Leow, J. J., J. W. F. Catto, J. A. Efstathiou, J. L. Gore, A. A. Hussein, S. F. Shariat, A. B. Smith, A. Z. Weizer, M. Wirth, J. A. Witjes, et al., "Quality Indicators for Bladder Cancer Services: A Collaborative Review", Eur Urol, 2019/09/30, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 43-59, Jul, 2020. AbstractWebsite

CONTEXT: There is a lack of accepted consensus on what should constitute appropriate quality-of-care indicators for bladder cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the optimal management of bladder cancer and propose quality indicators (QIs). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review was performed to identify literature on current optimal management and potential quality indicators for both non-muscle-invasive (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive (MIBC) bladder cancer. A panel of experts was convened to select a recommended list of QIs. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: For NMIBC, preoperative QIs include tobacco cessation counselling and appropriate imaging before initial transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). Intraoperative QIs include administration of antibiotics, proper safe conduct of TURBT using a checklist, and performing restaging TURBT with biopsy of the prostatic urethra in appropriate cases. Postoperative QIs include appropriate receipt of perioperative adjuvant therapy, risk-stratified surveillance, and appropriate decision to change therapy when indicated (eg, bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG] unresponsive). For MIBC, preoperative QIs include multidisciplinary care, selection for candidates for continent urinary diversion, receipt of neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy, time to commencing radical treatment, consideration of trimodal therapy as a bladder-sparing alternative in select patients, preoperative counselling with stoma marking, surgical volume of radical cystectomy, and enhanced recovery after surgery protocols. Intraoperative QIs include adequacy of lymphadenectomy, blood loss, and operative time. Postoperative QIs include prospective standardised monitoring of morbidity and mortality, negative surgical margins for pT2 disease, appropriate surveillance after primary treatment, and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy in appropriate cases. Participation in clinical trials was highlighted as an important component indicating high quality of care. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a set of QIs for both NMIBC and MIBC based on established clinical guidelines and the available literature. Although there is currently a lack of level 1 evidence for the benefit of implementing these QIs, we believe that the measurement of these QIs could aid in the improvement and benchmarking of optimal care for bladder cancer. PATIENT SUMMARY: After a systematic review of existing guidelines and literature, a panel of experts has recommended a set of quality indicators that can help providers and patients measure and strive towards optimal outcomes for bladder cancer care.

Lone, Z., A. A. Hussein, Z. Jing, A. S. Elsayed, N. A. Aldhaam, K. Sniadecki, and K. A. Guru, "Optimizing the Financial Burden of the Approach to Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy", J Endourol, 2020/01/25, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 456-460, Apr, 2020. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: The robot-assisted approach to radical prostatectomy (RARP) has been adopted worldwide as an acceptable alternative to open prostatectomy owing to improved visualization and dexterity for surgeons, with improved recovery and convalescence for patients. However, the associated cost of installation of robot as well as running costs may hamper its utilization. We sought to investigate and identify the drivers of cost at our institution and implement changes that could reduce costs. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the annual cost data of all RARPs performed by a single surgeon between April 1, 2017 and March 31, 2018. A cost analysis was performed investigating the variable costs associated with RARP: anesthesia related, operative time, and medical supplies. We then prospectively implemented a cost reduction plan that included reducing the number of robotic instruments used per surgery, surgical supplies, and changing the type of trocars. We also investigated whether these changes impacted cost as well as operative outcomes. Results: Forty retrospective procedures were compared with 32 prospective procedures after implementation of cost reduction plan. There were no differences in clinical characteristics. Cost savings per case were $705 for variable costs (95% CI $662, $748, p < 0.01): $36 for anesthesia related (95% CI $5, $67, p = 0.03), $198 for operative time (95% CI $145, $251, p < 0.01), and $471 for medical supplies (95% CI $438, $504, p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in operative time or estimated blood loss between the two groups. Conclusion: Cost reduction plan can reduce total cost associated with RARP without compromising patient safety or operating room efficiency.

