Bariatric surgery and cardiovascular outcome.

Ammar, W., H. A. Basset, A. Alfaramawy, T. Hegazy, and Yasser Sharaf, "Bariatric surgery and cardiovascular outcome.", The Egyptian heart journal : (EHJ) : official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology, vol. 72, issue 1, pp. 67, 2020.


BACKGROUND: Obesity is recognized as a classic risk factor for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Weight loss after bariatric surgery has been associated with reduced CV mortality and total mortality in obese patients. Our aim was to study the impact of bariatric surgery on CV risk profile, cardiac structure, and function postoperatively.

RESULTS: This prospective longitudinal study included 100 morbidly obese patients at final analysis. All patients were subjected to full clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic examination at baseline and 6 months after bariatric surgery. The mean age of study population was 37.2 ± 10.49 with BMI of 47 ± 6.82. Females represented 84%. Sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were performed in 79% and 21%, respectively. Surgery-related mortality and morbidity were 0.94% and 4.7%, respectively. After 6 months, there were significant decreases in BMI, heart rate, SBP, DBP, and Framingham risk score (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of risk factors decreased as follows: hypertension 24% vs. 12%, P = 0.0005; DM 21% vs. 11%, P = 0.002; dyslipidemia 32% vs. 7%, P < 0.0001; and metabolic syndrome 54% vs. 26%, P < 0.0001. Highly significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in fasting PG and 2 h PP-PG, HbA1c, ASL, ALT, fasting total cholesterol, LDL, TG, and increase in HDL were observed after bariatric surgery. There were significant shortening in QTc interval (P = 0.009), decrease in LV dimensions and LV mass index (P < 0.0001), and increase in LV EF% (P = 0.0003). BMI at follow-up showed significant positive correlation with age, Framingham risk score, and preoperative BMI (r = 0.289, P = 0.0036; r = 0.37, P = 0.0054; and r = 0.31, P = 0.0081, respectively).

CONCLUSION: In addition to enabling patients to achieve a substantial weight loss, bariatric surgery provides a myriad of health benefits. Weight reduction was associated with a favorable improvement in cardiovascular risk profile, cardiac structure, and function.