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Matt, U., J. Schmiedel, A. Fawzy, J. Trauth, K. Schmidt, K. Vogel, S. Herold, T. Karrasch, C. Imirzalioglu, and T. Eisenberg, "Infection in a Young Immunocompetent Male Caused by Streptobacillus felis, a Putative Zoonotic Microorganism Transmitted by Cats.", Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, vol. 72, issue 10, pp. 1826-1829, 2021. Abstract

Rat bite fever (RBF) is predominantly caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis. We report a human infection with Streptobacillus felis. Clinical presentation was consistent with RBF, but serologic testing was negative for S moniliformis. Eventually, S felis-specific sequences were detected in skin lesions of the patient and in the oropharynx of local cats.

Michel, V., C. Ulber, D. Pöhle, B. Köpke, K. Engel, U. Kaim, A. Fawzy, S. Funk, J. Fornefett, C. G. Baums, et al., "Clinical infection in house rats (Rattus rattus) caused by Streptobacillus notomytis.", Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, vol. 111, issue 10, pp. 1955-1966, 2018 Oct. Abstract

Rat bite fever is an under-reported, under-diagnosed emerging zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Besides Spirillum minus, Streptobacillus moniliformis is the major causative microorganism although it usually colonises rats without any clinical signs. A group of house rats (Rattus rattus) kept in a zoo exhibition for educational purposes suffered from neurological signs including disorientation, torticollis, stall walking, ataxia and death. Gross pathological and histo-pathological examinations of the investigated rats revealed high-grade otitis interna et media, from which Streptobacillus notomytis was isolated in pure culture or as the predominant microorganism. This case series underlines a previously expressed hypothesis that R. rattus might be naturally colonised with S. notomytis, whereas the traditional rat bite fever organism, S. moniliformis, might be restricted to the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). However, the general paucity of Streptobacillus isolates, especially from their respective animal hosts, precludes definitive proof of these host tropisms. This is the first report of S. notomytis detection outside Asia and Australia and the first evidence for its role as a facultative pathogen in house rats.

Mühldorfer, K., J. Rau, A. Fawzy, C. Heydel, S. P. Glaeser, M. van der Linden, P. Kutzer, T. Knauf-Witzens, M. Hanczaruk, A. S. Eckert, et al., "Streptococcus castoreus, an uncommon group A Streptococcus in beavers.", Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, vol. 112, issue 11, pp. 1663-1673, 2019. Abstract

Streptococcus castoreus is a rarely encountered beta-haemolytic group A Streptococcus with high tropism for the beaver as host. Based on 27 field isolates under study, evidence strongly suggests that S. castoreus behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in beavers. Although it belongs to the resident mucosal microbiota, this Streptococcus species is associated with purulent lesions in diseased animals. With few exceptions, isolates proved to be highly similar in a panel of phenotypic (including biochemistry, resistance pattern, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy) and classic molecular (16S rRNA and sodA gene) analyses, and thus did not show any specific pattern according to host species or spatio-temporal origin. Conversely, S. castoreus isolates were differentiated into a multitude of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis 'pulsotypes' that did not seem to reflect true epidemiologic lineages. In contrast, single reactions of genomic fingerprinting using BOX-, (GTG)- and RAPD-PCRs revealed at least subclusters with respect to host species, geographic origin or year, and confirmed the co-colonization of individuals with more than one isolate. In addition to isolates from free-ranging Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), this study includes S. castoreus from captive North American beavers (Castor canadensis) for the first time.