycholic acid for the prevention of gall stones after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective controlled study.", Surgical endoscopy, 2022. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for cholelithiasis. Besides, rapid weight loss after bariatric surgery upsurges the rate of cholelithiasis and acute cholecystitis. This study aimed to compare gallstone development frequency after LSG under ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) prophylaxis.

METHODS: This prospective controlled study included 332 patients scheduled for LSG randomized to receive 500 mg UDCA daily for 12 months (UDCA Group) or no treatment (Control Group). Ultrasonography was done 6 and 12 months after surgery to detect gallstones. Cholecystectomy was done for complicated cases of cholelithiasis.

RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were lost to follow-up, and 3 developed severe adverse effects of UDCA and excluded. Data are presented for 130 patients in the UDCA group and 128 in the Control group. Collectively, 11 patients (8.5%) of the UDCA group and 41 (32.0%) of the Control group developed gall stones during the first postoperative year (p < 0.001). Cholecystectomy was indicated in 3 patients (2.3%) of the UDCA group and 9 (7.0%) of the Control group (p = 0.072). On multivariate analysis, higher BMI, dyslipidemia, and lacking UDCA prophylaxis were the independent factors significantly associated with stone development. Also, stone development was associated with higher weight loss after 6 and 12 months.

CONCLUSION: UDCA 500 mg once daily for 12 months after LSG is effective in reducing gallstone formation at 1 year. UDCA administration reduced the frequency of cholecystectomies from 7 to 2.3%. High BMI and dyslipidemia are the independent preoperative factors significantly associated with stone development.

2021
Salman, M. A., M. G. Qassem, M. S. Aboul-Enein, M. A. Ameen, A. Abdallah, H. Omar, A. M. Hussein, M. S. Tourky, K. Monazea, A. M. Hassan, et al., "Effect of preoperative diet regimen on liver size before laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in morbidly obese patients.", Surgical endoscopy, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Low caloric diet can reduce liver volume; however, there is no consensus regarding preoperative weight reduction before bariatric surgery. This study evaluates the effect of preoperative very-lowcalorie diet (VLCD) in patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).

METHODS: This prospective study included patients scheduled for LSG stratified into two groups, Diet Group (n = 183) who followed a preoperative VLCD regimen for three weeks and underwent assessment of the liver lobes span before and after regimen, and Control Group (n = 138) who underwent sonographic assessment once before surgery and were operated upon without diet. The outcome measures were the impact of preoperative diet on the liver span, intraoperative complications, anthropometric factors affecting the liver span.

RESULTS: Diet regimen resulted in a significant reduction of the right and left lobes. The percentage of the reduction of the left lobe span was significantly higher than that of the right lobe (p < 0.001). Change of the size of the two lobes was correlated positively with weight and body mass index and initial size of both lobes. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the frequency of operative complications.

CONCLUSION: VLCD for three weeks before bariatric surgery effectively reduced liver size. The reduction is more in the left lobe. The changes of both lobes were correlated well with the pre- and post-regimen weight and BMI. It was also positively correlated with the initial size of both lobes.

Salman, A., M. Aon, A. Hussein, M. Salman, M. Tourky, A. Mahmoud, F. Aljarad, M. Elkaseer, H. E. - D. Shaaban, A. Moustafa, et al., "Impact of Hypothyroidism on Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Liver Transplantation.", International journal of general medicine, vol. 14, pp. 5711-5718, 2021. Abstract

Background: This work endeavored to explore the effect of hypothyroidism on mortality in subjects with HCC who underwent living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT).

Methods: This prospective study included 107 patients with HCC subjected to LDLT, divided into hypothyroid group (n=53) and euthyroid group (n=54). The primary objectives were overall and disease-free survival (DFS).

Results: Euthyroid and hypothyroid groups were comparable in all baseline characteristics except the age of patients. Overall survival (OS) of the whole group at 48 months was 68.8%, while the DFS was 60.2%. On univariate analysis, OS was negatively affected by the older age of the patients (p<0.001) or the donor (p<0.001), hypothyroidism (p=0.008), HBV (p=0.029), larger tumor size (p=0.023), and defective Milan criteria (p=0.022). On multivariate analysis, the age of the patients and donors was the independent factor affecting OS. On univariate analysis, DFS was negatively affected by older age of the patients (p < 0.001) or the donor (p=0.005), hypothyroidism (p=0.005), HBV (p=0.019), larger tumor size (p=0.023), and defective Milan criteria (p=0.020). On multivariate analysis, the age of the patients, thyroid status, and Milan criteria were the independent factors affecting DFS.

