Elshafeey, A. H., and R. M. El-Dahmy, A novel oral medicated jelly for enhancement of etilefrine hydrochloride bioavailability: In vitro characterization and pharmacokinetic evaluation in healthy human volunteers, , 2022. AbstractWebsite

Etilefrine hydrochloride (ET) is a water-soluble drug that is used to treat hypotension, but it has a bitter taste and low bioavailability due to undergoing the first-pass effect. Thus, this study aimed to develop and evaluate oral medicated jelly (OMJ) containing ET that could offer an easily taken palatable dosage form with higher bioavailability. OMJ is a novel palatable drug delivery system that can easily be taken by pediatric and geriatric patients, as well as those with dysphagia. Moreover, OMJs offer rapid disintegration in saliva and rapid drug absorption through the buccal mucosa, avoiding the first-pass effect and increasing the drug bioavailability. Natural polymers such as pectin, guar gum, xanthan gum, tragacanth gum, and sodium alginate were used as jellifying agents, with the addition of calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent, to prepare OMJs using the heat and congealing method. The prepared OMJs were investigated by testing their viscosity, in vitro release, and texture analysis of firmness, consistency, stickiness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness using a texture analyzer. A full factorial design (21 × 51) was utilized to select the optimized OMJ. The optimized OMJ (J2), containing 4 % pectin, had a 7563 ± 55 cps viscosity, 8.32 ± 0.21 N firmness, 5.72 ± 0.18 µJ consistency, 1.30 ± 0.04 mJ stickiness, and 96.02 ± 3.74 % ET dissolved after 10 min. ET release was significantly increased (greater than4-fold) from the optimized OMJ compared with the market tablet. Moreover, the obtained results clarified the stability and the acceptable palatability of the optimized OMJ. The clinical investigation on healthy human volunteers revealed that the optimized OMJ (J2) had significantly higher Cmax (1.7 folds) when compared with the market tablet with a relative bioavailability of 154.55 %. Therefore, OMJs can be considered as promising, palatable, and easily swallowed dosage form that could enhance the bioavailability of drugs undergoing the first-pass effect.

Elshafeey, A. H., and R. M. El-Dahmy, "Formulation and Development of Oral Fast-Dissolving Films Loaded with Nanosuspension to Augment Paroxetine Bioavailability: In Vitro Characterization, Ex Vivo Permeation, and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation in Healthy Human Volunteers", Pharmaceutics, vol. 13, no. 11, 2021. AbstractWebsite

Paroxetine (PX) is the most potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor utilized in depression and anxiety treatment. It has drawbacks, such as having a very bitter taste, low water solubility, and undergoing extensive first pass metabolism, leading to poor oral bioavailability (<50%). This work aimed to develop and optimize palatable oral fast-dissolving films (OFDFs) loaded with a paroxetine nanosuspension. A PX nanosuspension was prepared to increase the PX solubility and permeability via the buccal mucosa. The OFDFs could increase PX bioavailability due to their rapid dissolution in saliva, without needing water, and the rapid absorption of the loaded drug through the buccal mucosa, thus decreasing the PX metabolism in the liver. OFDFs also offer better convenience to patients with mental illness, as well as pediatric, elderly, and developmentally disabled patients. The PX nanosuspension was characterized by particle size, poly dispersity index, and zeta potential. Twelve OFDFs were formulated using a solvent casting technique. A 22 × 31 full factorial design was applied to choose the optimized OFDF, utilizing Design-Expert® software (Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). The optimized OFDF (F1) had a 3.89 ± 0.19 Mpa tensile strength, 53.08 ± 1.28% elongation%, 8.12 ± 0.13 MPa Young’s modulus, 17.09 ± 1.30 s disintegration time, and 96.02 ± 3.46% PX dissolved after 10 min. This optimized OFDF was subjected to in vitro dissolution, ex vivo permeation, stability, and palatability studies. The permeation study, using chicken buccal pouch, revealed increased drug permeation from the optimized OFDF; with a more than three-fold increase in permeation over the pure drug. The relative bioavailability of the optimized OFDF in comparison with the market tablet was estimated clinically in healthy human volunteers and was found to be 178.43%. These findings confirmed the success of the OFDFs loaded with PX nanosuspension for increasing PX bioavailability.

