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Eisenberg, T., K. Mühldorfer, M. Erhard, A. Fawzy, S. Kehm, C. Ewers, T. Semmler, J. Blom, A. Lipski, J. Rau, et al., "sp. nov., sp. nov. and sp. nov., three novel species of the genus, and emended description of .", International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, vol. 72, issue 7, 2022. Abstract

Seven genotypically distinct strains assigned to the genus were isolated in different laboratories from several animal sources. Strain D17_0559-3-2-1 and three further strains were isolated from samples of duck, pig and goose. The strains had >99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other and to strain VA92-K48 and two further strains isolated from samples of medical leech and a turtle. The closest related type strains to the seven strains were those of (96.74 %) and (95.93 %). Average nucleotide identity, amino acid identity and DNA-DNA hybridization results showed that the strains represented two separate novel species. One further phylogenetically distinct strain (165301687) was isolated from fox urine. The strain had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of (95.67 %), followed by (95.58 %) and (94.22 %) and represented a further novel species. Chemotaxonomic and physiological data of the novel strains were assessed, but failed to unequivocally differentiate the novel species from existing members of the genus. MALDI-TOF MS data proved the discrimination of at least strain 165301687 from all currently described species. Based on the presented phylogenomic and physiological data, we propose three novel species, sp. nov. with strain D17_0559-3-2-1 (=DSM 111258= CIP 111884=CCM 9044) as type strain, sp. nov. with strain VA92-K48 (=DSM 106012=LMG 30351=CIP 111492) as type strain and sp. nov. with strain 165301687 (=DSM 106013= LMG 30352= CIP 111494) as type strain.

Eisenberg, T., S. Gronow, J. Falgenhauer, C. Imirzalioglu, K. Mühldorfer, J. Rau, J. Blom, A. Fawzy, S. P. Glaeser, and P. Kämpfer, "sp. nov. () as a replacement of the species '' Harwich . 2012 and '' Shukla . 2002, and emended description of Collins . 2001.", International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, vol. 71, issue 3, 2019. Abstract

Members of the genus are fastidious bacteria that predominantly colonise the female genital tract and are significantly associated with reproductive disorders and genital and neonatal disease. From a taxonomical perspective, the genus only comprises the species . Numerous reports on a second species, '', have been published, but the name has never been validated. The same is the case for '', which was previously shown to belong to the same species as ''. We studied strains DSM 16631 and DSM 16630, which have been identified and deposited as '' previously. At the time of isolation, these strains were found to be most closely related to, but clearly different from, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. Both strains proved to be almost indistinguishable from '' based on molecular, morphological and physiological traits. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain DSM 16631 was assigned to the genus with a sequence similarity of 95.47 % to CCUG 41628, followed by type strains of (93.03 %), (92.68 %) and (91.97 %) as the next closely related members of the . The novel species was also clearly differentiated from other related taxa by core genome phylogeny, average nucleotide and amino acid identities, DNA-DNA hybridization and MALDI-TOF MS. With respect to chemotaxonomic and physiological patterns, strains DSM 16631 and DSM 16630 were again highly similar to . On the basis of these data, we propose the novel species sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 16631 (=CCUG 52977=CCUG 52889A) and a second strain DSM 16630 (=CCUG 52976=CCUG 52888) that were both isolated from bloodstream infections in women with puerperal fever in France. The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 28.4 mol% and the genome size is 1.28 Mbp. Based on the observed extremely high similarities of genotypic and phenotypic traits of the novel proposed species to those reported for '', we recommend using this new name in all further publications on this taxon.

Eisenberg, T., A. Fawzy, U. Kaim, A. Nesseler, K. Riße, I. Völker, S. Hechinger, N. Schauerte, C. Geiger, T. Knauf-Witzens, et al., "Chronic wasting associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae in three ex situ breeding facilities for tropical frogs", Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, vol. 113, issue 12, pp. 2139 - 2154, 2020. Abstract

A number of different Chlamydia spp. have been detected in the class Amphibia with C. pneumoniae being the predominant species involved. Chlamydiae have been linked to mass mortality events, thereby representing significant pathogens that deserve attention with respect to worldwide amphibian decline. We here present six cases of chlamydiosis and asymptomatic chlamydial infections in different frog species from three ex situ amphibian conservation facilities. Clinical signs predominantly characterised by regurgitation, chronic wasting, lethargy and suspended breeding were associated with C. pneumoniae infection. Despite various treatment regimens, it was not possible to clear infections. However, intra vitam diagnostics succeeded from skin, faeces and urine for the first time.

