Zidan, Y.;, El Hadidi, N.M.N., and M. F. Mohamed, "Examination and Analyses of a wooden face at the museum storage at the Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University", Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, vol. 16, issue 2, pp. 1-11, 2016. Abstract

The aim of this paper is to examine and analyze a wooden face that was covered with a transparent layer
of wax after finishing the mask. The use of wax and encaustic painting was used in Ancient Egypt during
the Greco – Roman, but it was an extremely rare technique in the Egyptian dynasties.
The wooden face that was chosen for this study was carefully examined using light microscopy to identify
the wood, which proved to be native sycamore (Ficus sycomorus). Digital microscope and Scanning
Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to assess decay of the outer exposed surface that had been covered
in the past with a preparation layer composed of calcium carbonate. SEM micrographs showed
clear decay of the cell walls due to the penetration of both the preparation layer and fungal hyphae.
Microbiological investigation indicated the presence a bacterial and fungal infestation. The wood was infected
infected by Aspergillus niger and Ulocladium sp fungi and Pediococcus dextrinicus bacteria.
Further assessment was done by X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) to calculate the decrease of cellulose crystallinity
according to Segal and Fourier Transform spectroscopy (FTIR) to detect the changes of the main
wood components (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin).

El Hadidi, N. M. N., "Decay of softwood in archaeological wooden artifacts", Studies in Conservation, vol. 62, issue 2, pp. 83-95, 2017. AbstractWebsite

Hardwoods and softwoods were used side by side throughout Egyptian history, and import of softwoods that had an attractive color and texture was common. Over the decades, artifacts based on hardwoods and softwoods underwent deterioration phenomena, sometimes reaching either a level of brittleness or turning into a wood powder that may easily crumble. These levels of decay/degradation are often difficult to handle in terms of conservation treatments. To study or identify the reasons for decay has always been a point of interest for conservation purposes, but to assess decay and choose an appropriate treatment according to the state of preservation for the sake of keeping an artifact intact has become a subject of major importance. It is difficult at times to understand the deterioration process, because hardwoods and softwoods are different in structure, properties, and chemical composition. For this preliminary study, decayed samples from three commonly used softwood types, cypress (Cupressus sp.), cedar (Cedrus sp.), and pine (Pinus sp.), were identified and chosen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples indicated the degree of decay. Decayed and non-aged samples of the same wood type were
analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and all the major carbohydrate and lignin bands were recorded. The strong hydrogen bonded (O–H) stretching absorption associated with water linked by hydrogen bonds to the –OH groups of cellulose and hemicelluloses in all decayed samples increased with decay. The brown powdery, fragile samples that had been evidently affected by microbial decay had a higher amount of lignin. The lignin/carbohydrate ratio was calculated and results compared. The increase of either lignin percentage or extractives in some of the samples had caused a darkening of color in both cypress and cedar samples, but the pine sample did not have the same texture and appearance. In cases where lignin percentage decreased the samples changed into a slightly lighter color. FTIR results explained the decay phenomena observed in SEM micrographs and helped assess wood decay and also confirmed results that had been previously obtained while applying traditional chemical analysis on wood.

El Hadidi, N. M. N., and S. A. M. Hamed, "The effect of Preparation layers on the Anatomical Structure and Chemical Composition of Native Egyptian Wood", First Vatican Coffin Conference, Vatican Museums Conference Halls, 22 June 2013 , 2017. Abstract

The effect of the chemical reaction between preparation layers and wood was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The changes in the anatomical structure and chemical composition in three native Egyptian hardwood types; Ficus sycomorus, Acacia sp., Tamarix sp.; due to the chemical effect of six preparation layers with different components commonly employed in the past to cover the wood surface were characterized and identified. The results obtained from both the SEM and FTIR techniques were almost compatible. The decay patterns of chemical attack in the three types of wood depended on the percentage of lignin and carbohydrates within each type, but the components of the preparation layers caused similar structural and chemical changes according to the acidity or alkalinity of the layer. The results showed that calcium carbonate (chalk) affected and degraded lignin more readily than carbohydrates due to its alkalinity, whereas gypsum, which is acidic, tended to degrade carbohydrates more aggressively than lignin. When the two minerals are used together in the preparation layer this leads to severe degradation in wood structure resulting in embrittlement and loss of wood integrity in the wood surface that lay directly beneath the preparation layer.

Salem, N., Zidan, Y. E., Mansour, M. M. A., and W. A. A. El Hadidi, N.M.N. Abo Elgat, "Evaluation of usage three natural extracts applied to three commercial wood species against five common molds", International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 110, pp. 206-226, 2016. Abstractinternational_biodeterioration__biodegradation_110.pdf

Natural extracts have become of high interest in the past ten years for their inhibiting the growth of
molds over wood and wood products surfaces in service or during the storage of building materials. In
the present study, the antifungal effects of three natural extracts applied to three woods against five
common molds were assessed. The growth of fungal hyphae of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium subglutinans,
Chaetomium globosum, Aspergillus niger, and Trichoderma viride on the surfaces of Pinus sylvestris,
Pinus rigida and Fagus sylvatica woods treated with extracts of Pinus rigida (heartwood),
Eucalyptus camaldulensis (leaves) and Costus speciosus (rhizomes) was visually estimated. GC/MS and
FTIR analyses were used to identify the chemical constituents and the functional groups of extracts. aterpineol
(24.91%), borneol (10.95%), terpin hydrate (9.60%), D-fenchyl alcohol (5.99%), and limonene
glycol (5.05%), which are the main constituents of P. rigida heartwood methanol extract. The main
chemical compounds of methanol extract from Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves were spathulenol
(18.89%), cryptone (5.79%), 4,6,6-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-3-oxatricyclo[5.1.0.0(2,4)]octane
(5.79%), (3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)-(E)-acetaldehyde (5.57%), and ascaridole (4.32%). The main
constituents identified in the distilled water extract from Costus speciosus rhizomes were meso-erythritol
(12.21%), methyl-2-methyl-1,3-oxothiolan-2-yl-ketone (11.61%), (all-Z)-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic
acid-methyl ester (9.74%), diosgenin (5.07%), 2-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one (4.43%), 30,40,7-
trimethylquercetin (3.17%), and digitoxin (2.77%). Wood specimens treated at the level of 2% concentration
of P. rigida heartwood extract observed good inhibition to the mold growth under laboratory
conditions. These findings support the potential use of natural extracts for natural wood protection
against mold infestation for surface treatment of wood. The results indicate that wood extracts may be
useful for reducing the incidence of mold on wood products, but none of the materials evaluated
completely inhibited the test fungi. These extracts may provide a useful value-added application for byproducts
of lumber production from these species.

