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Leow, J. J., J. W. F. Catto, J. A. Efstathiou, J. L. Gore, A. A. Hussein, S. F. Shariat, A. B. Smith, A. Z. Weizer, M. Wirth, J. A. Witjes, et al., "Quality Indicators for Bladder Cancer Services: A Collaborative Review", Eur Urol, 2019/09/30, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 43-59, Jul, 2020. AbstractWebsite

CONTEXT: There is a lack of accepted consensus on what should constitute appropriate quality-of-care indicators for bladder cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the optimal management of bladder cancer and propose quality indicators (QIs). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review was performed to identify literature on current optimal management and potential quality indicators for both non-muscle-invasive (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive (MIBC) bladder cancer. A panel of experts was convened to select a recommended list of QIs. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: For NMIBC, preoperative QIs include tobacco cessation counselling and appropriate imaging before initial transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). Intraoperative QIs include administration of antibiotics, proper safe conduct of TURBT using a checklist, and performing restaging TURBT with biopsy of the prostatic urethra in appropriate cases. Postoperative QIs include appropriate receipt of perioperative adjuvant therapy, risk-stratified surveillance, and appropriate decision to change therapy when indicated (eg, bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG] unresponsive). For MIBC, preoperative QIs include multidisciplinary care, selection for candidates for continent urinary diversion, receipt of neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy, time to commencing radical treatment, consideration of trimodal therapy as a bladder-sparing alternative in select patients, preoperative counselling with stoma marking, surgical volume of radical cystectomy, and enhanced recovery after surgery protocols. Intraoperative QIs include adequacy of lymphadenectomy, blood loss, and operative time. Postoperative QIs include prospective standardised monitoring of morbidity and mortality, negative surgical margins for pT2 disease, appropriate surveillance after primary treatment, and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy in appropriate cases. Participation in clinical trials was highlighted as an important component indicating high quality of care. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a set of QIs for both NMIBC and MIBC based on established clinical guidelines and the available literature. Although there is currently a lack of level 1 evidence for the benefit of implementing these QIs, we believe that the measurement of these QIs could aid in the improvement and benchmarking of optimal care for bladder cancer. PATIENT SUMMARY: After a systematic review of existing guidelines and literature, a panel of experts has recommended a set of quality indicators that can help providers and patients measure and strive towards optimal outcomes for bladder cancer care.

Lone, Z., A. A. Hussein, Z. Jing, A. S. Elsayed, N. A. Aldhaam, K. Sniadecki, and K. A. Guru, "Optimizing the Financial Burden of the Approach to Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy", J Endourol, 2020/01/25, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 456-460, Apr, 2020. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: The robot-assisted approach to radical prostatectomy (RARP) has been adopted worldwide as an acceptable alternative to open prostatectomy owing to improved visualization and dexterity for surgeons, with improved recovery and convalescence for patients. However, the associated cost of installation of robot as well as running costs may hamper its utilization. We sought to investigate and identify the drivers of cost at our institution and implement changes that could reduce costs. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the annual cost data of all RARPs performed by a single surgeon between April 1, 2017 and March 31, 2018. A cost analysis was performed investigating the variable costs associated with RARP: anesthesia related, operative time, and medical supplies. We then prospectively implemented a cost reduction plan that included reducing the number of robotic instruments used per surgery, surgical supplies, and changing the type of trocars. We also investigated whether these changes impacted cost as well as operative outcomes. Results: Forty retrospective procedures were compared with 32 prospective procedures after implementation of cost reduction plan. There were no differences in clinical characteristics. Cost savings per case were $705 for variable costs (95% CI $662, $748, p < 0.01): $36 for anesthesia related (95% CI $5, $67, p = 0.03), $198 for operative time (95% CI $145, $251, p < 0.01), and $471 for medical supplies (95% CI $438, $504, p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in operative time or estimated blood loss between the two groups. Conclusion: Cost reduction plan can reduce total cost associated with RARP without compromising patient safety or operating room efficiency.

