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Haggag, A. A., Amal Rabieea, K. A. M. Elaziz, Albis F. Gabrielli, R. Abdelhai, A. Hashish, J. Jabbour, and R. M. R. Ramzy, "Elimination of schistosomiasis haematobia as a public health problem in five governorates in Upper Egypt", Acta Tropica, vol. 188, pp. 9 - 15, 2017 Mar 01, 2018. Abstractelim.schistosomiasis_5.govern.upper_.egypt-aca.trop-2018.pdf

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a serious chronic illness that imposes significant morbidity and mortality with a major impact on the quality of life (QoL) that became a core issue in diabetes care. Understanding the effect of diabetes on QoL is important for day-to-day clinical management and also for public health policy initiatives aiming at improving health outcomes for those with diabetes. The objective of the study was to assess the QoL in adolescents with T1D and assess the applicability of the use of the "Quality of Life for Youth" questionnaire at the Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism Pediatric Unit (DEMPU) clinic.

METHODS: One hundred and fifty adolescents (82 males and 68 females) (10-18 years), with T1D of at least 1 years' duration, completed the questionnaire that evaluated symptoms related to diabetes, treatment, activities, parent issues, worries about diabetes and health perception. Higher scores indicated a more negative impact of diabetes and poorer QoL.

RESULTS: Males showed a significantly better mean QoL score than females (p=0.004). Different age groups showed different QoL scores (p=0.047). Urban adolescents had a better QoL than rural counterparts (p=0.02). Adolescents with poor QoL had generally lower educational level (p=0.02). Better metabolic control was associated with a better QoL (p=0.01). However, duration of diabetes and body mass index (BMI) had no statistically significant effect on QoL.

CONCLUSIONS: QoL had a variable significant association with certain socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of diabetics (sex, residence, educational level as well as metabolic control).

Haggag, A. A., A. Rabiee, K. M. Abd Elaziz, A. F. Gabrielli, R. Abdel Hay, and R. M. R. Ramzy, "Mapping of Schistosoma mansoni in the Nile Delta, Egypt: Assessment of the prevalence by the circulating cathodic antigen urine assay.", Acta tropica, vol. 167, pp. 9-17, 2017 Mar. Abstract

In line with WHO recommendations on elimination of schistosomiasis, accurate identification of all areas of residual transmission is a key step to design and implement measures aimed at interrupting transmission in low-endemic settings. To this purpose, we assessed the prevalence of active S. mansoni infection in five pilot governorates in the Nile Delta of Egypt by examining schoolchildren (6-15 years) using the Urine-Circulating Cathodic Antigen (Urine-CCA) cassette test; we also carried out the standard Kato-Katz (KK) thick smear, the monitoring and evaluation tool employed by Egypt's national schistosomiasis control programme. Prevalence rates determined by the Urine-CCA test for all governorates were higher than those determined by KK (p<0.01). Of 35 districts surveyed in the five governorates, S. mansoni infection was detected in 19 districts (54.3%) using KK, and in 31 districts (88.6%) by Urine-CCA (χ2=9.94; P=0.0016). S. mansoni infections were detected by Urine-CCA, but not by KK in 12 districts (34.3%), and infection was not detected by either of the two diagnostic methods in four districts in Qalyubia governorate. Males and higher age-groups have significantly higher Urine-CCA prevalence rates. Based on the findings of the current S. mansoni mapping exercise, authorities of the Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP) adopted a new elimination strategy by readjusting thresholds for mass treatment with praziquantel and targeting all transmission areas. MoHP is now planning to remap in all other endemic governorates using Urine-CCA with the aim of identifying all areas of transmission where the elimination strategy should be applied.

Salem, M. R., T. T. Amin, A. A. Alhulaybi, A. S. Althafar, and R. A. Abdelhai, "Perceived Risk of Cervical Cancer and Barriers to Screening among Secondary School Female Teachers in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia", Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP, vol. 18, issue 4, pp. 969-979, 2017 04 01. Abstract

Background: No previous studies had addressed the perceived risk of cervical cancer (CC) and its influence on screening practices and perceived barriers in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 506 randomly selected Saudi female secondary school teachers in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia to assess their level of knowledge about risk factors and signs of CC in relation to perceived risk and to characterize CC screening compliance using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of the included female Saudi teachers, 65.4% and 63.4% were considered less-knowledgeable about CC risk factors and early signs and symptoms respectively. Only 17.2% reported being previously examined for CC. The majority of participants perceived themselves to be at an average or below average risk of CC. Residing in urban areas was the strongest predictor of CC screening (Odds ratio ‘OR’= 3.39; 95% confidence intervals ‘CI= 1.76-6.46; P=0.001). Awareness of risk factors was significantly associated with higher awareness of signs of CC (OR 2.5; 95% CI=, P=0.001). Exploratory factor analysis showed that personal fears (of screening being embarrassing) was the major factor that hindered CC screening with a high loading eigenvalue of 4.392, explaining 30.8% of the barriers toward utilization, followed by health care related factors. Conclusion: Secondary school teachers in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia showed low perceived risk, poor awareness about risk factors, signs and symptoms of CC and limited uptake of screening practices. This underlines the need for education programs on CC targeting this group.

