Convergence Excess Esotropia: Review.

Citation:
Awadein, A., J. Gouda, H. Elhilali, and K. Arnoldi, "Convergence Excess Esotropia: Review.", Journal of binocular vision and ocular motility, vol. 73, issue 4, pp. 131-159, 2023.

Abstract:

Convergence excess esotropia is a condition characterized by an esotropia which is greater for near fixation than for distance fixation after full hypermetropic correction with a single focus lens. Convergence excess esotropia may be classified according to the AC/A ratio into two subtypes: accommodative type and non-accommodative type. Bifocal glasses are a suitable option for the management of patients with a high AC/A ratio and for the hypoaccommodative type. However, the overall success rate with bifocals is still low even in selected patients. Surgery is often eventually needed for most patients with convergence excess esotropia. Surgical options that do not directly address the variability of the angle of deviation entail medial rectus recession with the target angle based on the distance deviation, the near deviation, an augmented formula based on an intermediate angle, or on a prism adaptation test. Surgical options that directly address the variability of the angle include partial myotomy, medial rectus muscle posterior scleral fixation with or without recession, pulley fixation, slanting recession, Y-splitting, or combined recession-resection of the medial rectus muscle. The review article summarizes the surgical outcome of these strategies and suggests an algorithm for the management of patients with convergence excess esotropia.