Ahmed, Y., A. A. Hussein, P. R. May, B. Ahmad, A. Khan, J. Benkowski, A. Durrani, S. Khan, J. Kozlowski, M. Saar, et al., "Quality of surgical care can impact survival in patients with bladder cancer after robot-assisted radical cystectomy: results from the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium", African Journal of Urology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 22, 2020/06/18. AbstractWebsite

Although pathological factors remain the main determinate of survival for patients with bladder cancer, quality of surgical care is crucial for satisfactory outcomes. Using a validated quality score, we investigated the impact of surgical factors on the overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with locally advanced and organ-confined disease (OCD). Retrospective review of IRCC database includes 2460 patients from 29 institutions across 11 countries. The final cohort included 1343 patients who underwent RARCs between 2005 and 2016. Patients with locally advanced disease (LAD) (> pT2 and/or N +) were compared with OCD (≤ pT2/N0). Validated Quality Cystectomy Score (QCS) based on four sets of quality metrics was used to compare surgical performance. Kaplan–Meier method was used to compute RFS, CSS and OS rates. Multivariable stepwise logistic regression was used to evaluate variables associated with RFS, DSS and OS.

Wei, L., A. A. Hussein, Y. Ma, G. Azabdaftari, Y. Ahmed, L. P. Wong, Q. Hu, W. Luo, V. N. Cranwell, B. L. Bunch, et al., "Accurate Quantification of Residual Cancer Cells in Pelvic Washing Reveals Association with Cancer Recurrence Following Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy.", The Journal of urology, 2019 Feb 05. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer recurrence following cystectomy remains a significant cause of bladder cancer-specific mortality. Residual cancer cells (RCCs) contribute to cancer recurrence due either to tumor spillage or undetectable pre-existing micrometastatic tumor clones. We sought to detect and quantify RCCs in pelvic washing using ultra-deep targeted sequencing (UTS) and compare the levels of RCCs with clinical variables and cancer recurrence.

METHODS: 17 patients underwent robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) with primary tumor specimen available. All tumors had negative surgical margins. Pelvic washes and blood were collected intra-operatively: before RARC, after RARC, after pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), and in the suction fluid collected during the procedure. A two-step sequencing, including whole-exome sequencing (WES) followed by UTS (>50,000X), was used to quantify RCCs in each sample. Eight patients were excluded due to sample quality issues. The final analysis cohort included nine patients. RCC level was quantified for each sample as the relative cancer cell fraction (RCCF), and compared between different time points. The peak RCCF (pRCCF) of each patient was correlated with clinical and pathological variables.

RESULTS: RCCs were detected in approximately half of the pelvic washing specimens during or after RARC, but not before it. Higher levels of RCCs were associated with aggressive variant histology and cancer recurrence. Verifying the feasibility of using RCCs as a novel biomarker for recurrence requires larger cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS: Detection of RCCs in intra-operative peritoneal washes of bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy may represent a robust biomarker of tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential.

Baghdadi, A., A. A. Hussein, Y. Ahmed, L. A. Cavuoto, and K. A. Guru, "A computer vision technique for automated assessment of surgical performance using surgeons' console-feed videos.", International journal of computer assisted radiology and surgery, 2018 Nov 20. Abstract

PURPOSE: To develop and validate an automated assessment of surgical performance (AASP) system for objective and computerized assessment of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) as an integral part of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) using console-feed videos recorded during live surgery.

METHODS: Video recordings of 20 PLNDs were included. The quality of lymph node clearance was assessed based on the features derived from the computer vision process which include: the number and cleared area of the vessels/nerve (N-Vs); image median color map; and mean entropy (measures the level of disorganization) in the video frame. The automated scores were compared to the validated pelvic lymphadenectomy appropriateness and completion evaluation (PLACE) scoring rated by a panel of expert surgeons. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare automated scores versus PLACE scores.

RESULTS: Fourteen procedures were used to develop the AASP algorithm. A logistic regression model was trained and validated using the aforementioned features with 30% holdout cross-validation. The model was tested on the remaining six procedures, and the accuracy of predicting the expert-based PLACE scores was 83.3%.

CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first automated surgical skill assessment tool that provides an objective evaluation of surgical performance with high accuracy compared to expert surgeons' assessment that can be extended to any endoscopic or robotic video-enabled surgical procedure.

Hussein, A. A., K. J. Sexton, P. R. May, M. V. Meng, A. Hosseini, D. D. Eun, S. Daneshmand, B. H. Bochner, J. O. Peabody, R. Abaza, et al., "Development and validation of surgical training tool: cystectomy assessment and surgical evaluation (CASE) for robot-assisted radical cystectomy for men.", Surgical endoscopy, vol. 32, issue 11, pp. 4458-4464, 2018 Nov. Abstract

BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop a structured scoring tool: cystectomy assessment and surgical evaluation (CASE) that objectively measures and quantifies performance during robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) for men.

