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Rizk-Allah, R. M., and A. E. Hassanien, " A Hybrid Optimization Algorithm for Single and Multi-Objective Optimization Problems", Handbook of Research on Machine Learning Innovations and Trends, USA, IGI, 2017. Abstract

This chapter presents a hybrid optimization algorithm namely FOA-FA for solving single and multi-objective optimization problems. The proposed algorithm integrates the benefits of the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) and the firefly algorithm (FA) to avoid the entrapment in the local optima and the premature convergence of the population. FOA operates in the direction of seeking the optimum solution while the firefly algorithm (FA) has been used to accelerate the optimum seeking process and speed up the convergence performance to the global solution. Further, the multi-objective optimization problem is scalarized to a single objective problem by weighting method, where the proposed algorithm is implemented to derive the non-inferior solutions that are in contrast to the optimal solution. Finally, the proposed FOA-FA algorithm is tested on different benchmark problems whether single or multi-objective aspects and two engineering applications. The numerical comparisons reveal the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Ismael, G., and A. E. Hassanien, " Moth-flame swarm optimization with Neutrosophic sets for automatic mitosis detection in breast cancer histology images, ", Applied Intelligence, 2017, 2017. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents an automatic mitosis detection approach of histopathology slide imaging based on using neutrosophic sets (NS) and moth-flame optimization (MFO). The proposed approach consists of two main phases, namely candidate’s extraction and candidate’s classification phase. At candidate’s extraction phase, Gaussian filter was applied to the histopathological slide image and the enhanced image was mapped into the NS domain. Then, morphological operations have been implemented to the truth subset image for more enhancements and focus on mitosis cells. At candidate’s classification phase, several features based on statistical, shape, texture and energy features were extracted from each candidate. Then, a principle of the meta-heuristic MFO algorithm was adopted to select the best discriminating features of mitosis cells. Finally, the selected features were used to feed the classification and regression tree (CART). A benchmark dataset consists of 50 histopathological images was adopted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The adopted dataset consists of five distinct breast pathology slides. These slides were stained with H&E acquired by Aperio XT scanners with 40-x magnification. The total number of mitoses in 50 database images is 300, which were annotated by an expert pathologist. Experimental results reveal the capability of the MFO feature selection algorithm for finding the optimal feature subset which maximizing the classification performance compared to well-known and other meta-heuristic feature selection algorithms. Also, the high obtained value of accuracy, recall, precision and f-score for the adopted dataset prove the robustness of the proposed mitosis detection and classification approach. It achieved overall 65.42 % f-score, 66.03 % recall, 65.73 % precision and accuracy 92.99 %. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is fast, robust, efficient and coherent. Moreover, it could be used for further early diagnostic suspicion of breast cancer.

Alaa Tharwat, Y. Abdelmonem, and A. E. Hassanien, " A Predictive Model for Toxicity Effects Assessment of Biotransformed Hepatic Drugs Using Iterative Sampling Method, ", Nature Scientific Report,, vol. 6, Article number: 38660 , 2016. AbstractWebsite

Measuring toxicity is one of the main steps in drug development. Hence, there is a high demand for computational models to predict the toxicity effects of the potential drugs. In this study, we used a dataset, which consists of four toxicity effects:mutagenic, tumorigenic, irritant and reproductive effects. The proposed model consists of three phases. In the first phase, rough set-based methods are used to select the most discriminative features for reducing the classification time and improving the classification performance. Due to the imbalanced class distribution, in the second phase, different sampling methods such as Random Under-Sampling, Random Over-Sampling and Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique are used to solve the problem of imbalanced datasets. ITerative Sampling (ITS) method is proposed to avoid the limitations of those methods. ITS method has two steps. The first step (sampling step) iteratively modifies the prior distribution of the minority and majority classes. In the second step, a data cleaning method is used to remove the overlapping that is produced from the first step. In the third phase, Bagging classifier is used to classify an unknown drug into toxic or non-toxic. The experimental results proved that the proposed model performed well in classifying the unknown samples according to all toxic effects in the imbalanced datasets.

