Palpebral Fissure Changes in the Contralateral Eye in Duane Retraction Syndrome.

Ismail, M., and A. Awadein, "Palpebral Fissure Changes in the Contralateral Eye in Duane Retraction Syndrome.", Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus, vol. 60, issue 3, pp. e22-e25, 2023.


Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder that is characterized by paradoxical lateral rectus muscle innervation of the affected eye by axons meant to innervate the ipsilateral medial rectus muscle, with resultant varying degrees of co-contraction. It is characterized by severe abduction deficiency, variable limitation of adduction, globe retraction with narrowing of the palpebral fissure, and oblique elevation or depression on adduction. A total of 16 patients with unilateral DRS were identified. The mean age was 13 ± 8 years (range: 6 to 28 years). There were 5 males and 11 females. The cohort included 8 patients with DRS type I, 3 patients with DRS type II, 4 patients with DRS type III, and 1 patient with synergistic divergence (DRS type IV). The mean width of the palpebral fissure in primary gaze was 9.95 ± 0.25 mm, increased in abduction to 11.11 ± 1.16 mm, and changed on adduction to 10.03 ± 1.19 mm. The mean reduction in the size of the palpebral fissure on adduction was 11.7 ± 10.2% (range: 0 to 30%). The difference in the palpebral fissure width between adduction and abduction was statistically significant ( = .0018). Of the 16 patients, 8 (50%) showed narrowing of the palpebral fissure of the contralateral eye on adduction compared to abduction of more than 10%. In this case series of unilateral Duane retraction syndrome, there was a common association between widening of the palpebral fissure of the unaffected eye and adduction of the eyes with DRS in DRS types II, III, and IV and DRS type I with upshoot or downshoot. .