METHODS: A multinational 10-surgeon expert panel collaborated towards development and validation of CASE. The critical steps of RARC in men were deconstructed into nine key domains, each assessed by five anchors. Content validation was done utilizing the Delphi methodology. Each anchor was assessed in terms of context, score concordance, and clarity. The content validity index (CVI) was calculated for each aspect. A CVI ≥ 0.75 represented consensus, and this statement was removed from the next round. This process was repeated until consensus was achieved for all statements. CASE was used to assess de-identified videos of RARC to determine reliability and construct validity. Linearly weighted percent agreement was used to assess inter-rater reliability (IRR). A logit model for odds ratio (OR) was used to assess construct validation.

RESULTS: The expert panel reached consensus on CASE after four rounds. The final eight domains of the CASE included: pelvic lymph node dissection, development of the peri-ureteral space, lateral pelvic space, anterior rectal space, control of the vascular pedicle, anterior vesical space, control of the dorsal venous complex, and apical dissection. IRR > 0.6 was achieved for all eight domains. Experts outperformed trainees across all domains.

CONCLUSION: We developed and validated a reliable structured, procedure-specific tool for objective evaluation of surgical performance during RARC. CASE may help differentiate novice from expert performances.

Whittum, M., A. A. Hussein, Y. E. Ahmed, H. Khan, C. Krasowski, N. B. Huben, P. R. May, T. Terakawa, Q. Li, and K. A. Guru, "Gynecological organ involvement at robot-assisted radical cystectomy in females: Is anterior exenteration necessary?", Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada, 2018 May 14. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate patient and disease variables associated with gynecological organ invasion in females with bladder cancer at the time of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC).

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of female patients who underwent robot-assisted anterior pelvic exenteration (RAAE) between 2005 and 2016. Patients were divided into two groups: those with gynecological organ involvement at RAAE and those without. Data were reviewed for perioperative and pathological outcomes. Kaplan-Meier method was used to depict survival outcomes. Multivariable stepwise regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of gynecological organ involvement.

RESULTS: A total of 118 female patients were identified; 17 (14%) showed evidence of gynecological organ invasion at RAAE. Patients with gynecological organ invasion had more lymphovascular invasion at transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) (82% vs. 46%; p=0.006), trigonal tumours at TURBT (59% vs. 18%; p=0.001), multifocal disease (65% vs. 33%; p=0.01), pN+ (71% vs. 22%; p<0.001), positive surgical margins (24% vs. 4%; p=0.02), and they less commonly demonstrated pure urothelial carcinoma at TURBT (18% vs. 66%; p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, significant predictors of gynecological organ invasion were pN positive disease (odds ratio [OR] 6.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64-25.51; p=0.008), trigonal tumour location (OR 5.72; 95% CI 1.39-23.61; p=0.02), and presence of variant histology (OR18.52; 95% CI 3.32-103.4; p=0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with trigonal tumours, variant histology, and nodal involvement are more likely to have gynecological organs invasion at RAAE. This information may help improve counselling of patients and better identify candidates for gynecological organ-sparing cystectomy.

Hussein, A. A., P. R. May, Z. Jing, Y. E. Ahmed, C. J. Wijburg, A. E. Canda, P. Dasgupta, M. Shamim Khan, M. Menon, J. O. Peabody, et al., "Outcomes of Intracorporeal Urinary Diversion after Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy: Results from the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium.", The Journal of urology, vol. 199, issue 5, pp. 1302-1311, 2018 May. Abstract

PURPOSE: This study aimed to provide an update and compare perioperative outcomes and complications of intracorporeal and extracorporeal urinary diversion following robot-assisted radical cystectomy using data from the multi-institutional, prospectively maintained International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium database.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 2,125 patients from a total of 26 institutions. Intracorporeal urinary diversion was compared with extracorporeal urinary diversion. Multivariate logistic regression models using stepwise variable selection were fit to evaluate preoperative, operative and postoperative predictors of intracorporeal urinary diversion, operative time, high grade complications and 90-day hospital readmissions after robot-assisted radical cystectomy.

RESULTS: In our cohort 1,094 patients (51%) underwent intracorporeal urinary diversion. These patients demonstrated shorter operative time (357 vs 400 minutes), less blood loss (300 vs 350 ml) and fewer blood transfusions (4% vs 19%, all p <0.001). They experienced more high grade complications (13% vs 10%, p = 0.02). Intracorporeal urinary diversion use increased from 9% of all urinary diversions in 2005 to 97% in 2015. Complications after this procedure decreased significantly with time (p <0.001). On multivariable analysis higher annual cystectomy volume (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, p <0.002), year of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (2013-2016 OR 68, 95% CI 44-105, p <0.001) and American Society of Anesthesiologists® score less than 3 (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.38-2.22, p <0.001) were associated with undergoing intracorporeal urinary diversion. The procedure was associated with a shorter operative time of 27 minutes (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: The use of intracorporeal urinary diversion has increased in the last decade. A higher annual institutional volume of robot-assisted radical cystectomy was associated with intracorporeal urinary diversion as well as with shorter operative time. Although intracorporeal urinary diversion was associated with higher grade complications than extracorporeal urinary diversion, they decreased with time.