Eisenberg, T., J. Rau, U. Westerhüs, T. Knauf-Witzens, A. Fawzy, K. Schlez, M. Zschöck, E. Prenger-Berninghoff, C. Heydel, R. Sting, et al., "Streptococcus agalactiae in elephants - A comparative study with isolates from human and zoo animal and livestock origin.", Veterinary microbiology, vol. 204, pp. 141-150, 2017 May. Abstract

Streptococcus (S.) agalactiae represents a significant pathogen for humans and animals. However, there are only a few elderly reports on S. agalactiae infections in wild and zoo elephants even though this pathogen has been isolated comparatively frequently in these endangered animal species. Consequently, between 2004 and 2015, we collected S. agalactiae isolates from African and Asian elephants (n=23) living in four different zoos in Germany. These isolates were characterised and compared with isolates from other animal species (n=20 isolates) and humans (n=3). We found that the isolates from elephants can be readily identified by classical biochemistry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Further characterisations for epidemiological issues were achieved using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, capsule typing and molecular fingerprinting (PFGE, RAPD PCR). We could demonstrate that our elephant isolate collection contained at least six different lineages that were representative for their source of origin. Despite generally broad antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae, many showed tetracycline resistance in vitro. S. agalactiae plays an important role in bacterial infections not only in cattle and humans, but also in elephants. Comparative studies were able to differentiate S. agalactiae isolates from elephants into different infectious clusters based on their epidemiological background.

Eisenberg, T., S. Gronow, J. Falgenhauer, C. Imirzalioglu, K. Mühldorfer, J. Rau, J. Blom, A. Fawzy, S. P. Glaeser, and P. Kämpfer, "sp. nov. () as a replacement of the species '' Harwich . 2012 and '' Shukla . 2002, and emended description of Collins . 2001.", International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, vol. 71, issue 3, 2019. Abstract

Members of the genus are fastidious bacteria that predominantly colonise the female genital tract and are significantly associated with reproductive disorders and genital and neonatal disease. From a taxonomical perspective, the genus only comprises the species . Numerous reports on a second species, '', have been published, but the name has never been validated. The same is the case for '', which was previously shown to belong to the same species as ''. We studied strains DSM 16631 and DSM 16630, which have been identified and deposited as '' previously. At the time of isolation, these strains were found to be most closely related to, but clearly different from, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. Both strains proved to be almost indistinguishable from '' based on molecular, morphological and physiological traits. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain DSM 16631 was assigned to the genus with a sequence similarity of 95.47 % to CCUG 41628, followed by type strains of (93.03 %), (92.68 %) and (91.97 %) as the next closely related members of the . The novel species was also clearly differentiated from other related taxa by core genome phylogeny, average nucleotide and amino acid identities, DNA-DNA hybridization and MALDI-TOF MS. With respect to chemotaxonomic and physiological patterns, strains DSM 16631 and DSM 16630 were again highly similar to . On the basis of these data, we propose the novel species sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 16631 (=CCUG 52977=CCUG 52889A) and a second strain DSM 16630 (=CCUG 52976=CCUG 52888) that were both isolated from bloodstream infections in women with puerperal fever in France. The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 28.4 mol% and the genome size is 1.28 Mbp. Based on the observed extremely high similarities of genotypic and phenotypic traits of the novel proposed species to those reported for '', we recommend using this new name in all further publications on this taxon.

Eisenberg, T., C. Heydel, E. Prenger-Berninghoff, A. Fawzy, U. Kling, V. Akimkin, T. Semmler, K. Mühldorfer, P. Kämpfer, J. Blom, et al., "Streptobacillus canis sp. nov. isolated from a dog", International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, vol. 70, issue 4, pp. 2648 - 2656, 2020. Abstract

From a phlegmon in a dog an aerobic and facultatively anaerobic, indole-, oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-motile bacterium was isolated in 2019 in Germany that stained Gram-negative and showed a pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming appearance. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strain IHIT1603-19T was assigned to the genus Streptobacillus with sequence similarities of 98.6, 98.0, 97.9, 97.1 and 94.4 % to the type strains of Streptobacillus felis, Streptobacillus notomytis, Streptobacillus ratti, Streptobacillus moniliformis and Streptobacillus hongkongensis, respectively. Strain IHIT1603-19T could also clearly be differentiated from other Streptobacillus species by rpoB, groEL and recA gene, nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses as well as by core genome phylogeny. Regarding DNA-DNA relatedness, strain IHIT1603-19T demonstrated an average nucleotide identity of 83.00 and 82.28 % compared to S. felis 131000547T and S. moniliformis DSM 12112T, respectively. Chemotaxonomic and physiological data of strain IHIT1603-19T were in congruence with other closely related members of the family Leptotrichiaceae, represented by highly similar enzyme profiles and fatty acid patterns. MALDI-TOF MS analysis also proved suitable in unequivocally discriminating strain IHIT1603-19T from all currently described taxa of the genus Streptobacillus. On the basis of these data, we propose the novel species Streptobacillus canis sp. nov. with the type strain IHIT1603-19T (=DSM 110501T=CCUG 74118T=CIP 111795T). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 26.6 mol%, genome size is 1.60 Mbp.

