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Eissa, M. A., A. A. M. Ezzat, and M. O. H. A. M. E. D. E. L. M. SHIMY, "Incidence and Outcomes of Dural Tear in Open Versus Microscopic Single Level Lumbar Discectomy", Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 91, issue 12, pp. 1317-1321, 2024.
Ezzat, A. A. M., M. O. H. A. M. E. D. A. H. M. E. D. EISSA, and M. E. Shimy, "Adjacent Segment Degeneration Following Laminectomy Versus Degeneration without Laminectomy in Levels Adjacent to those Operated Upon by Lumbar Posterolateral Fixation: A Comparative Study", Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 91, issue 09, pp. 1213-1218, 2023.
Kuo, C. C., A. O. Aguirre, A. Kassay, B. M. Donnelly, H. Bakr, M. Aly, A. A. M. Ezzat, and M. A. R. Soliman, "A Look at the Global Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Neurosurgical Services and Residency Training.", Scientific African, vol. 19, pp. e01504, 2023. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has left an indelible effect on healthcare delivery and education system, including residency training. Particularly, neurosurgical departments worldwide had to adapt their operating model to the constantly changing pandemic landscape. This review aimed to quantify the reduction in neurosurgical operative volume and describe the impact of these trends on neurosurgical residency training.

METHODS:  We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE between December 2019 and October 2022 to identify studies comparing pre-pandemic and pandemic neurosurgical caseloads as well as articles detailing the impact of COVID-19 on neurosurgery residency training. Statistical analysis of quantitative data was presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS: A total of 49 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 12 (24.5%) were survey-based. The case volume of elective surgeries and non-elective procedures decreased by 70.4% (OR=0.296, 95%CI 0.210-0.418) and 68.2% (OR=0.318, 95%CI 0.193-0.525), respectively. A significant decrease was also observed in functional (OR=0.542, 95%CI 0.394-0.746), spine (OR=0.545, 95%CI 0.409-0.725), and skull base surgery (OR=0.545, 95%CI 0.409-0.725), whereas the caseloads for tumor (OR=1.029, 95%CI 0.838-1.263), trauma (OR=1.021, 95%CI 0.846-1.232), vascular (OR=1.001, 95%CI 0.870-1.152), and pediatric neurosurgery (OR=0.589, 95%CI 0.344-1.010) remained relatively the same between pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. The reduction in caseloads had caused concerns among residents and program directors in regard to the diminished clinical exposure, financial constraints, and mental well-being. Some positives highlighted were rapid adaptation to virtual educational platforms and increasing time for self-learning and research activities.

CONCLUSION: While COVID-19 has brought about significant disruptions in neurosurgical practice and training, this unprecedented challenge has opened the door for technological advances and collaboration that broaden the accessibility of resources and reduce the worldwide gap in neurosurgical education.

MOHAMED, A. H. M. E. D. A. L. I., A. A. M. Ezzat, and H. A. S. H. E. M. M. ABOUL-ELA, "Comparative Study between Conservative and Surgical Management of Intraventricular Hemorrhage", Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 90, issue 9, pp. 1335-1339, 2022.
Hasanain, A. A., M. A. R. Soliman, R. Elwy, A. A. M. Ezzat, S. H. Abdel-Bari, S. Marx, A. Jenkins, E. E. L. Refaee, and A. Zohdi, "An eye on the future for defeating hydrocephalus, ciliary dyskinesia-related hydrocephalus: review article.", British journal of neurosurgery, pp. 1-11, 2022. Abstract