Ahmed, Y. E., A. A. Hussein, J. Kozlowski, and K. A. Guru, "Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy in Men: Technique of Spaces.", Journal of endourology, vol. 32, issue S1, pp. S44-S48, 2018 May. Abstract

The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in utilization of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). RARC has been shown to offer some perioperative benefits in terms of blood loss, transfusion rates, hospital stay, and recovery when compared with its open counterpart without jeopardizing oncologic outcomes. In this article, we review the indications, perioperative care, and describe the "Technique of Spaces" of RARC employed at our institution, and highlight the key steps for male RARC.

Tiferes, J., A. A. Hussein, A. Bisantz, J. D. Higginbotham, M. Sharif, J. Kozlowski, B. Ahmad, R. O'Hara, N. Wawrzyniak, and K. Guru, "Are gestures worth a thousand words? Verbal and nonverbal communication during robot-assisted surgery.", Applied ergonomics, 2018 Mar 07. Abstract

Communication breakdowns in the operating room (OR) have been linked to errors during surgery. Robot-assisted surgery (RAS), a new surgical technology, can lead to new challenges in communication owing to the remote location of the surgeon away from the patient and bedside assistants. Nevertheless, few studies have studied communication strategies during RAS. In this study, 11 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies were recorded and the interaction events between the surgeon and two bedside surgical team members were categorized by modality (verbal/nonverbal), topic, and pair (sender and receiver). Both verbal and nonverbal modalities were used by all pairs. The percentage of nonverbal interactions differed significantly by pair: 66% for the Surgeon-Physician Assistant, 50% for the Physician Assistant-Scrub Nurse, and 25% for the Surgeon-Scrub Nurse, indicating different communication strategies across pairs. In addition, there was a significant dependence between topic and the percentages of verbal and nonverbal events for all pairs. Strategies to improve team communication during RAS should take into account the use of verbal and nonverbal communication means and the variation in interaction strategies based on the topic of communication.

Hussein, A. A., Y. E. Ahmed, P. May, T. Ali, B. Ahmad, S. Raheem, K. Stone, A. Hasasnah, O. Rana, A. Cole, et al., "Natural History and Predictors of Parastomal Hernia after Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion.", The Journal of urology, vol. 199, issue 3, pp. 766-773, 2018 Mar. Abstract

PURPOSE: We investigated the prevalence of and variables associated with parastomal hernia and its outcomes after robot-assisted radical cystectomy and ileal conduit creation for bladder cancer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy at our institution. Parastomal hernia was defined as the protrusion of abdominal contents through the stomal defect in the abdominal wall on cross-sectional imaging. Parastomal hernia was further described in terms of patient and hernia characteristics, symptoms, management and outcomes. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine time to parastomal hernia and time to surgery. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was done to evaluate variables associated with parastomal hernia.

RESULTS: A total of 383 patients underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy and ileal conduit creation. Of the patients 75 (20%) had parastomal hernia, which was symptomatic in 23 (31%), and 11 (15%) underwent treatment. Median time to parastomal hernia was 13 months (IQR 9-22). Parastomal hernia developed in 9%, 23% and 32% of cases at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. Patients with parastomal hernia had a significantly higher body mass index (30 vs 28 kg/m, p = 0.02), longer overall operative time (357 vs 340 minutes, p = 0.01) and greater blood loss (325 vs 250 ml, p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis operative time (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.21-3.90, p <0.001), a fascial defect 30 mm or greater (OR 5.23, 95% CI 2.32-11.8, p <0.001) and a lower postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.21-3.90, p = 0.01) were significantly associated with parastomal hernia.

CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms develop in approximately a third of patients with parastomal hernia and 15% will require surgery. The risk of parastomal hernia plateaued after postoperative year 3. Longer operative time, a larger fascial defect and lower postoperative kidney function were associated with parastomal hernia.

