Brij® integrated bilosomes for improving the transdermal delivery of niflumic acid for effective treatment of osteoarthritis: In vitro characterization, ex vivo permeability assessment, and in vivo study

Citation:
Abdelbari, M. A., A. A. El-Gazar, A. A. Abdelbary, A. H. Elshafeey, and S. Mosallam, "Brij® integrated bilosomes for improving the transdermal delivery of niflumic acid for effective treatment of osteoarthritis: In vitro characterization, ex vivo permeability assessment, and in vivo study", International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 640, 2023.

Abstract:

Bilosomes are innovative vesicular carriers containing bile salt with a non-ionic surfactant. Being highly flexible, bilosomes can squeeze themselves through the skin carrying the drug to the action site and improving its skin penetration. The objective of this research was to encapsulate niflumic acid (NA), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug into Brij® integrated bilosomes (BIBs) for effective treatment of osteoarthritis through transdermal delivery. BIBs were formulated using 100 mg of Span 20 with different amounts of sodium cholate (NaC), sodium taurocholate (NaTC), or sodium glycocholate (NaGC) as bile salt, with the addition of 5 mg of Brij-93 or Brij-35. BIBs were prepared utilizing ethanol injection method with the application of (31 × 22) complete factorial design using Design-Expert® software. The optimal BIBs formulation determined was (B5) which contains 5 mg of NaTC used as bile salt and 5 mg of Brij-93. B5 exhibited entrapment efficiency% = 95.21 ± 0.00%, particle size = 373.05 ± 0.07 nm, polydispersity index = 0.27 ± 0.01, and zeta potential = –32.00 ± 0.00 mV. It also had a high elasticity with a spherical shape. B5 gel displayed a sustained release profile with a significantly 2.3 folds’ higher drug permeation percent across rat skin than that permeated from NA gel. Moreover, in vivo anti-osteoarthritic and histopathological studies assured the efficacy and safety of B5 gel and its superiority over NA gel. Generally, the outcomes confirmed the great efficacy of NA loaded BIBs for the topical treatment of osteoarthritis. © 2023 Elsevier B.V.

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