Hassan, M., N. Musa, R. Abdelhai, A. Fathy, and A. Ibrahim, "Assessment of health-related quality of life in Egyptian adolescents with type 1 diabetes: DEMPU survey", J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, vol. 30, issue 3, pp. 277 - 283, 2017. assess_of_hrqol_egyptian_adolescents_-type_1_diabetes_dempu_survey.pdf
Galal, Y. S., T. T. Amin, A. K. Alarfaj, A. A. Almulhim, A. A. Aljughaiman, A. K. Almulla, and R. A. Abdelhai, "Colon Cancer among Older Saudis: Awareness of Risk Factors and Early Signs, and Perceived Barriers to Screening.", Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP, vol. 17, issue 4, pp. 1837-46, 2016. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Colon cancer screening (CRCS) uptake is markedly affected by public awareness of the disease. This study was conducted to assess levels of knowledge of CRC, to explore the pattern of CRCS uptake and identify possible barriers to screening among Saudis older than 50 years of age and primary care providers (PCPs) in Al Hassa region, Saudi Arabia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary health care (PHC) centers, 884 Saudis and 39 PCPs being enrolled for data collection. Structured interviews were conducted to obtain information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, personal information relevant to CRC, awareness about early signs/symptoms and risk factors, and barriers to CRCS. Also, a self- administered data collection form was used to assess barriers to CRCS from the physicians' perspectives.

RESULTS: More than 66% of participants were lacking knowledge about CRC. Participants with higher educational levels, having ever heard about CRC, and having relatives with CRC had a significantly higher awareness of the disease. The rate of reported CRCS was low (8.6%). After conducting a logistic regression analysis, it was observed that female gender (OR=0.28; 95% CI=0.14-0.57; P=0.001), being unmarried (OR=0.11; 95% CI=0.10-0.23; P=0.001), lower levels of education (OR=0.36; 95% CI=0.16-0.82; P=0.015), and having no relatives with CRC (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.17-0.56; P=0.001) were significantly associated with a lower CRCS uptake. There was a significant difference between most of the perceived barriers to CRCS and gender. Exploratory factor analysis showed that personal fear (especially fear of the screening results and shyness) was the major factor that hindered CRCS with high loading Eigen value of 2.951, explaining 34.8% of the barriers of the included sample toward utilization of CRCS, followed by lack of awareness of both person and providers (high Eigen value of 2.132, and explaining 23.7% of the barriers). The most frequently cited barriers to CRCS from the physicians' perspectives were lack of public awareness, lack of symptoms and signs, and fear of painful procedures.

CONCLUSIONS: Poor levels of knowledge about CRC were found among older Saudis attending PHC centers in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. It is crucial to implement an organized national screening program in Saudi Arabia to increase public awareness.

Mansour, H., N. Zaki, R. Abdelhai, N. Sabry, H. Silverman, and S. S. El-Kamary, "Investigating the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivations of Egyptian research participants: a qualitative pilot study.", Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit, vol. 21, issue 3, pp. 155-63, 2015 May 19. Abstract

Few studies have explored the informed consent process among research participants in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the informed consent process, therapeutic misconception and motivation for participation among Egyptians participating in clinical trials. In a cross-sectional qualitative pilot study 103 participants in 10 clinical trials responded to a questionnaire. Over 90% agreed they had time to ask questions and received adequate information about the risks prior to consenting. All participants thought the research and the drug would improve their condition; only 46.1% were aware of receiving a non-approved experimental drug and 21.3% of being randomized. Reasons for participation included: better treatment (100%), to benefit society & advance science (85.4%), to receive free drugs (42.6%) and medical care (43.6%), to get hospitalized (15.8%) and to receive money or gifts (4.9%). Investigators need to emphasize the distinction between research and clinical care to address the high rate of therapeutic misconception.

Abdelhai, R., G. Khafagy, and H. Helmy, "DASH Diet: How Much Time Does It Take to Reduce Blood Pressure in Pre-hypertensive and Hypertensive Group 1 Egyptian patients?", Middle-East Journal of Family Medicine, vol. 13, issue 5, pp. 12-20, 2015.
Abdelhai, R., and H. Mosleh., "Screening for Antepartum Anxiety and Depression and their Association with Domestic Violence among Egyptian Pregnant Females.", Journal of Egyptian Public Health Association, vol. 90, pp. 101 - 108, 2015. 1-screening_for_antenatal_anexiety.pdf
Abdelhai, R., S. Yassin, M. F. Ahmad, and U. G. H. Fors, "An e-learning reproductive health module to support improved student learning and interaction: a prospective interventional study at a medical school in Egypt.", BMC medical education, vol. 12, pp. 11, 2012 Mar 20. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Public Health (PH) course at the medical college of Cairo University is based on traditional lectures. Large enrollment limits students' discussions and interactions with instructors.