Congenital hydrocephalus affects approximately one in 1000 newborn children and is fatal in approximately 50% of untreated cases. The currently known management protocols usually necessitate multiple interventions and long-term use of healthcare resources due to a relatively high incidence of complications, and many of them mostly provide a treatment of the effect rather than the cause of cerebrospinal fluid flow reduction or outflow obstruction. Future studies discussing etiology specific hydrocephalus alternative treatments are needed. We systematically reviewed the available literature on the effect of ciliary abnormality on congenital hydrocephalus pathogenesis, to open a discussion on the feasibility of factoring ciliary abnormality in future research on hydrocephalus treatment modalities. Although there are different forms of ciliopathies, we focused in this review on primary ciliary dyskinesia. There is growing evidence of association of other ciliary syndromes and hydrocephalus, such as the reduced generation of multiple motile cilia, which is distinct from primary ciliary dyskinesia. Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed using the search terms 'hydrocephalus,' 'Kartagener syndrome,' 'primary ciliary dyskinesia,' and 'immotile cilia syndrome.' Only articles published in English and reporting human patients were included. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria, reporting 12 cases of hydrocephalus associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia. The patients had variable clinical presentations, genetic backgrounds, and ciliary defects. The ependymal water propelling cilia differ in structure and function from the mucus propelling cilia, and there is a possibility of isolated non-syndromic ependymal ciliopathy causing only hydrocephalus with growing evidence in the literature for the association ependymal ciliary abnormality and hydrocephalus. Abdominal and thoracic situs in children with hydrocephalus can be evaluated, and secondary damage of ependymal cilia causing hydrocephalus in cases with generalized ciliary abnormality can be considered.

Ezzat, A. A. M., A. M. A. Alselisly, and A. M. Salah, "Management of Different Post-Operative Outcomes Due to Incidental Durotomy During Lumbar Spine Surgery, Single Institute Experience: Case Series", The Medical Journal of Cairo University, vol. 90, issue 12, pp. 2697-2700, 2022.
Ezzat, A. A., and A. M. Salah, "Rod migration through foramen magnum into posterior fossa after cervical spine lateral mass fixation: A case report and literature review.", Surgical neurology international, vol. 13, pp. 514, 2022. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Posterior cervical fusion is one of the most common surgical procedures performed for the treatment of many cervical spine pathologies. Hardware failure, due to rod displacement either cranially or caudally, may occur.

CASE DESCRIPTION: Two years following a subaxial laminectomy/lateral mass fusion (from C3 to C6) for stenosis, a 67-year-old female, with a history of trauma 2 months ago, presented with headaches, right-sided facial palsy, and right complete ophthalmoplegia. When the computed tomography scan showed migration of the left-sided rod extending into the posterior fossa through the foramen magnum plus malpositioning of the right rod, she underwent bilateral rod removal resulting in marked headache improvement without improvement of ophthalmoplegia and facial palsy.

CONCLUSION: Cephalad rod migration/displacement extending through the foramen magnum into the posterior fossa is a rare complication of cervical laminectomy/rod lateral mass screw instrumented fusion.

Ezzat, A. A. M., and A. M. A. Alselisly, "Surgical considerations for maximal safe excision of subaxial cervical dumbbell Schwannoma in a single approach", Pan Arab Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 17, issue 2, pp. 59-63, 2022.
Ezzat, A. A. M., M. A. R. Soliman, M. Baraka, M. E. Shimy, A. Ezz, and E. E. L. Refaee, "Distant large acute epidural hematoma after closed cerebrospinal fluid tapping through the anterior fontanelle: A case report and its pathogenesis.", Surgical neurology international, vol. 12, pp. 59, 2021. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infection is one of the most common and serious complications of shunt placement. The CSF shunt infections are preferably treated with intravenous antibiotics, infected shunt removal, repeated tapping (infants) or placement of an external ventricular drainage (EVD) device, and placement of a new shunt once the CSF is sterile. The tapping through the anterior fontanelle is commonly used instead of the EVD in developing countries to manage CSF infection in open anterior fontanelle patients. To the best of our knowledge, this would be considered the first reported case of distant epidural hematoma after closed ventricular tapping.

CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of 6-months child with Chiari malformation (Type II) presenting to us with a shunt infection with possible obstruction. CSF was aspirated for examination through a tap through the anterior fontanelle followed by the development of extradural hemorrhage far from the tapping site.

CONCLUSION: EDH after a transfontanellar ventricular tap can rapidly evolve and lead to patient death. This report raises the awareness of the neurosurgeons to this possible complication that can happen and leads to major complications. Monitoring the conscious level would be needed after ventricular tapping to detect this possible complication.