Mostafa, A., A. E. Hassanien, and H. A. Hefny, " Grey Wolf Optimization-Based Segmentation Approach for Abdomen CT Liver Images", Handbook of Research on Machine Learning Innovations and Trends, USA, IGI, 2017. Abstract

In the recent days, a great deal of researches is interested in segmentation of different organs in medical images. Segmentation of liver is as an initial phase in liver diagnosis, it is also a challenging task due to its similarity with other organs intensity values. This paper aims to propose a grey wolf optimization based approach for segmenting liver from the abdomen CT images. The proposed approach combines three parts to achieve this goal. It combines the usage of grey wolf optimization, statistical image of liver, simple region growing and Mean shift clustering technique. The initial cleaned image is passed to Grey Wolf (GW) optimization technique. It calculated the centroids of a predefined number of clusters. According to each pixel intensity value in the image, the pixel is labeled by the number of the nearest cluster. A binary statistical image of liver is used to extract the potential area that liver might exist in. It is multiplied by the clustered image to get an initial segmented liver. Then region growing (RG) is used to enhance the segmented liver. Finally, mean shift clustering technique is applied to extract the regions of interest in the segmented liver. A set of 38 images, taken in pre-contrast phase, was used for liver segmentation and testing the proposed approach. For evaluation, similarity index measure is used to validate the success of the proposed approach. The experimental results of the proposed approach showed that the overall accuracy offered by the proposed approach, results in 94.08% accuracy.

E. Emary, H. M. Zawbaa, A. E. Hassanien, and B. PARV, " Multi-objective retinal vessel localization using flower pollination search algorithm with pattern search, , ", Advances in Data Analysis and Classification, , issue (27 May 2016 on line), , pp. pp 1-17, 2017. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents a multi-objective retinal blood vessels localization approach based on flower pollination search algorithm (FPSA) and pattern search (PS) algorithm. FPSA is a new evolutionary algorithm based on the flower pollination process of flowering plants. The proposed multi-objective fitness function uses the flower pollination search algorithm (FPSA) that searches for the optimal clustering of the given retinal image into compact clusters under some constraints. Pattern search (PS) as local search method is then applied to further enhance the segmentation results using another objective function based on shape features. The proposed approach for retinal blood vessels localization is applied on public database namely DRIVE data set. Results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed approach is comparable with state of the art techniques in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity with many extendable features.

Eslam Hassan, A. Hafez, A. E. H. and, and A. Fahmy, " Nature inspired algorithms for solving the community detection problem, ", Logic Journal of the IGPL: Oxford Journals, 2017.
Amira Sayed A. Aziza, S. E. - O. Hanafi, and A. E. Hassanien, " , Comparison of classification techniques applied for network intrusion detection and classification, ", Journal of Applied Logic Available online 14 November 2017, 2017. AbstractWebsite
Mukherjee, A., N. Dey, N. Kausar, A. S. Ashour, R. Taiar, and A. E. Hassanien, " A Disaster Management Specific Mobility Model for Flying Ad-hoc Network", International Journal of Rough Sets and Data Analysis (IJRSDA), vol. 3, issue 3, 2016. AbstractWebsite

The extended Mobile Ad-hoc Network architecture is a paramount research domain due to a wide enhancement of smart phone and open source Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology. The novelty of the current work is to design a disaster aware mobility modeling for a Flying Ad-hoc network infrastructure, where the UAV group is considered as nodes of such ecosystem. This can perform a collaborative task of a message relay, where the mobility modeling under a “Post Disaster” is the main subject of interest, which is proposed with a multi-UAV prototype test bed. The impact of various parameters like UAV node attitude, geometric dilution precision of satellite, Global Positioning System visibility, and real life atmospheric upon the mobility model is analyzed. The results are mapped with the realistic disaster situation. A cluster based mobility model using the map oriented navigation of nodes is emulated with the prototype test bed.

Hassan, E. A., A. I. Hafez, A. E. Hassanien, and A. A. Fahmy, " A Discrete Bat Algorithm for the Community Detection Problem", 10th International Conference Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems, Bilbao, Spain, 22 June, 2015.
Wahid, R., N. I. Ghali, H. S. Own, T. - H. Kim, and A. ella Hassanien., " A Gaussian Mixture Models Approach to Human Heart Signal Verification Using Different Feature Extraction Algorithms ", International Conference on Bio-Science and Bio-Technology (BSBT2012),, , Kangwondo, Korea, , Springer, Heidelberg , pp. pp. 16--24, 2012. Abstract3530016.pdf