Conclusion: Hypothyroidism is a risk factor for worse outcomes in HCC patients after liver transplantation.

Salman, A., M. Salman, A. Moustafa, H. E. - D. Shaaban, A. El-Mikkawy, S. Labib, A. Youssef, M. G. Omar, M. Matter, and H. Elkassar, "Impact of Sarcopenia on Two-Year Mortality in Patients with HCV-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Radiofrequency Ablation.", Journal of hepatocellular carcinoma, vol. 8, pp. 313-320, 2021. Abstract

Purpose: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) appears effective for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Evaluation of prognostic factors is imperative for patient selection and improving treatment efficacy. This study aimed to assess sarcopenia as a predictor of the outcome of RFA in patients with HCC.

Methods: This prospective study included all patients with HCC on top of HCV-related cirrhosis who underwent RFA and followed up for a minimum of two years. CT scan was used to determine the skeletal muscle index at the psoas, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, transversus abdominis, external and internal obliques, and rectus abdominis muscles. Cross-sectional areas were calculated to obtain a lumbar skeletal muscle index (L3-SMI).

Results: A total of 97 patients were enrolled in the study. The L3-SMI was 46.2±12.1 cm/m. Older age was the only risk factor associated with sarcopenia (p = 0.001). The overall survival at two years for the whole group was 65.2%. Sarcopenia and MELD score were independent predictors of OS at two years with HR of 7.6 (95% CI: 3.1-18.7) and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0-4.8), respectively. Recurrence-free survival was 84.1% at two years. Recurrence was not affected by all factors, including sarcopenia.

Conclusion: Sarcopenia is a surrogate predictor of overall survival at two years in HCC patients after RFA. Sarcopenia assessment might be an additional prognostic indicator with conventional biomarkers to optimize the selection criteria for receiving RFA for early-stage HCC.

Abdo, M., A. Rabiee, Z. abdellatif, S. A. Alem, and A. Moustafa, "Impact of sustained virological response on metabolic disorders in diabetic chronic hepatitis C virus patients after treatment with generic sofosbuvir and daclatasvir.", European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, vol. 33, issue 12, pp. 1588-1594, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of generic sofosbuvir and daclatasvir (SOF/DCV) treatment on the glycemic state and insulin resistance as well as lipid profiles of those who achieved sustained virological response (SVR) in diabetic chronic hepatitis C virus (CHC) patients.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 114 CHC patients with evidence of type 2 diabetes that were treated with generic SOF/DCV between May 2016 and August 2017. Baseline demographic and laboratory data were recorded. At 12-week post end of therapy (SVR12), glycemic state and insulin resistance as well as lipid profiles were re-evaluated and compared with baseline.

RESULTS: A total of 98 diabetic CHC patients were finally included and were responders. A significant decline in the glycemic state as well as Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) values (P ≤ 0.0001) was observed, but HOMA-S showed a statistically significant increase (P ≤ 0.0001) at SVR12 in comparison to baseline values. Also, a significant increase in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels was observed at SVR12 compared to baseline, but serum triglycerides levels showed a significant decrease. Logistic regression showed that the higher baseline HOMA-IR was a significant predictive variable of a decrease ≥20% of HOMA-IR, while higher baseline HOMA-IR and baseline triglycerides emerged as the only significant predictors of the Δ increase LDL-C level at SVR12.

CONCLUSION: SOF/DCV-based therapy led to an improvement of glycemic state associated with a global worsening of lipid profile. Further studies are strongly warranted to evaluate the cardiovascular balance between amelioration of insulin resistance and negative changes of the lipid profile.

Tourky, M. S., A. A. A. Salman, M. A. Salman, M. M. Abdelfatah, A. E. Taha, H. Hagag, M. Y. S. Youssef, M. S. Arafa, S. A. Khattab, M. M. Borham, et al., "Intraoperative Factors Associated With Early Recipient Death After Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplant.", Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation, vol. 19, issue 8, pp. 817-825, 2021. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Living donor liver transplant is the gold standard therapy for patients with terminal hepatic disorders for whom no alternative therapy is available. The primary aim was to assess different intraoperative factors that may predict early death after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplant. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of small-for-size syndrome on mortality.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective multicenter cohort study was performed on records from 145 adults with cirrhosis who had received a right lobe living donor liver transplant. Patients were divided according to the occurrence of short-term mortality (death within the first month after transplant). The primary intraoperative parameters included graft weight, surgical duration, mean blood pressure, serum lactate and sodium bicarbonate, transfusions, durations of cold and warm ischemia and anhepatic phase, input and output during surgery, and portal venous pressures.