Ahmed, Y., A. A. Hussein, P. R. May, B. Ahmad, A. Khan, J. Benkowski, A. Durrani, S. Khan, J. Kozlowski, M. Saar, et al., "Quality of surgical care can impact survival in patients with bladder cancer after robot-assisted radical cystectomy: results from the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium", African Journal of Urology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 22, 2020/06/18. AbstractWebsite

Although pathological factors remain the main determinate of survival for patients with bladder cancer, quality of surgical care is crucial for satisfactory outcomes. Using a validated quality score, we investigated the impact of surgical factors on the overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with locally advanced and organ-confined disease (OCD). Retrospective review of IRCC database includes 2460 patients from 29 institutions across 11 countries. The final cohort included 1343 patients who underwent RARCs between 2005 and 2016. Patients with locally advanced disease (LAD) (> pT2 and/or N +) were compared with OCD (≤ pT2/N0). Validated Quality Cystectomy Score (QCS) based on four sets of quality metrics was used to compare surgical performance. Kaplan–Meier method was used to compute RFS, CSS and OS rates. Multivariable stepwise logistic regression was used to evaluate variables associated with RFS, DSS and OS.

Hussein, A. A., P. R. May, Y. E. Ahmed, M. Saar, C. J. Wijburg, L. Richstone, A. Wagner, T. Wilson, B. Yuh, J. P. Redorta, et al., "Development of a patient and institutional-based model for estimation of operative times for robot-assisted radical cystectomy: results from the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium.", BJU international, vol. 120, issue 5, pp. 695-701, 2017 11. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To design a methodology to predict operative times for robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) based on variation in institutional, patient, and disease characteristics to help in operating room scheduling and quality control.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The model included preoperative variables and therefore can be used for prediction of surgical times: institutional volume, age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, history of prior surgery and radiation, clinical stage, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, type, technique of diversion, and the extent of lymph node dissection. A conditional inference tree method was used to fit a binary decision tree predicting operative time. Permutation tests were performed to determine the variables having the strongest association with surgical time. The data were split at the value of this variable resulting in the largest difference in means for the surgical time across the split. This process was repeated recursively on the resultant data sets until the permutation tests showed no significant association with operative time.

RESULTS: In all, 2 134 procedures were included. The variable most strongly associated with surgical time was type of diversion, with ileal conduits being 70 min shorter (P < 0.001). Amongst patients who received neobladders, the type of lymph node dissection was also strongly associated with surgical time. Amongst ileal conduit patients, institutional surgeon volume (>66 RARCs) was important, with those with a higher volume being 55 min shorter (P < 0.001). The regression tree output was in the form of box plots that show the median and ranges of surgical times according to the patient, disease, and institutional characteristics.

CONCLUSION: We developed a method to estimate operative times for RARC based on patient, disease, and institutional metrics that can help operating room scheduling for RARC.

Sexton, K., A. Johnson, A. Gotsch, A. A. Hussein, L. Cavuoto, and K. A. Guru, "Anticipation, teamwork and cognitive load: chasing efficiency during robot-assisted surgery.", BMJ quality & safety, vol. 27, issue 2, pp. 148-154, 2018 02. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Robot-assisted surgery (RAS) has changed the traditional operating room (OR), occupying more space with equipment and isolating console surgeons away from the patients and their team. We aimed to evaluate how anticipation of surgical steps and familiarity between team members impacted efficiency.

METHODS: We analysed recordings (video and audio) of 12 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. Any requests between surgeon and the team members were documented and classified by personnel, equipment type, mode of communication, level of inconvenience in fulfilling the request and anticipation. Surgical team members completed questionnaires assessing team familiarity and cognitive load (National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Task Load Index). Predictors of team efficiency were assessed using Pearson correlation and stepwise linear regression.

RESULTS: 1330 requests were documented, of which 413 (31%) were anticipated. Anticipation correlated negatively with operative time, resulting in overall 8% reduction of OR time. Team familiarity negatively correlated with inconveniences. Anticipation ratio, per cent of requests that were non-verbal and total request duration were significantly correlated with the console surgeons' cognitive load (r=0.77, p=0.006; r=0.63, p=0.04; and r=0.70, p=0.02, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Anticipation and active engagement by the surgical team resulted in shorter operative time, and higher familiarity scores were associated with fewer inconveniences. Less anticipation and non-verbal requests were also associated with lower cognitive load for the console surgeon. Training efforts to increase anticipation and team familiarity can improve team efficiency during RAS.