AIM: Evaluate students' learning outcomes as measured by improved knowledge acquisition and opinions of redesigning the Reproductive Health (RH) section of the PH course into e-learning and assessing e-course utilization.

METHODS: This prospective interventional study started with development of an e-learning course covering the RH section, with visual and interactive emphasis, to satisfy students' diverse learning styles. Two student groups participated in this study. The first group received traditional lecturing, while the second volunteered to enroll in the e-learning course, taking online course quizzes. Both groups answered knowledge and course evaluation questionnaires and were invited to group discussions. Additionally, the first group answered another questionnaire about reasons for non-participation.

RESULTS: Students participating in the e-learning course showed significantly better results, than those receiving traditional tutoring. Students who originally shunned the e-course expressed eagerness to access the course before the end of the academic year. Overall, students using the redesigned e-course reported better learning experiences.

CONCLUSIONS: An online course with interactivities and interaction, can overcome many educational drawbacks of large enrolment classes, enhance student's learning and complement pit-falls of large enrollment traditional tutoring.

Sleem, H., R. A. A. Abdelhai, I. Al-Abdallat, M. Al-Naif, H. M. Gabr, E. - T. Kehil, B. B. Sadiq, R. Yousri, D. Elsayed, S. Sulaiman, et al., "Development of an accessible self-assessment tool for research ethics committees in developing countries.", Journal of empirical research on human research ethics : JERHRE, vol. 5, issue 3, pp. 85-96; quiz 97-8, 2010 Sep. Abstract

In response to increased research being performed in developing countries, many research ethics committees (RECs) have been established, but the quality of their ethics review systems remains unknown. Evaluating the performance of an REC remains a challenging task. Absent an accreditation process, a self-assessment mechanism would provide RECs a way to review their policies and processes against recognized international standards. We describe a self-assessment tool that was developed and reviewed by REC members and researchers from the Middle East. This tool reflects pragmatic aspects of human subjects protection, is based on international standards, is straightforward in its completion, and its items are relevant to the administrative processes that exist in many RECs in the developing world.

Hashem, M., M. H. Husein, D. 'aA. Saleh, R. Abdelhai, E. Eltahlawy, H. Esmat, N. Horeesh, M. Abdalla, N. Moustafa, A. El-Gohary, et al., "Rubella: serosusceptibility among Egyptian females in late childhood and childbearing period.", Vaccine, vol. 28, issue 44, pp. 7202-6, 2010 Oct 18. Abstract

Our objective was to determine age-specific rubella susceptibility among Egyptian females. This was a cross-sectional survey in eight randomly selected communities, with the largest number of reported rubella cases in the 2007 Rubella surveillance. A sample of 5672 females between the ages of 6 and 45 years were interviewed. Of those 602 blood samples were obtained and tested for rubella IgG. The proportion of seronegative females was 9.7%. The highest proportion of susceptible females was in the ages between 6 and 25 years and the highest risk of susceptibility was among unmarried females [odds ratio (OR)=7.2]. The knowledge of interviewed females about rubella, the vaccine and the effect rubella infection on pregnancy and on the fetus was very limited. In conclusion more vaccination coverage is needed, with simultaneous increase of public awareness to minimize the susceptible female population.

Abdelhai, R., E. Taher, and M. AbdElFattah, "Assessing validity of the adapted Arabic Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire among Egyptian children with asthma.", Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit, vol. 16, issue 3, pp. 274-80, 2010 Mar. Abstract

The recent focus in asthma management is rendering children a better quality of life (QOL). Validity and reliability of an adapted Arabic translation of the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ-A) among Egyptians was assessed in a cohort of 103 asthmatic children aged 8-16 years. Discriminative validity of mean scores was significantly higher among mild asthmatics than those with moderate/severe asthma. Construct validity of domains was significantly negatively correlated with clinical severity score. Reliability and internal consistency were assessed using Cronbach alpha coefficient (alpha = 0.84). Reproducibility and responsiveness were high among both stable and unstable asthma patients. PAQLQ-A is valid and reliable for assessing QOL among Egyptian asthmatic children.

El Nouman, A., D. El Derwi, H. R. Abdel, and H. Abou Zeina, "Female youth health promotion model in primary health care: a community-based study in rural upper Egypt.", Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit, vol. 15, issue 6, pp. 1513-24, 2009 Nov-Dec. Abstract

The health status of underprivileged young females is a global concern. This intervention study in rural Upper Egypt used an integrated approach to develop a model for primary care health promotion services to female adolescents. An initial household survey and focus group discussions identified the health problems of a sample of 671 adolescent women aged 12-20 years recruited from one village. Interventions included training courses for health care providers on relevant health topics and on client-provider interaction skills; community and local authority mobilization; and health education sessions and a special record system for the women. An increase was seen in the utilization of primary care services.