RESULTS: There were statistically significant variations between both cohorts for number of units of packed red blood cells, durations of cold and warm ischemia and anhepatic phase, preclamp and postreperfusion portal venous pressures, average urine output, mean serum lactate, mean blood pressure, and surgical duration (P ⟨ .001). Also, there were significant differences in the number of platelets, units of fresh frozen plasma, and mean sodium bicarbonate (P = .025, .003, and .035, respectively). Of the 25 patients who died within the early postoperative period, 20 had developed small-for-size syndrome (P ⟨ .001).

CONCLUSIONS: A variety of intraoperative risk factors may affect early posttransplant mortality, which suggests the high complexity of living donor liver transplants and the need for well-trained experienced teams to perform these surgeries.

Tourky, M., A. Youssef, M. Salman, T. Abouelregal, M. Tag El-Din, A. Moustafa, A. Taha, A. El-Mikkawy, A. Saadawy, and A. Salman, "Portal venous pressure in non-cirrhotic bilharzial patients undergoing elective splenectomy, can it affect mortality? A prospective study.", Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica, vol. 84, issue 4, pp. 549-556, 2021. Abstract

Background and study aims: To evaluate the impact of intraoperatively measured portal vein pressure (PVP) on mortality in non-cirrhotic bilharzial patients undergoing splenectomy.

Methods: The present study is a prospective study that was conducted in Egypt from April 2014 to April 2018. Adult patients with non-cirrhotic bilharziasis who were scheduled to undergo splenectomy were included. Studied cases were divided into a survival cohort and a non-survival cohort. The main objective was the correlation between the incidence of mortality and intraoperative PVP.

Results: The present work comprised 130 cases with a mean age of 51.8 ± 6.4 years old. The in-hospital mortality rate was 22.3%, with sepsis as a major cause of death (37.9%). In term of the association between preoperative variables and mortality, survivors had statistically significant lower portal vein diameter (13.6 ± 1.8 versus 15.2 ± 1.8mm; p<0.001) and higher portal vein velocity (14.2 ± 1.8 versus 10.4 ± 2.3 cm/sec; p<0.001) than nonsurvivors. The survived patients had significantly lower PVP (13.9 ± 1.1 versus 17.7 ± 2.7; p<0.001). A cut-off value of ≥14.5 mmHg, the PVP yielded a sensitivity of 86.2% and a specificity of 69% for the prediction of mortality. The association analysis showed a statistically significant association between mortality and postoperative liver function parameters.

Conclusions: High intraoperative PVP is linked to early postoperative death in non-cirrhotic cases undergoing splenectomy. Our study showed that PVP > 14.5mmHg was an independent predictor of death and showed good diagnostic performance for the detection of early postoperative mortality.

2019
Elbaz, T., M. Abdo, H. Omar, E. A. Hassan, A. M. Zaghloul, M. Abdel-Samiee, A. Moustafa, A. Qawzae, M. Gamil, and G. Esmat, "Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir with or without ribavirin in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.", Journal of medical virology, vol. 91, issue 2, pp. 272-277, 2019. Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered as a major public health problem that, worldwide, chronically affects 170 million people. Elderly patients are more likely than younger patients to have increased duration of infection, increased rate of disease progression, and subsequently increased incidence of advanced liver disease. Natural history models predicted that the prevalence of HCV infection and its chronic sequelae as well as extrahepatic manifestations will eventually increase through the next decade and will mostly affect those who are greater than 60 years of age. Moreover, polytherapy and polypharmacy are frequent in elderly patients due to associated comorbidities. As advanced age is associated with increasing risk of development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, elderly patients are in special need of safe and effective antiviral therapies. Achievement of sustained viral responses (SVR) is associated with reduced liver-related complications and overall mortality in such patients with the advanced liver disease. With the recent introduction of interferon-free direct-acting antivirals, successful treatment for chronic HCV infection had dramatically improved, with overall cure rates that exceed 90% SVR. In our study, we aimed to study the efficacy and safety of combined sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, with or without ribavirin, in management of chronically infected HCV elderly patients who are more than 60 years old.

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