In this paper the possibility of using the human heart signal
feature for human verification is investigated. The presented approach
consists of two different robust feature extraction algorithms with a specified
configuration in conjunction with Gaussian mixture modeling. The
similarity of two samples is estimated by measuring the difference between
their negative log-likelihood of the features. To evaluate the performance
and the uniqueness of the presented approach tests using a
high resolution auscultation digital stethoscope are done for nearly 80
heart sound samples. The experimental results obtained show that the
accuracy offered by the employed Gaussian mixture modeling reach up
to 100% for 7 samples using the first feature extraction algorithm and
6 samples using the second feature extraction algorithm and varies with
average 85%.

Babers, R., and A. E. Hassanien, " A Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Community Detection in Social Networks", ", International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology, IJSSMET , vol. 8, issue 1, pp. 50-, 2017. AbstractWebsite

In last few years many approaches have been proposed to detect communities in social networks using diverse ways. Community detection is one of the important researches in social networks and graph analysis. This paper presents a cuckoo search optimization algorithm with Lévy flight for community detection in social networks. Experimental on well-known benchmark data sets demonstrates that the proposed algorithm can define the structure and detect communities of complex networks with high accuracy and quality. In addition, the proposed algorithm is compared with some swarms algorithms including discrete bat algorithm, artificial fish swarm, discrete Krill Herd, ant lion algorithm and lion optimization algorithm and the results show that the proposed algorithm is competitive with these algorithms.

Waleed Yamany, Eid Emary, A. E. Hassanien, G. Schaefer, and S. Y. Zhu, " An Innovative Approach for Attribute Reduction using Rough Sets and Flower Pollination Optimisation ", 20th International Conference on Knowledge Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, KES2016,, , United Kingdom., 5-7 September , 2016. Abstract

Optimal search is a major challenge for wrapper-based attribute reduction. Rough sets have been used with much success, but current hill-climbing rough set approaches to attribute reduction are insufficient for finding optimal solutions. In this paper, we propose an innovative use of an intelligent optimisation method, namely the flower search algorithm (FSA), with rough sets for attribute reduction. FSA is a relatively recent computational intelligence algorithm, which is inspired by the pollination process of flowers. For many applications, the attribute space, besides being very large, is also rough with many different local minima which makes it difficult to converge towards an optimal solution. FSA can adaptively search the attribute space for optimal attribute combinations that maximise a given fitness function, with the fitness function used in our work being rough set-based classification. Experimental results on various benchmark datasets from the UCI repository confirm our technique to perform well in comparison with competing methods.

El-said, S. A., and A. E. Hassanien, " Artificial Eye Vision Using Wireless Sensor Networks", Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Applications, USA, , CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2013. Abstractk15146_c023.pdf

In the past few years, many wireless sensor networks (WSN) had been deployed. It has proved its usage in the future distributed computing environment. Some of its specific applications are habitat monitoring, object tracking, nuclear reactor controlling, fire detection, traffic monitoring, and health care. The main goals of this paper is to describe the major challenges and open research problems of using WSN in healthcare and survey advancements in using WSN to build a chronically implanted artificial retina for visually impaired people. Using WSN in vision repairing addresses two retinal diseases: Age-related Macular Degeneration (severe vision loss at the center of the retina in over 60) and Retinitis Pigmentosa (photoreceptor dysfunction → loss of peripheral vision). The use of WSN in artificial retina provides new features that have the potential to be an economically viable to assist people with visual impairments.

Alaa Tharwat, and A. E. Hassanien, " Chaotic Antlion Algorithm for Parameter Optimization of Support Vector Machine", Applied Intelligence , vol. in press, 2017. AbstractWebsite

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is one of the well-known classifiers. SVM parameters such as kernel
parameters and penalty parameter (C) significantly influences the classification accuracy. In this
paper, a novel Chaotic Antlion Optimization (CALO) algorithm has been proposed to optimize the
parameters of SVM classifier, so that the classification error can be reduced. To evaluate the proposed
model (CALO-SVM), the experiment adopted six standard datasets which are obtained from UCI machine
learning data repository. For verification, the results of the CALO-SVM algorithm are compared
with grid search, which is a conventional method of searching parameter values, standard Ant Lion
Optimization (ALO) SVM, and two well-known optimization algorithms: Genetic algorithm (GA)
and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The experimental results proved that the proposed model is
capable to find the optimal values of the SVM parameters and avoids the local optima problem. The
results also demonstrated lower classification error rates compared with GA and PSO algorithms