Hussein, A. A., Y. E. Ahmed, P. May, T. Ali, B. Ahmad, S. Raheem, K. Stone, A. Hasasnah, O. Rana, A. Cole, et al., "Natural History and Predictors of Parastomal Hernia after Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion.", The Journal of urology, vol. 199, issue 3, pp. 766-773, 2018 Mar. Abstract

PURPOSE: We investigated the prevalence of and variables associated with parastomal hernia and its outcomes after robot-assisted radical cystectomy and ileal conduit creation for bladder cancer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy at our institution. Parastomal hernia was defined as the protrusion of abdominal contents through the stomal defect in the abdominal wall on cross-sectional imaging. Parastomal hernia was further described in terms of patient and hernia characteristics, symptoms, management and outcomes. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine time to parastomal hernia and time to surgery. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was done to evaluate variables associated with parastomal hernia.

RESULTS: A total of 383 patients underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy and ileal conduit creation. Of the patients 75 (20%) had parastomal hernia, which was symptomatic in 23 (31%), and 11 (15%) underwent treatment. Median time to parastomal hernia was 13 months (IQR 9-22). Parastomal hernia developed in 9%, 23% and 32% of cases at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. Patients with parastomal hernia had a significantly higher body mass index (30 vs 28 kg/m, p = 0.02), longer overall operative time (357 vs 340 minutes, p = 0.01) and greater blood loss (325 vs 250 ml, p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis operative time (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.21-3.90, p <0.001), a fascial defect 30 mm or greater (OR 5.23, 95% CI 2.32-11.8, p <0.001) and a lower postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.21-3.90, p = 0.01) were significantly associated with parastomal hernia.

CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms develop in approximately a third of patients with parastomal hernia and 15% will require surgery. The risk of parastomal hernia plateaued after postoperative year 3. Longer operative time, a larger fascial defect and lower postoperative kidney function were associated with parastomal hernia.

Elsheemy, M. S., W. Ghoneima, W. Aboulela, K. Daw, A. M. Shouman, A. I. Shoukry, S. Soaida, D. M. Salah, H. Bazaraa, F. I. Fadel, et al., "Risk factors for urological complications following living donor renal transplantation in children.", Pediatric transplantation, vol. 22, issue 1, 2018 02. Abstract

The aim of this study was to detect possible risk factors for UC and UTI following pediatric renal Tx and effect of these complications on outcome. One hundred and eight children who underwent living donor Tx between 2009 and 2015 were retrospectively included. Extraperitoneal approach was used with stented tunneled extravesical procedure. Mean recipient age was 9.89 ± 3.46 years while mean weight was 25.22 ± 10.43 kg. Seventy-three (67.6%) recipients were boys while 92 (85.2%) were related to donors. Urological causes of ESRD were present in 33 (30.6%) recipients (14 [13%] posterior urethral valve, 16 [14.8%] VUR, and 3 [2.8%] neurogenic bladder). Augmentation ileocystoplasty was performed in 9 (8.3%) patients. Mean follow-up was 39.3 ± 17.33 months. UC were detected in 10 (9.3%) children (leakage 4 [3.7%], obstruction 3 [2.8%], and VUR 3 [2.8%]) while UTIs were reported in 40 (37%) children. After logistic regression analysis, UC were significantly higher in children with cystoplasty (44.4% vs 6.1%; P = .001). UTIs were significantly higher in girls (51.4% vs 30.1%; P = .001) and in children with urological causes of ESRD (51.5% vs 30.7%; P = .049). UC and UTI were not significantly associated with increased graft loss or mortality. UC were significantly higher in children with cystoplasty while UTIs were significantly higher in girls and children with urological causes of ESRD. Presence of UC did not affect the rate of graft loss or mortality due to its early detection and proper management.