Khan, H., J. D. Kozlowski, A. A. Hussein, M. Sharif, Y. Ahmed, P. May, Y. Hammond, K. Stone, B. Ahmad, A. Cole, et al., "Use of Robotic Anastomosis Competency Evaluation (RACE) for assessment of surgical competency during urethrovesical anastomosis.", Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada, 2018 Jul 24. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate the Robotic Anastomosis Competency Evaluation (RACE), a validated tool that objectively quantifies surgical skills specifically for urethrovesical anastomosis (UVA), as a tool to track progress of trainees, and to determine the predictive value of RACE.

METHODS: UVAs performed by trainees at our institution were evaluated using RACE over a period of two years. Trainees were supervised by an experienced robotic surgeon. Outcomes included trainee-related variables (RACE score, proportion of UVA performed by trainee, and suturing speed), and clinical outcomes (total UVA duration, postoperative urinary continence, and UVA-related complications). Significance was determined using linear regression analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 51 UVAs performed by six trainees were evaluated. Trainee RACE scores (19.8 to 22.3; p=0.01) and trainee proportion of UVA (67% to 80%; p=0.003) improved significantly over time. Trainee suture speed was significantly associated with RACE score (mean speed range 0.54-0.74 sutures/minute; p=0.03). Neither urinary continence at six weeks nor six months was significantly associated with RACE score (p=0.17 and p=0.15, respectively), and only one UVA-related postoperative complication was reported.

CONCLUSIONS: Trainee RACE scores improved and proportion of UVA performed by trainees increased over time. RACE can be used as an objective measure of surgical performance during training. Strict mentor supervision allowed safe training without compromising patient outcomes.

Terakawa, T., A. A. Hussein, Y. Bando, K. A. Guru, J. Furukawa, K. Shigemura, K. Harada, N. Hinata, Y. Nakano, and M. Fujisawa, "Presurgical pazopanib for renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena caval thrombus: a single-institution study.", Anti-cancer drugs, vol. 29, issue 6, pp. 565-571, 2018 Jul. Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical benefit of presurgical therapy with pazopanib in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with a tumor thrombus extending to a high level in the vena cava. A retrospective review was performed for seven consecutive patients with RCC and tumor thrombus involving the vena cava above the hepatic vein (level 3-4, Mayo Clinic classification) treated with pazopanib without initial cytoreductive nephrectomy at our institution. The effect of pazopanib was assessed in terms of the primary site response, thrombus diameter, and height (before and after treatment) on computed tomography or MRI. The tumor thrombus level before the induction of pazopanib was 3 in one patient and 4 in the remaining six patients. After pazopanib, shrinkage of the primary site and thrombus diameter and length were observed in all patients except one (with a rhabdoid tumor). The mean decreases of primary tumor diameter, tumor thrombus diameter, and length were 14, 9, and 31 mm, respectively. The tumor thrombus level decreased in three (43%) patients and remained stable in the remaining patient. Our findings suggest that presurgical treatment with pazopanib may shrink the tumor thrombus and decrease the surgical invasiveness in RCC patients with a high-level tumor thrombus.

Shafiei, S. B., A. A. Hussein, S. F. Muldoon, and K. A. Guru, "Functional Brain States Measure Mentor-Trainee Trust during Robot-Assisted Surgery.", Scientific reports, vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 3667, 2018 Feb 26. Abstract

Mutual trust is important in surgical teams, especially in robot-assisted surgery (RAS) where interaction with robot-assisted interface increases the complexity of relationships within the surgical team. However, evaluation of trust between surgeons is challenging and generally based on subjective measures. Mentor-Trainee trust was defined as assessment of mentor on trainee's performance quality and approving trainee's ability to continue performing the surgery. Here, we proposed a novel method of objectively assessing mentor-trainee trust during RAS based on patterns of brain activity of surgical mentor observing trainees. We monitored the EEG activity of a mentor surgeon while he observed procedures performed by surgical trainees and quantified the mentor's brain activity using functional and cognitive brain state features. We used methods from machine learning classification to identity key features that distinguish trustworthiness from concerning performances. Results showed that during simple surgical task, functional brain features are sufficient to classify trust. While, during more complex tasks, the addition of cognitive features could provide additional accuracy, but functional brain state features drive classification performance. These results indicate that functional brain network interactions hold information that may help objective trainee specific mentorship and aid in laying the foundation of automation in the human-robot shared control environment during RAS.

