Mohamed, W. A., Rifai, M. M., Ghany, N. A. A., and M. S. Elmetwaly, "Testing Coating Systems for Bare and Patinated Outdoor Bronze Sculptures", Proceedings of the interim meeting of the ICOM-CC metals working group, Metal 2016, Edited by Menon, R., Chemello, C. and Pandya, A. , New Delhi, India, pp. 161-169, 2016. Abstract

This research aims to evaluate the performance of selected coating systems for the protection of outdoor bronze sculpture. The coating systems were applied onto bare (unpatinated) and patinated bronze coupons, to investigate whether the patination of outdoor bronze sculpture prior to coating with different systems can enhance their protection. Quaternary bronze alloy coupons (Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb) were prepared to simulate the composition of alloys typically used for casting outdoor bronze statuary in the 19th century. The coating materials tested include; ORMOCER, Incralac, Microcrystalline wax (Cosmoloid H80), Benzotriazole BTA (Pretreatment) + Incralac, Incralac + Microcrystalline wax (Cosmoloid H80) top coat, Benzotriazole BTA (Pretreatment) + Incralac + Microcrystalline wax (Cosmoloid H80) and Acryloid B-44.

Weight gain, color change and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to compare the performance of the proposed coating systems and assess their efficiency in actual outdoor conditions and in the laboratory. The results indicated that the best coating systems that met both aesthetic and protection requirements were afforded by BTA (Pretreatment) + Incralac for bare bronze and Benzotriazole BTA (Pretreatment) + Incralac + Microcrystalline wax for patinated bronze.

Mohamed, W. A., M. M. Rifai, G. N. A. A., and M. S. Elmetwaly, "Repatination for Outdoor Bronze Sculpture Conservation: A Comparative Study", Spark: Conservation of Sculpture Parks, Sisak, Croatia, 2015.
Elmetwaly, M. S., W. A. Mohamed, M. M. Rifai, and N. A. A. Ghany, Treatment and Conservation of Outdoor Historical Bronze Statues With Application on a Selected Object from Cairo, : M.A thesis, Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, 2014. Abstract

This thesis deals with the treatment and conservation of outdoor historical bronze statues. It is divided into six chapters as follows:
Chapter one: Deals with different bronze alloys which are used in making outsized statues, and deals with methods and stages of their manufacture by sand casting and lost wax casting.
Chapter two: focuses on the numerous factors threatening the permanence of outdoor bronze statues. Deterioration factors are divided into Endogenous factors and Exogenous factors. Both categories directly influence the corrosion rate of this type of statues in a negative way.
Chapter three: Includes a case study of a deteriorated bronze statue of Soliman Pasha Al-Fransawy using available, particularly non-destructive, examination and analysis techniques in order to evaluate the selected statue state of preservation and identify the main causes of damage.
Chapter four: Contains of a study to detect and measure the ratio of air pollutants in the atmosphere surrounding the statue of Soliman Pasha Al-Fransawy as well as measuring the temperature, relative humidity levels and dew point.
Chapter five: is an experimental study in the field and a laboratory study to evaluate the materials used in the treatment and conservation of outdoor bronze statues., weight Change test, color change test and electrochemical testing were used to assess the efficiency of the tested materials; and thus select the materials more appropriate to use for outdoor bronze statues.
Chapter six: includes a practical application of effective conservation materials and treatments appropriate to use for outdoor bronze statues based on the results of the previous experimental study. The case study selected in this research is the outsized bronze statue of Soliman Pasha Al-Fransawy which adorns the front yard of the military museum, located at the Citadel of Salah El-din in Cairo.
The research ends with general discussion and final results as well as recommendations regarding the protection of outdoor bronze statues.

Mohamed, W. A., Rifai, M. M., Ghany, N. A. A., and M. S. Elmetwaly, "Conservation of an Outdoor Historical Bronze", Open Air Metal, Outdoor Metallic Sculpture: from the XIXth to the beginning of the XXth Century, Paris, France, 4-5 December, pp. 176-185, 2014. Abstract

This research aims to introduce the conservation and restoration of the statue of Colonel Joseph Anthelme sève "Soliman Pasha Al-Fransawi" made by Henri Alfred Jacquemart in Paris in 1874.
Investigative cleaning together with the examination and analysis of the statue showed that it has been affected by urban environment for more than 140 years. It has been previously striped, repainted with black paints and coated with Cellulose nitrate. Experimental work for testing cleaning materials and different patination recipes were performed on simulated metal coupons prior to conservation. This included surface cleaning, removal of modern paints and corrosion products, gap filling, application of artificial patina to retain the aesthetic appearance of the statue. Seven coating systems, of the most commonly used for the conservation of outdoor bronze statues were tested and evaluated using weight gain, color change and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the laboratory and in actual outdoor conditions.

Mohamed, W. A., M. M. Rifai, N. A. A. Ghany, and M. S. Elmetwaly, "Soliman Pasha Al-Farnsawy: An Outdoor Bronze Statue from the 19th Century", The 29th International Conference of Corrosion Mitigation and Surface protection Technologies of Materials, The Egyptian Corrosion Society, Alexandria, Egypt, 14-16 December , 2010.
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