Eisenberg, T., S. Poignant, Y. Jouan, A. Fawzy, W. Nicklas, C. Ewers, L. Mereghetti, and A. Guillon, "Acute Tetraplegia Caused by Rat Bite Fever in Snake Keeper and Transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis.", Emerging infectious diseases, vol. 23, issue 4, pp. 719-721, 2017 04. Abstract

We report acute tetraplegia caused by rat bite fever in a 59-year old man (snake keeper) and transmission of Streptobacillus moniliformis. We found an identical characteristic bacterial pattern in rat and human samples, which validated genotyping-based evidence for infection with the same strain, and identified diagnostic difficulties concerning infection with this microorganism.

Eisenberg, T., S. Gronow, J. Falgenhauer4, C. Imirzalioglu, K. Mühldorfer, J. Rau, J. Blom, A. Fawzy, S. P. Glaeser, and P. Kämpfer, "Sneathia vaginalis sp. nov. (Fusobacteriales, Leptotrichiaceae) as a replacement of the species ‘Sneathia amnii’ Harwich et al. 2012 and ‘Leptotrichia amnionii’ Shukla et al. 2002, and emended description of Sneathia Collins et al. 2001", International Journal of systemic and evolutionary microbiology, vol. 71, issue 3, 2021.
Eisenberg, T., S. Gronow, J. Falgenhauer, C. Imirzalioglu, K. Mühldorfer, J. Rau, J. Blom, A. Fawzy, S. P. Glaeser, and P. Kämpfer, "sp. nov. () as a replacement of the species '' Harwich . 2012 and '' Shukla . 2002, and emended description of Collins . 2001.", International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, vol. 71, issue 3, 2019. Abstract

Members of the genus are fastidious bacteria that predominantly colonise the female genital tract and are significantly associated with reproductive disorders and genital and neonatal disease. From a taxonomical perspective, the genus only comprises the species . Numerous reports on a second species, '', have been published, but the name has never been validated. The same is the case for '', which was previously shown to belong to the same species as ''. We studied strains DSM 16631 and DSM 16630, which have been identified and deposited as '' previously. At the time of isolation, these strains were found to be most closely related to, but clearly different from, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. Both strains proved to be almost indistinguishable from '' based on molecular, morphological and physiological traits. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain DSM 16631 was assigned to the genus with a sequence similarity of 95.47 % to CCUG 41628, followed by type strains of (93.03 %), (92.68 %) and (91.97 %) as the next closely related members of the . The novel species was also clearly differentiated from other related taxa by core genome phylogeny, average nucleotide and amino acid identities, DNA-DNA hybridization and MALDI-TOF MS. With respect to chemotaxonomic and physiological patterns, strains DSM 16631 and DSM 16630 were again highly similar to . On the basis of these data, we propose the novel species sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 16631 (=CCUG 52977=CCUG 52889A) and a second strain DSM 16630 (=CCUG 52976=CCUG 52888) that were both isolated from bloodstream infections in women with puerperal fever in France. The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 28.4 mol% and the genome size is 1.28 Mbp. Based on the observed extremely high similarities of genotypic and phenotypic traits of the novel proposed species to those reported for '', we recommend using this new name in all further publications on this taxon.

Eisenberg, T., K. Schlez, A. Fawzy, I. Völker, S. Hechinger, M. Curić, N. Schauerte, C. Geiger, J. Blom, and H. C. Scholz, "Expanding the host range: infection of a reptilian host (Furcifer pardalis) by an atypical Brucella strain", Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, vol. 113, issue 10, pp. 1531 - 1537, 2020. Abstract

Atypical brucellae show deviant phenotypes and/or genotypes. Besides Brucella inopinata, B. microti and B. vulpis, atypical strains have been described infecting humans, rodents, amphibians and fish. They represent potential zoonotic agents. Here, we provide evidence that reptiles as the remaining poikilothermic vertebrate class also represent susceptible hosts for atypical Brucella.

Eisenberg, T., A. Fawzy, W. Nicklas, T. Semmler, and C. Ewers, "Phylogenetic and comparative genomics of the family Leptotrichiaceae and introduction of a novel fingerprinting MLVA for Streptobacillus moniliformis.", BMC genomics, vol. 17, issue 1, pp. 864, 2016 Nov 03. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Leptotrichiaceae are a family of fairly unnoticed bacteria containing both microbiota on mucous membranes as well as significant pathogens such as Streptobacillus moniliformis, the causative organism of streptobacillary rat bite fever. Comprehensive genomic studies in members of this family have so far not been carried out. We aimed to analyze 47 genomes from 20 different member species to illuminate phylogenetic aspects, as well as genomic and discriminatory properties.

RESULTS: Our data provide a novel and reliable basis of support for previously established phylogeny from this group and give a deeper insight into characteristics of genome structure and gene functions. Full genome analyses revealed that most S. moniliformis strains under study form a heterogeneous population without any significant clustering. Analysis of infra-species variability for this highly pathogenic rat bite fever organism led to the detection of three specific variable number tandem analysis loci with high discriminatory power.

CONCLUSIONS: This highly useful and economical tool can be directly employed in clinical samples without laborious prior cultivation. Our and prospective case-specific data can now easily be compared by using a newly established MLVA database in order to gain a better insight into the epidemiology of this presumably under-reported zoonosis.

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