Ganau, M., M. Iqbal, G. K. I. Ligarotti, and S. Kato, "Letter to the Editor. Randomized controlled trials on anterior versus posterior surgical decompression for degenerative cervical myelopathy.", Journal of neurosurgery. Spine, pp. 1-3, 2021.
Murlidharan Bhavaninilayam, S., S. A. Borkar, K. Garg, M. Phalak, and S. S. Kale, "Letter to the Editor. Randomized trial for degenerative cervical myelopathy.", Journal of neurosurgery. Spine, pp. 1-2, 2021.
Soliman, M. A. R., A. A. M. Ezzat, R. Elwy, A. A. Hasanain, M. A. Thabit, H. E. Shitany, H. Kandel, S. H. Abdel-Bari, A. M. F. Ghoul, A. Abdullah, et al., "Letter to the Editor Regarding "Transoral Protrusion of a Ventriculoperitoneal Catheter Caused by Jejunal Perforation in an Adult: Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature".", World neurosurgery, vol. 140, pp. 460, 2020.
El-Ghandour, N. M. F., M. A. R. Soliman, A. A. M. Ezzat, A. Mohsen, and M. Zein-Elabedin, "The safety and efficacy of anterior versus posterior decompression surgery in degenerative cervical myelopathy: a prospective randomized trial.", Journal of neurosurgery. Spine, pp. 1-9, 2020. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The safety and efficacy of anterior and posterior decompression surgery in degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) have not been validated in any prospective randomized trial.

METHODS: In this first prospective randomized trial, the patients who had symptoms or signs of DCM were randomly assigned to undergo either anterior cervical discectomy and fusion or posterior laminectomy with or without fusion. The primary outcome measures were the change in the visual analog scale (VAS) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Nurick myelopathy grade 1 year after surgery. The secondary outcome measures were intraoperative and postoperative complications, hospital stay, and Odom's criteria. The follow-up period was at least 1 year.

RESULTS: A total of 68 patients (mean age 53 ± 8.3 years, 72.3% men) underwent prospective randomization. There was a significantly better outcome in the NDI and VAS scores in the anterior group at 1 year (p < 0.05). Nurick myelopathy grading showed nonsignificant improvement using the posterior approach group (p = 0.79). The mean operative duration was significantly longer in the anterior group (p < 0.001). No significant difference in postoperative complications was found, except postoperative dysphagia was significantly higher in the anterior group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in postoperative patient satisfaction (Odom's criteria) (p = 0.52). The mean hospital stay was significantly longer in the posterior group (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with multilevel DCM, the anterior approach was significantly better regarding postoperative pain, NDI, and hospital stay, while the posterior approach was significantly better in terms of postoperative dysphagia and operative duration.

El-Ghandour, N. M. F., A. A. M. Ezzat, M. A. Zaazoue, P. Gonzalez-Lopez, B. S. Jhawar, and M. A. R. Soliman, "Virtual learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: a turning point in neurosurgical education.", Neurosurgical focus, vol. 49, issue 6, pp. E18, 2020. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused dramatic changes in medical education. Social distancing policies have resulted in the rapid adoption of virtual learning (VL) by neurosurgeons as a method to exchange knowledge, but it has been met with variable acceptance. The authors surveyed neurosurgeons from around the world regarding their opinions about VL and how they see the future of neurosurgical conferences.

METHODS: The authors conducted a global online survey assessing the experience of neurosurgeons and trainees with VL activities. They also questioned respondents about how they see the future of on-site conferences and scientific meetings. They analyzed responses against demographic data, regions in which the respondents practice, and socioeconomic factors by using frequency histograms and multivariate logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Eight hundred ninety-one responses from 96 countries were received. There has been an increase in VL activities since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most respondents perceive this type of learning as positive. Respondents from lower-income nations and regions such as Europe and Central Asia were more receptive to these changes and wanted to see further movement of educational activities (conferences and scientific meetings) into a VL format. The latter desire may be driven by financial savings from not traveling. Most queried neurosurgeons indicated that virtual events are likely to partially replace on-site events.

CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has improved perceptions of VL, and despite its limitations, VL has been well received by the majority of neurosurgeons. Lower-income nations in particular are embracing this technology. VL is still evolving, but its integration with traditional in-person meetings seems inevitable.