Hussein, A. A., and K. A. Guru, "Editorial Comment.", The Journal of urology, vol. 199, issue 2, pp. 368-369, 2018 Feb. Abstract
Hussein, A. A., A. I. Shoukry, F. Fadel, H. A. - R. Morsi, H. A. Hussein, M. Sheba, N. El-Khateeb, W. Abou-El Ela, M. El-Sheemy, K. Daw, et al., "Outcome of pediatric renal transplantation in urological versus non-urological causes of end stage renal disease: Does it matter?", Journal of pediatric urology, vol. 14, issue 2, pp. 166.e1-166.e7, 2018 Apr. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Causes for end stage renal disease (ESRD) in children can be categorized into urological causes or non-urological causes. We sought to compare the outcomes of urological and non-urological causes of ESRD in children.

METHODS: Patients were divided into two groups: urological causes of ESRD versus non-urological causes of ESRD. All patients and donors had at least 6 months of follow-up. The main outcomes included the effect on complications and renal function. Comparisons were carried out using the chi-square test or the Student t-test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to define the effect of different variables on the outcome of renal transplantation (Table).

RESULTS: Our study included 123 patients, 91 males. The mean age was 9 years and mean follow up was 46 months. Two-thirds of the patients had non-urological causes of ESRD. Overall survival was 100%, and only one patient needed a graft nephrectomy 3 months after the transplant. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 117 mL/min, and did not differ significantly between the two groups (p = 0.13). Multivariable regression showed that female gender (OR 8.7, 95% CI 2.9-26, p = 0 0.0001) was associated with better renal function, while having a urological cause of ESRD (OR 0.28, CI 0.08-0.98, p = 0 0.05) was associated with worse renal function. Non-urological causes of ESRD were significantly less likely to develop complications following renal transplantation (OR 0.28, CI 0.09-0.89, p = 0 0.03).

CONCLUSION: Female patients with non-urological causes of ESRD are more likely to have better long-term renal functions, and less liable to develop complications following renal transplant.

Hussein, A. A., P. R. May, Z. Jing, Y. E. Ahmed, C. J. Wijburg, A. E. Canda, P. Dasgupta, M. Shamim Khan, M. Menon, J. O. Peabody, et al., "Outcomes of Intracorporeal Urinary Diversion after Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy: Results from the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium.", The Journal of urology, vol. 199, issue 5, pp. 1302-1311, 2018 May. Abstract

PURPOSE: This study aimed to provide an update and compare perioperative outcomes and complications of intracorporeal and extracorporeal urinary diversion following robot-assisted radical cystectomy using data from the multi-institutional, prospectively maintained International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium database.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 2,125 patients from a total of 26 institutions. Intracorporeal urinary diversion was compared with extracorporeal urinary diversion. Multivariate logistic regression models using stepwise variable selection were fit to evaluate preoperative, operative and postoperative predictors of intracorporeal urinary diversion, operative time, high grade complications and 90-day hospital readmissions after robot-assisted radical cystectomy.

RESULTS: In our cohort 1,094 patients (51%) underwent intracorporeal urinary diversion. These patients demonstrated shorter operative time (357 vs 400 minutes), less blood loss (300 vs 350 ml) and fewer blood transfusions (4% vs 19%, all p <0.001). They experienced more high grade complications (13% vs 10%, p = 0.02). Intracorporeal urinary diversion use increased from 9% of all urinary diversions in 2005 to 97% in 2015. Complications after this procedure decreased significantly with time (p <0.001). On multivariable analysis higher annual cystectomy volume (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, p <0.002), year of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (2013-2016 OR 68, 95% CI 44-105, p <0.001) and American Society of Anesthesiologists® score less than 3 (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.38-2.22, p <0.001) were associated with undergoing intracorporeal urinary diversion. The procedure was associated with a shorter operative time of 27 minutes (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: The use of intracorporeal urinary diversion has increased in the last decade. A higher annual institutional volume of robot-assisted radical cystectomy was associated with intracorporeal urinary diversion as well as with shorter operative time. Although intracorporeal urinary diversion was associated with higher grade complications than extracorporeal urinary diversion, they decreased with time.