Hussein, A. A., and K. A. Guru, "Editorial Comment.", The Journal of urology, vol. 199, issue 2, pp. 368-369, 2018 Feb. Abstract
Guru, K. A., and A. A. Hussein, "Mental imagery: 'You can observe a lot by watching!'", BJU international, vol. 122, issue 6, pp. 920-921, 2018 Dec. Abstract
Huben, N. B., A. A. Hussein, P. R. May, M. Whittum, C. Krasowski, Y. E. Ahmed, Z. Jing, H. Khan, H. L. Kim, T. Schwaab, et al., "Development of a Patient-Based Model for Estimating Operative Times for Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy.", Journal of endourology, vol. 32, issue 8, pp. 730-736, 2018 Aug. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To develop a methodology for predicting operative times for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) using preoperative patient, disease, procedural, and surgeon variables to facilitate operating room (OR) scheduling.

METHODS: The model included preoperative metrics: body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists score, clinical stage, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk, prostate weight, nerve-sparing status, extent and laterality of lymph node dissection, and operating surgeon (six surgeons were included in the study). A binary decision tree was fit using a conditional inference tree method to predict operative times. The variables most associated with operative time were determined using permutation tests. Data were split at the value of the variable that results in the largest difference in mean for surgical time across the split. This process was repeated recursively on the resultant data.

RESULTS: A total of 1709 RARPs were included. The variable most strongly associated with operative time was the surgeon (surgeons 2 and 4-102 minutes shorter than surgeons 1, 3, 5, and 6, p < 0.001). Among surgeons 2 and 4, BMI had the strongest association with surgical time (p < 0.001). Among patients operated by surgeons 1, 3, 5, and 6, RARP time was again most strongly associated with the surgeon performing RARP. Surgeons 1, 3, and 6 were on average 76 minutes faster than surgeon 5 (p < 0.001). The regression tree output in the form of box plots showed operative time median and ranges according to patient, disease, procedural, and surgeon metrics.

CONCLUSION: We developed a methodology that can predict operative times for RARP based on patient, disease and surgeon variables. This methodology can be utilized for quality control, facilitate OR scheduling, and maximize OR efficiency.

Hussein, A. A., A. I. Shoukry, F. Fadel, H. A. - R. Morsi, H. A. Hussein, M. Sheba, N. El-Khateeb, W. Abou-El Ela, M. El-Sheemy, K. Daw, et al., "Outcome of pediatric renal transplantation in urological versus non-urological causes of end stage renal disease: Does it matter?", Journal of pediatric urology, vol. 14, issue 2, pp. 166.e1-166.e7, 2018 Apr. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Causes for end stage renal disease (ESRD) in children can be categorized into urological causes or non-urological causes. We sought to compare the outcomes of urological and non-urological causes of ESRD in children.

METHODS: Patients were divided into two groups: urological causes of ESRD versus non-urological causes of ESRD. All patients and donors had at least 6 months of follow-up. The main outcomes included the effect on complications and renal function. Comparisons were carried out using the chi-square test or the Student t-test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to define the effect of different variables on the outcome of renal transplantation (Table).

RESULTS: Our study included 123 patients, 91 males. The mean age was 9 years and mean follow up was 46 months. Two-thirds of the patients had non-urological causes of ESRD. Overall survival was 100%, and only one patient needed a graft nephrectomy 3 months after the transplant. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 117 mL/min, and did not differ significantly between the two groups (p = 0.13). Multivariable regression showed that female gender (OR 8.7, 95% CI 2.9-26, p = 0 0.0001) was associated with better renal function, while having a urological cause of ESRD (OR 0.28, CI 0.08-0.98, p = 0 0.05) was associated with worse renal function. Non-urological causes of ESRD were significantly less likely to develop complications following renal transplantation (OR 0.28, CI 0.09-0.89, p = 0 0.03).

CONCLUSION: Female patients with non-urological causes of ESRD are more likely to have better long-term renal functions, and less liable to develop complications following renal transplant.

Raheem, S., Y. E. Ahmed, A. A. Hussein, A. Johnson, L. Cavuoto, P. May, A. Cole, D. Wang, B. Ahmad, A. Hasasneh, et al., "Variability and interpretation of communication taxonomy during robot-assisted surgery: do we all speak the same language?", BJU international, vol. 122, issue 1, pp. 99-105, 2018 07. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate and analyse the different ways surgeons communicate with bedside assistants during robot-assisted surgery (RAS).

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed video and audio recordings of 26 RAS procedures (23 prostatectomies and three cystectomies). Three cameras and eight lapel microphones were used to record the operating theatre environment. We identified five common tasks and categorized them into 'specific', 'non-specific' and 'unclear' categories. We also determined the frequency, time to execute the task, inconveniences and acknowledgements associated with each category. The most efficient category was the one that took the shortest duration to accomplish and was associated with the fewest inconveniences.