Elshazly, H. I., A. M. Elkorany, A. E. Hassanien, and M. Waly, " Chronic eye disease diagnosis using ensemble-based classifier", The second International Conference on Engineering and Technology (ICET 2014) , German Uni - Cairo Egypt, 19 Apr - 20 Apr , 2014.
Abdelhameed Ibrahim, T. Horiuchi, S. Tominaga, and A. E. Hassanien, " Color Invariant Representation and Applications", Handbook of Research on Machine Learning Innovations and Trends,, USA, IGI, USA, pp.21, 2017. Abstract

Illumination factors such as shading, shadow, and highlight observed from object surfaces affect the appearance and analysis of natural color images. Invariant representations to these factors were presented in several ways. Most of these methods used the standard dichromatic reflection model that assumed inhomogeneous dielectric material. The standard model cannot describe metallic objects. This chapter introduces an illumination-invariant representation that is derived from the standard dichromatic reflection model for inhomogeneous dielectric and the extended dichromatic reflection model for homogeneous metal. The illumination color is estimated from two inhomogeneous surfaces to recover the surface reflectance of object without using a reference white standard. The overall performance of the invariant representation is examined in experiments using real-world objects including metals and dielectrics in detail. The feasibility of the representation for effective edge detection is introduced and compared with the state-of-the-art illumination-invariant methods.

Torky, M., R. Babers, R. A. Ibrahim, A. E. Hassanien, G. Schaefer, I. Korovin, and S. Y. Zhu, " Credibility investigation of newsworthy tweets using a visualising Petri net model", 2016 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), , USA, 9-12 Oct. 2016. Abstract

Investigating information credibility is an important problem in online social networks such as Twitter. Since misleading information can get easily propagated in Twitter, ranking tweets according to their credibility can help to detect rumors and identify misinformation. In this paper, we propose a Petri net model to visualise tweet credibility in Twitter. We consider the uniform resource locator (URL) as an effective feature in evaluating tweet credibility since it is used to identify the source of tweets, especially for newsworthy tweets. We perform an experimental evaluation on about 1000 tweets, and show that the proposed model is effective for assigning tweets to two classes: credible and incredible tweets, which each class being further divided into two sub-classes (“credible” and “seem credible” and “doubtful” and “incredible” tweets, respectively) based on appropriate features.

Xiao, K., Alei Liang, Haibing Guan, and A. E. Hassanien, " Extraction and application of deformation-based feature in medical images.", Neurocomputing :, vol. 120, pp. 177-184, 2013. Website
Xiao, K., S. H. Ho, A. E. Hassanien, V. N. Du, and Q. Salih, " Fuzzy C-means clustering with adjustable feature weighting distribution for brain MRI ventricles segmentation. ", SIP 2007: 466-471, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, August 20-22, 2007.
El-Hosseini, M. A., A. E. Hassanien, A. Abraham, and H. Al-Qaheri, " Genetic Annealing Optimization: Design and Real World Applications.", Eighth International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, ISDA 2008, , Kaohsiung, Taiwan,, 26-28 November , 2008. Abstract

Both simulated annealing (SA) and the genetic algorithms (GA) are stochastic and derivative-free optimization technique. SA operates on one solution at a time, while the GA maintains a large population of solutions, which are optimized simultaneously. Thus, the genetic algorithm takes advantage of the experience gained in the past exploration of the solution space. Since SA operates on one solution at a time, it has very little history to use in learning from past trials. SA has the ability to escape from any local point; even it is a global optimization technique. On the other hand, there is no guarantee that the GA algorithm will succeeded in escaping from any local minima, thus it makes sense to hybridize the genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing technique. In this paper, a novel genetically annealed algorithm is proposed and is tested against multidimensional and highly nonlinear cases; Fed-batch fermentor for Penicillin production, and isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor CSTR. It is evident from the results that the proposed algorithm gives good performance.