Joseph Naguib, M., A. Moustafa Kamel, A. Thabet Negmeldin, A. H. Elshafeey, and I. Elsayed, "Molecular docking and statistical optimization of taurocholate-stabilized galactose anchored bilosomes for the enhancement of sofosbuvir absorption and hepatic relative targeting efficiency", Drug Delivery, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 996-1009, 2020. AbstractWebsite
Elsayed, I., R. M. El-Dahmy, A. H. Elshafeey, N. A. A. El Gawad, and O. N. El Gazayerly, "Tripling the bioavailability of rosuvastatin calcium through development and optimization of an in-situ forming nanovesicular system", Pharmaceutics, vol. 11, no. 6, 2019. AbstractWebsite
Said, M., I. Elsayed, A. A. Aboelwafa, and A. H. Elshafeey, "A novel concept of overcoming the skin barrier using augmented liquid nanocrystals: Box-Behnken optimization, ex vivo and in vivo evaluation", Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 170, pp. 258-265, 2018. AbstractWebsite
Yousry, C., M. M. Amin, A. H. Elshafeey, and O. N. El Gazayerly, "Ultrahigh verapamil-loaded controlled release polymeric beads using superamphiphobic substrate: D-optimal statistical design, in vitro and in vivo performance", Drug Delivery, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 1448-1460, 2018. AbstractWebsite
Elshafeey, A. H., and E. I. Sami, "Preparation and in-vivo pharmacokinetic study of a novel extended release compression coated tablets of fenoterol hydrobromide", AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1016-1024, 2008. AbstractWebsite
Abdelbari, M. A., S. S. El-Mancy, A. H. Elshafeey, and A. A. Abdelbary, "Implementing spanlastics for improving the ocular delivery of clotrimazole: In vitro characterization, ex vivo permeability, microbiological assessment and in vivo safety study", International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 16, 2021. Abstract

{Purpose: The aim of this study was to encapsulate clotrimazole (CLT), an antifungal drug with poor water solubility characteristics, into spanlastics (SPs) to provide a controlled ocular delivery of the drug. Methods: Span 60 was used in the formulation of SPs with Tween 80, Pluronic F127, or Kolliphor RH40 as an edge activator (EA). The presence of EA offers more elasticity to the membrane of the vesicles which is expected to increase the corneal permeation of CLT. SPs were prepared using ethanol injection method applying 32 complete factorial design to study the effect of formulation variables (ratio of Span 60: EA (w/w) and type of EA) on SPs characteristics (encapsulation efficiency percent (EE%), average vesicle size (VS), polydis-persity index (PDI) and zeta potential (ZP)). Design-Expert software was used to determine the optimum formulation for further investigations. Results: The optimum formulation determined was S1, which contains 20 mg of Tween 80 used as an EA and 80 mg of Span 60. S1 exhibited EE% = 66.54 ± 7.57%

Mosallam, S., N. M. Sheta, A. H. Elshafeey, and A. A. Abdelbary, "Fabrication of Highly Deformable Bilosomes for Enhancing the Topical Delivery of Terconazole: In Vitro Characterization, Microbiological Evaluation, and In Vivo Skin Deposition Study", AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 74, February, 2021. AbstractWebsite

The current study aimed to load terconazole (TCZ), an antifungal agent with low permeability characteristics, into highly deformable bilosomes (HBs) for augmenting its topical delivery. HBs contain edge activator in addition to the constituents of traditional bilosomes (Span 60, cholesterol, and bile salts). More elasticity is provided to the membrane of vesicles by the existence of edge activator and is expected to increase the topical permeation of TCZ. HBs were formulated using ethanol injection technique based on 2<sup>4</sup> complete factorial design to inspect the impact of various formulation variables (bile salt type and amount, edge activator type, and sonication time) on HBs characteristics (entrapment efficiency percent (EE%), particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential (ZP)). The optimum formula (HB14) was decided based on Design-Expert<sup>®</sup> software and was utilized for further explorations. HB14 exhibited EE% = 84.25 ± 0.49%, PS = 400.10 ± 1.69 nm, PDI = 0.23 ± 0.01, and ZP = - 56.20 ± 0.00 mV. HB14 showed spherical vesicles with higher deformability index (9.94 ± 1.91 g) compared to traditional bilosomal formula (3.49 ± 0.49 g). Furthermore, HB14 showed superior inhibition of Candida albicans growth relative to TCZ suspension using XTT (2,3-bis(2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) reduction assay. Moreover, in vivo skin deposition studies revealed superior TCZ deposition inside the skin from HB14 compared to traditional bilosomal formula and TCZ suspension. Moreover, histopathological examination in rats assured the safety of HB14 for topical use. Concisely, the obtained outcomes confirmed the pronounced efficacy of HBs for topical delivery of TCZ.

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