RESULTS: A total of 1 000 requests were made by three surgeons for six bedside assistants by three surgeons. The five identified tasks were: instrument change; clipping; suction; irrigation; and retraction. For instrument change, non-specific requests were the most frequent compared with the other categories (77% vs 18% vs 5%; P < 0.001). For suction, specific requests were the most frequently used of the three categories (73% vs 27% vs 0%; P < 0.001) and this task was associated with the fewest inconveniences (38% vs 62%; P = 0.01). For clipping, irrigation and retraction, both specific and non-specific requests were similar in terms of their frequency, action time and inconveniences. Comparing complete vs incomplete requests, incomplete requests had significantly shorter median action time (5 vs 8 s; P < 0.001) but did not significantly differ in terms of inconveniences and acknowledgement.

CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a detailed analysis of communication during RAS. It lays a foundation for standardized taxonomy to improve communication, surgical efficiency and patient safety.

Sexton, K., A. Johnson, A. Gotsch, A. A. Hussein, L. Cavuoto, and K. A. Guru, "Anticipation, teamwork and cognitive load: chasing efficiency during robot-assisted surgery.", BMJ quality & safety, vol. 27, issue 2, pp. 148-154, 2018 02. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Robot-assisted surgery (RAS) has changed the traditional operating room (OR), occupying more space with equipment and isolating console surgeons away from the patients and their team. We aimed to evaluate how anticipation of surgical steps and familiarity between team members impacted efficiency.

METHODS: We analysed recordings (video and audio) of 12 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. Any requests between surgeon and the team members were documented and classified by personnel, equipment type, mode of communication, level of inconvenience in fulfilling the request and anticipation. Surgical team members completed questionnaires assessing team familiarity and cognitive load (National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Task Load Index). Predictors of team efficiency were assessed using Pearson correlation and stepwise linear regression.

RESULTS: 1330 requests were documented, of which 413 (31%) were anticipated. Anticipation correlated negatively with operative time, resulting in overall 8% reduction of OR time. Team familiarity negatively correlated with inconveniences. Anticipation ratio, per cent of requests that were non-verbal and total request duration were significantly correlated with the console surgeons' cognitive load (r=0.77, p=0.006; r=0.63, p=0.04; and r=0.70, p=0.02, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Anticipation and active engagement by the surgical team resulted in shorter operative time, and higher familiarity scores were associated with fewer inconveniences. Less anticipation and non-verbal requests were also associated with lower cognitive load for the console surgeon. Training efforts to increase anticipation and team familiarity can improve team efficiency during RAS.

Elsheemy, M. S., W. Ghoneima, W. Aboulela, K. Daw, A. M. Shouman, A. I. Shoukry, S. Soaida, D. M. Salah, H. Bazaraa, F. I. Fadel, et al., "Risk factors for urological complications following living donor renal transplantation in children.", Pediatric transplantation, vol. 22, issue 1, 2018 02. Abstract

The aim of this study was to detect possible risk factors for UC and UTI following pediatric renal Tx and effect of these complications on outcome. One hundred and eight children who underwent living donor Tx between 2009 and 2015 were retrospectively included. Extraperitoneal approach was used with stented tunneled extravesical procedure. Mean recipient age was 9.89 ± 3.46 years while mean weight was 25.22 ± 10.43 kg. Seventy-three (67.6%) recipients were boys while 92 (85.2%) were related to donors. Urological causes of ESRD were present in 33 (30.6%) recipients (14 [13%] posterior urethral valve, 16 [14.8%] VUR, and 3 [2.8%] neurogenic bladder). Augmentation ileocystoplasty was performed in 9 (8.3%) patients. Mean follow-up was 39.3 ± 17.33 months. UC were detected in 10 (9.3%) children (leakage 4 [3.7%], obstruction 3 [2.8%], and VUR 3 [2.8%]) while UTIs were reported in 40 (37%) children. After logistic regression analysis, UC were significantly higher in children with cystoplasty (44.4% vs 6.1%; P = .001). UTIs were significantly higher in girls (51.4% vs 30.1%; P = .001) and in children with urological causes of ESRD (51.5% vs 30.7%; P = .049). UC and UTI were not significantly associated with increased graft loss or mortality. UC were significantly higher in children with cystoplasty while UTIs were significantly higher in girls and children with urological causes of ESRD. Presence of UC did not affect the rate of graft loss or mortality due to its early detection and proper management.