Elwy, R., M. A. Soliman, A. A. Hasanain, A. A. Ezzat, M. Elbaroody, M. F. Alsawy, and E. E. L. Refaee, "Visual changes after space flight: is it really caused by increased intracranial tension? A systematic review.", Journal of neurosurgical sciences, 2020. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS) was linked to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) attributable to the combined effects of microgravity and environmental conditions encountered during spaceflight. Microgravity countermeasures as lower body negative pressure (LBNP) are potential interventions for SANS. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive qualitative analysis of literature contrasting simulation and spaceflight studies, focusing on the pathophysiology of SANS, and highlighting gaps in current knowledge.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We systematically searched PubMed electronic database for English primary research published until February 2019 discussing intracranial changes in spaceflight or simulated microgravity, excluding animal and experimental studies. Two authors screened all the abstracts with a third author resolving disagreements. The full-text manuscripts were analyzed in pilot-tested tables.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: 19 studies were reviewed. 13 simulation, and two out of six spaceflight studies were prospective. ICP changes were investigated in 11 simulation studies, where eight demonstrated a significant increase in ICP after variable periods of head-down tilt. three showed a significant increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) in conjunction with ICP elevation. With increasing ambient CO2: one showed an increase in IOP without further increase in ICP, while another showed a slight further decrease in ICP. LBNP demonstrated no significant effect on ICP in one and a decrease thereof in another study. After spaceflight, increased ICP on lumbar puncture was demonstrated in five studies.

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to microgravity increases ICP possibly precipitating ocular changes. Whether other factors come into play is the subject of investigation. Further randomized studies and methods of direct ICP measurement during spaceflight are needed.

Hasanain, A. A., A. Abdullah, M. F. M. Alsawy, M. A. R. Soliman, A. A. Ghaleb, R. Elwy, A. A. M. Ezzat, A. A. Menabbawy, A. A. Marei, B. A. E. Razik, et al., "Incidence of and Causes for Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Failure in Children Younger Than 2 Years: A Systematic Review.", Journal of neurological surgery. Part A, Central European neurosurgery, vol. 80, issue 1, pp. 26-33, 2019. Abstract

OBJECTIVES:  Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is commonly used to treat pediatric hydrocephalus, but failure rates are high. VP shunt failure in children is mostly caused by infection and/or proximal/distal shunt obstruction. However, to our knowledge, no previous reviews have discussed this topic using only clinical studies when age-related data could be obtained. This systematic review aimed at reevaluating what is already known as the most common causes of shunt failure and to determine the incidence and causes of VP shunt failure during the first 2 years of life as a step to establish solid evidence-based guidelines to avoid VP shunt failure in infants.

METHODS:  We performed a search using the search terms "Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts" (Medical Subject Headings [MeSH]) AND failure [All Fields] AND ("humans" [MeSH] AND English [lang] AND "infant" [MeSH]). Only articles that specifically discussed VP shunt complications in children < 2 years were included.

RESULTS:  We found that the most common causes of VP shunt failure in children < 2 years were shunt obstruction and infection, both observed in a range.

CONCLUSION:  VP shunt failure is very common in infants, mostly resulting from obstruction and infection. Future studies should focus on methods designed to avoid these complications or on alternative treatments for hydrocephalus.

Ezzat, A. A. M., M. A. R. Soliman, A. A. Hasanain, M. A. Thabit, H. E. Shitany, H. Kandel, S. H. Abdel-Bari, A. M. F. Ghoul, A. Abdullah, M. F. M. Alsawy, et al., "Migration of the Distal Catheter of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunts in Pediatric Age Group: Case Series.", World neurosurgery, vol. 119, pp. e131-e137, 2018. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is the most commonly performed procedure in the treatment of hydrocephalus. VP shunt migration can occur at different sites. The aim of the study was to present different sites of abnormal distal shunt location, pathophysiology, and the management in each situation.

METHODS: Between 2014 and 2017, all patients with hydrocephalus in the Department of Neurosurgery, Cairo University, were gathered prospectively. All pediatric patients below the age of 12 years with shunt migration of the distal end of the VP shunt were identified.

RESULTS: Of 1092 patients operated on by the VP shunt between 2014 and 2017, 15 presented with shunt dysfunction because of distal shunt migration (6 anal, 3 scrotal, 1 colon, 1 peroral, 1 upper lumbar extrusion, 1 paraspinal, 1 penile, and 1 umbilical). Especially upper lumbar extrusion and paraspinal shunt location are extremely rare. All the 15 patients were treated successfully with VP shunts and prospectively followed until they presented with complications on different occasions.

CONCLUSIONS: Peritoneal complications are among the most common causes of VP failure. We present a rare complication where the shunt migrates outside the peritoneal cavity elsewhere with ambiguous pathogenesis. Special considerations have to be appointed during the shunt revision surgeries of these cases.