Hassanien, A. E., M. A. Fattah, S. Aboulenin, G. Schaefer, S. Y. Zhu, and I. Korovin, " Historic handwritten manuscript binarisation using whale optimization, Systems", IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), 9, 9-12 Oct. 2016. Abstract

Preserving the content of historic handwritten manuscripts is important for a variety of reasons. On the other hand, digital libraries are rapidly expanding and thus facilitate to store this information directly in digital form. For digitising text documents, a crucial step is to binarise the captured images to separate the text from the background. In this paper, we propose an effective approach for binarisation of handwritten Arabic manuscripts which employs a whale optimisation algorithm, incorporating a fuzzy c-means objective function, to obtain optimal thresholds. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to earlier methods.

El-Said, S. A., H. M. A. Atta, and A. E. Hassanien, " Interactive soft tissue modelling for virtual reality surgery simulation and planning,", Int. J. Computer Aided Engineering and Technology, Inderscience, , vol. 9, issue 1, pp. pp. 38-61, 2017. AbstractWebsite

While most existing virtual reality-based surgical simulators in the literature use linear deformation models, soft-tissues exhibit geometric and material nonlinearities that should be taken into account for realistic modelling of the deformations. In this paper, an interactive soft tissue model (ISTM) which enables flexible, accurate and robust simulation of surgical interventions on virtual patients is proposed. In ISTM, simulating the tool-tissue interactions using nonlinear dynamic analysis is formulated within a total Lagrangian framework, and the energy function is modified by adding a term in order to achieve material incompressibility. The simulation results show that ISTM increases the stability and eliminates integration errors in the dynamic solution, decreases calculation costs by a factor of 5-7, and leads to very stable and sufficiently accurate results. From the simulation results it can be concluded that the proposed model can successfully create acceptable soft tissue models and generate realistically visual effects of surgical simulation.

Ragab A. El-Sehiemy, Mostafa Abdelkhalik El-hosseini, and A. E. Hassanien, " Multiobjective Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Economic/Environmental Dispatch Problem, ", Studies in Informatics and Control, , vol. 22, issue 2, pp. 113-122, 2013. Website
Issa, M., and A. E. Hassanien, " Multiple Sequence Alignment Optimization Using Meta-Heuristic Techniques: ", Handbook of Research on Machine Learning Innovations and Trends, USA, IGI, 2017. Abstract

Sequence alignment is a vital process in many biological applications such as Phylogenetic trees construction, DNA fragment assembly and structure/function prediction. Two kinds of alignment are pairwise alignment which align two sequences and Multiple Sequence alignment (MSA) that align sequences more than two. The accurate method of alignment is based on Dynamic Programming (DP) approach which suffering from increasing time exponentially with increasing the length and the number of the aligned sequences. Stochastic or meta-heuristics techniques speed up alignment algorithm but with near optimal alignment accuracy not as that of DP. Hence, This chapter aims to review the recent development of MSA using meta-heuristics algorithms. In addition, two recent techniques are focused in more deep: the first is Fragmented protein sequence alignment using two-layer particle swarm optimization (FTLPSO). The second is Multiple sequence alignment using multi-objective based bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (MO-BFO).

Tharwatd, A., T. Gaber, and A. E. Hassanien, " One-dimensional vs. two-dimensional based features: Plant identification approach, ", Journal of Applied Logic , vol. Available online 15 November 2017 , 2017. AbstractWebsite

The number of endangered species has been increased due to shifts in the agricultural production, climate change, and poor urban planning. This has led to investigating new methods to address the problem of plant species identification/classification. In this paper, a plant identification approach using 2D digital leaves images was proposed. The approach used two features extraction methods based on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) and the Bagging classifier. For the 1D-based methods, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Direct Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA), and PCA + LDA techniques were applied, while 2DPCA and 2DLDA algorithms were used for the 2D-based method. To classify the extracted features in both methods, the Bagging classifier, with the decision tree as a weak learner was used. The five variants, i.e. PCA, PCA + LDA, DLDA, 2DPCA, and 2DLDA, of the approach were tested using the Flavia public dataset which consists of 1907 colored leaves images. The accuracy of these variants was evaluated and the results showed that the 2DPCA and 2DLDA methods were much better than using the PCA, PCA + LDA, and DLDA. Furthermore, it was found that the 2DLDA method was the best one and the increase of the weak learners of the Bagging classifier yielded a better classification accuracy. Also, a comparison with the most related work showed that our approach achieved better accuracy under the same dataset and same experimental setup.