Duane-minus (Duane sine retraction and Duane sine limitation): possible incomplete forms of Duane retraction syndrome.

Awadein, A., Shaimaa A Arfeen, P. Chougule, and R. Kekunnaya, "Duane-minus (Duane sine retraction and Duane sine limitation): possible incomplete forms of Duane retraction syndrome.", Eye (London, England), vol. 35, issue 6, pp. 1673-1679, 2021.


PURPOSE: To report ocular motility patterns that mimic, but do not fulfil the full clinical picture of Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) and to describe their clinical features and surgical management.

METHODS: This is a retrospective case series study conducted on patients with DRS, mimicking non-comitant exotropia or esotropia and a face turn. Patients were included only if they lacked either globe retraction on adduction (sine retraction) or limitation of adduction or abduction on ductions (sine limitation not >0.5). Any overshoots or pattern strabismus was recorded. The ocular motility and alignment, details of surgery and their surgical outcomes were analysed.

RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were identified; 13 in the sine retraction and 8 in the sine limitation group. All patients presented with a compensatory face turn. Overshoots were present in 10 (77%) and 7 patients (88%) in the sine retraction and sine limitation groups, respectively. Forced duction test showed tightness of the ipsilateral medial and the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle in esotropic (nā€‰=ā€‰3) and exotropic patients (nā€‰=ā€‰18), respectively. Orthotropia was achieved in 82% of patients following ipsilateral medial or lateral rectus muscle recession.

CONCLUSIONS: There is a subset of patients who present with motility pattern similar to DRS but lack its complete diagnostic criteria. The presence of a face turn, overshoots on adduction or an ipsilateral tightness of the affected muscle should make one consider DRS sine retraction/sine limitation. The patients in our study responded well to lines of management similar to those of DRS.