Zidan, Y.;, N. M. N.; El Hadidi, M. A.; Mansour, and W. A. Abo Elgat, "Treatment of Khedive Ismail’s antique gun (1863- 1879) at the National Military Museum - Saladin Citadel in Egypt – A Case Study", International Journal of Student Research in Archaeology (IJSRA), vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 237-245, 2016. Abstractijsra_2016_01_01-19_zidan.pdf

In this case study Khedive Ismail’s antique gun, which is currently kept at the National Military Abstract
Museum in Cairo, is documented and treated. The antique gun with a handgrip was made up of a
spear of wood, a barrel and a blow up instrument made from iron. The maximum handgrip width
of the gun is about 9.40 cm and its total length with wood spear is 113 cm. The gun deteriorated
throughout the years due to neglect and inappropriate exhibition conditions at the museum which included; relative humidity, temperature, and the accumulation of air dust particles and aerosols
inside the inadequately sealed display cases. This resulted in the manifestation of heavy metal rust
in the pipe, especially underneath the wooden spear, in addition to the formation of dust and rust
stains on the wood.
This research explains the treatment and restoration steps of the archaeological gun and illustrates
the actual scientific procedures that were followed, starting from the documentation, followed by the
analysis and scientific tests which were carried out to identify the components and archaeological
parts of the gun, concluded by the actual stages of restoration and conservation.

Salem, N., Zidan, Y. E., Mansour, M. M. A., N. M. N. El Hadidi, and W. A. A. Abo Elgat, "Antifungal activities of two essential oils used in the treatment of three commercial woods deteriorated by five common mold fungi", International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 106, pp. 88-96, 2016. Abstractinternational_biodeterioration__biodegradation_106.pdf

In the past ten years natural extracts have been used as important potential applications to prevent mold
growth on in-service wood. The growth of fungal hyphae of five common mold fungi (Alternaria alternata,
Fusarium subglutinans, Chaetomium globosum, Aspergillus niger, and Trichoderma viride) on wood
surface of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus rigida and Fagus sylvatica treated with the essential oil (EO) of P. rigida
(wood) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (leaves) was visually estimated. EOs were applied by vapor method
and the mold growth inhibition was measured. The chemical constituents of the EOs was analyzed by
GC/MS, which referred to the presence of a-terpineol (34.49%), borneol (17.57%), and fenchyl alcohol
(14.20%) as the major components in P. rigida wood oil, and eucalyptol (60.32%), a-pinene (13.65%), and
g-terpinene (8.77%) in E. camaldulensis leaves. Complete inhibition against the growth of A. alternata,
F. subglutinans, C. globosum, and A. niger except of T. viride by applying P. rigida wood EO at 5000 ppm and
complete growth with all the studied fungi except of C. globosum at 156.25 ppm was found. Good inhibitions
against C. globosum at 5000 ppm and 156.25 ppm and no inhibition against A. niger and T. viride
and little inhibition against F. subglutinans at high concentration was found by the application of EO from
E. camaldulensis leaves. These findings support the potential use of the EOs for wood protection against
mold infestation for surface-treatment or fumigation of wood products.

El Hadidi, N. M. N., "Changing Research Trends in the field of Archaeological Wood at the Conservation Department - Faculty of Archaeology – Cairo University", Studies in Conservation, vol. 60, issue 3, pp. 143-154, 2015. Abstract

Since 1980, a lot of research in the field of treatment and conservation of archaeological wood has been ongoing at the Conservation Department - Faculty of Archaeology – Cairo University. Materials and methods used in conservation have been changing gradually during the years worldwide. However, studies are still insufficient and there are a lot of problems related to consolidation theories and materials that need to be solved. To change our research trends and find good applicable solutions, it was necessary to study critically previous research studies on Egyptian archaeological and historical wood. The M.A. and PhD theses in the field of wood conservation at Cairo University are all written in Arabic, and that is a reason why the findings are not accessible to conservators or archaeologists around the world. At the time of their submission they were relatively good, but while writing this review some of the ideas or theories may not be acceptable now. Undoubtedly past research and continuously arising problems have helped set new research trends.
This review includes a brief history of the Conservation Department at Cairo University and five main focal points of past research, namely; types of wood used throughout Egyptian history, assessment of wood decay; wood properties and composition; treatment and conservation of decorated wood; evaluation of chemicals and polymers used in the treatment of archaeological wood and composite objects containing wood.

Zidan, Y., M. A. Mansour, N. M. N. El Hadidi, and W. A. Abo Elgat, "An experimental study to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of iron rust compounds on the growth and morphology of wood degrading", Alexandria Science Exchange Journal, vol. 36, issue 2, pp. 299-309, 2015. iron_rust_compounds.pdf
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