An eye on the future for defeating hydrocephalus, ciliary dyskinesia-related hydrocephalus: review article.

Hasanain, A. A., M. A. R. Soliman, R. Elwy, A. A. M. Ezzat, S. H. Abdel-Bari, S. Marx, A. Jenkins, E. E. L. Refaee, and A. Zohdi, "An eye on the future for defeating hydrocephalus, ciliary dyskinesia-related hydrocephalus: review article.", British journal of neurosurgery, pp. 1-11, 2022.


Congenital hydrocephalus affects approximately one in 1000 newborn children and is fatal in approximately 50% of untreated cases. The currently known management protocols usually necessitate multiple interventions and long-term use of healthcare resources due to a relatively high incidence of complications, and many of them mostly provide a treatment of the effect rather than the cause of cerebrospinal fluid flow reduction or outflow obstruction. Future studies discussing etiology specific hydrocephalus alternative treatments are needed. We systematically reviewed the available literature on the effect of ciliary abnormality on congenital hydrocephalus pathogenesis, to open a discussion on the feasibility of factoring ciliary abnormality in future research on hydrocephalus treatment modalities. Although there are different forms of ciliopathies, we focused in this review on primary ciliary dyskinesia. There is growing evidence of association of other ciliary syndromes and hydrocephalus, such as the reduced generation of multiple motile cilia, which is distinct from primary ciliary dyskinesia. Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed using the search terms 'hydrocephalus,' 'Kartagener syndrome,' 'primary ciliary dyskinesia,' and 'immotile cilia syndrome.' Only articles published in English and reporting human patients were included. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria, reporting 12 cases of hydrocephalus associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia. The patients had variable clinical presentations, genetic backgrounds, and ciliary defects. The ependymal water propelling cilia differ in structure and function from the mucus propelling cilia, and there is a possibility of isolated non-syndromic ependymal ciliopathy causing only hydrocephalus with growing evidence in the literature for the association ependymal ciliary abnormality and hydrocephalus. Abdominal and thoracic situs in children with hydrocephalus can be evaluated, and secondary damage of ependymal cilia causing hydrocephalus in cases with generalized ciliary abnormality can be considered.