Shafiei, S. B., A. A. Hussein, and K. A. Guru, "Dynamic changes of brain functional states during surgical skill acquisition.", PloS one, vol. 13, issue 10, pp. e0204836, 2018. Abstract

There is lack of a standardized measure of technical proficiency and skill acquisition for robot-assisted surgery (RAS). Learning surgical skills, in addition to the interaction with the machine and the new surgical environment adds to the complexity of the learning process. Moreover, evaluation of surgeon performance in operating room is required to optimize patient safety. In this study, we investigated the dynamic changes of RAS trainee's brain functional states by practice. We also developed brain functional state measurements to find the relationship between RAS skill acquisition (especially human-machine interaction skills) and reconfiguration of brain functional states. This relationship may help in providing trainees with helpful, structured feedback regarding skills requiring improvement and will help in tailoring training activities.

Cavuoto, L. A., A. A. Hussein, V. Vasan, Y. Ahmed, A. Durrani, S. Khan, A. Cole, D. Wang, J. Kozlowski, B. Ahmad, et al., "Improving Teamwork: Evaluating Workload of Surgical Team During Robot-assisted Surgery.", Urology, vol. 107, pp. 120-125, 2017 Sep. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cognitive and physical workload experienced by each operating room team member for different types of urologic procedures.

METHODS: Surgeons, anesthesiologists, surgical fellows, bedside assistants, circulating nurses, and scrub nurses completed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index questionnaire for various urologic robot-assisted surgery procedures. A total of 338 questionnaires from 55 unique individuals were collected. Workload differences by role, type of procedure, and surgery duration were analyzed using analysis of variance for each of the 6 domains of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index. The effects of trainees' participation on their perceived workload and the workloads of the lead surgeon and bedside assistant were analyzed with correlation.

RESULTS: The role of the surgical team was significant for all the scales of workload, and there was a main effect type of surgery on temporal demand and frustration. Frustration was higher for prostatectomy in comparison to cystectomy for the trainee surgeon. On the other hand, it was lower for the anesthesiologist, bedside assistant, and the circulating nurse. There was no effect of procedural complexity on workload. Regardless of surgical complexity, the trainees performed approximately 40% of the procedure without significantly impacting their perceived workload.

CONCLUSION: This study provides an analysis of variations and contributors to workload parameters and serves as a platform to optimize team members' workload during robot-assisted surgery.

Ahmed, Y. E., A. A. Hussein, P. R. May, B. Ahmad, T. Ali, A. Durrani, S. Khan, P. Kumar, and K. A. Guru, "Natural History, Predictors and Management of Ureteroenteric Strictures after Robot Assisted Radical Cystectomy.", The Journal of urology, vol. 198, issue 3, pp. 567-574, 2017 Sep. Abstract

PURPOSE: Ureteroenteric strictures represent the most common complication requiring reoperation after radical cystectomy. We investigated the prevalence, outcomes, predictors and management of ureteroenteric strictures.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our quality assurance, robot assisted radical cystectomy database to identify patients in whom ureteroenteric strictures developed. Data were reviewed for demographics, perioperative outcomes and ureteroenteric stricture characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate time to ureteroenteric stricture and multivariable stepwise regression was done to evaluate predictors of ureteroenteric strictures.

RESULTS: Ureteroenteric strictures developed in 12%, 16% and 19% of 51 patients (13%) at 1, 3 and 5 years after robot assisted radical cystectomy, respectively. All patients were initially treated endoscopically or percutaneously, including 57% treated only endoscopically or percutaneously and 43% who required surgery, which was open repair in 6 and robot assisted repair in 16. At a median followup of 23 months 33 patients (65%) were free of disease, including 13 after endoscopic or percutaneous treatment, 15 after robot assisted repair and 5 after open revision. Open and robot assisted revisions showed comparable perioperative outcomes. On multivariable analysis the predictors of ureteroenteric anastomotic strictures were body mass index (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13, p = 0.02), intracorporeal urinary diversion (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.41-7.61, p = 0.006), length of the right resected ureter (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.88, p = 0.004), estimated glomerular filtration rate 30 days after assisted radical cystectomy (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.98, p = 0.03), urinary tract infection (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.31-5.49, p = 0.007) and leakage (OR 3.85, 95% CI 1.05-14.1, p = 0.04). Male gender (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04-0.96, p = 0.04) and higher body mass index (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72-0.996, p = 0.05) were associated with lower odds of successful endoscopic management.

CONCLUSIONS: Multiple modifiable factors were associated with ureteroenteric anastomotic strictures following robot assisted radical cystectomy. Surgical revision can provide a definitive management with comparable outcomes for open and robotic repairs.