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El-Fadaly AB, El-Shaarawy EAAA, Shuaib DMA. Age-related alterations in the lacrimal gland. Germany: LAMBERT Academic Publishing ; 2015.a3__c300______40copy-page-001.jpg
Gawad FAA, El-Shaarawy EAA, Rizk AA, Sayed WM. "Efficiency of Selenium in Attenuating Epididymal Histopathological Changes in Hypercholesterolemic Adult Rat." Folia Morphologica (Warsz). 2015;74(3):295-302. Abstract

Background: studies on sperm maturation, epididymal histology, or epididymal tubule physiology are significant parts in reproductive researches.
Aim: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of induced hypercholesterolemia on the epididymis of adult albino rats and to clarify the possible protective role of selenium.
Material and Methods: Forty adult albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups; untreated control group (I), sham control (group II), group III (induced hypercholesterolemia), group IV (induced hypercholesterolemia treated with selenium 0.25 mg/kg/day).
Results: Histological and ultrastructural examination of the epididymal epithelial cells of hypercholesterolemic rats (group III) showed loss of cilia with many vaculations, fatty degenerative changes and increased collagen fibers. Morphometrically significant increase (p<0.0001) in the area percent of collagen fibers with no significant change in the optical density of PAS reaction (p˃0.05). Selenium treated group (group IV) produced marked improvement in histological, ultrastructural and morphometric results as compared with group III.
Conclusion: It could be concluded that hypercholesterolemia produced deleterious effects to the epididymis and selenium could attenuate these effects.

El-Shaarawy EAAA. "Electron Microscopy.". In: ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. ISBN 978-953-51-4599-8 Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2, Czech Republic: Book edited by: Miloš Janeček Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2, Czech Republic; 2015.
El-Fadaly AB, El-Shaarawy EAA, Rizk AA, Nasralla MM, Shuaib DMA. "Age-related alterations in the lacrimal gland of adult albino rat: A light and electron microscopic study." Annals of Anatomy-Anatomischer Anzeiger. 2014;196:336-351. Abstract

Background: Age related changes in the lacrimal gland are associated with alterations in the structural organization and functional response in the gland of diverse mammalian species. Dry eye syndrome is one of the most common ocular problems in the world especially in old age. It results when the lacrimal gland fails to secrete proteins and fluid in sufficient quantity or appropriate composition.
Aim of the work: The present study is designed to demonstrate the influence of aging on the structure of the lacrimal gland of albino rat and to provide a morphological basis to explain the pathogenesis of the dry eye syndrome with ageing. It also aims to carry out a comparative analysis of age-dependent changes in male and female rats and to address how the lacrimal gland ages in each sex.
Material and Methods: Eighty albino rats were used in this study. The animals were divided into two age groups, young adult and senile. Tear secretion was measured using a modified Schirmer test. Corneal impression cytology of the anesthetized rats was done. The glands were subjected to gross morphologic examination, microscopic examination using H&E, PAS, Masson’s trichrome and Giemsa stains. Electron microscopic examination was done in addition to quantitative histomorphometric estimations included acinar density, ductal count and mast cell count.
Results: Light microscopic examination of the lacimal glands of the senile rats revealed different patholog-ical changes. These included acinar, ductal as well as stromal changes. Electron microscope examination of the lacrimal gland of the senile group showed a decrease in the electron dense secretory vesicles, mitochondrial swelling and lipofuscin-like inclusions were frequently seen in the cytoplasm of acinar cells in senile rats.
Conclusion: The structural changes in the lacrimal glands of senile rats were associated with reduction in tear secretion as well as alterations in corneal epithelium. Gender difference in lacrimal gland structure was recorded.

Ali MBM, Ashmawy MH, El-shaarawy EAA, Mohamed IA, El-Galil TIA. "Effect of Methotrexate on the Jejunum of Adult Albino Rat and the Possible Protective Role of Vitamin A: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study." J Cytol Histol. 2014;5:263. Abstract

Background: Methotrexate (MTX) is an antineoplastic drug that is widely used in the treatment of neoplasms. Patients undergoing MTX therapy have a variety of side effects affecting many important organs.
Aim of the work: The aim of the present study was to detect the histological and the immunohistochemical adverse alterations that might occur in the jejunum of the adult albino rats following methotrexate therapy and to determine the possible protective role of vitamin A.
Material and Methods: Seventy two adult male albino rats were divided into six equal groups. In all groups the animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injection. The jejunal specimens were examined using H& E and Masson’s trichrome stains and immunohistochemical examination to study the alkaline phosphatase activity using light microscopy. Morphometric study measuring villous height, crypt depth, number of goblet cells, percentage area of fibrosis and the optical density of alkaline phosphatase activity was done in all groups.
Results: The methotrexate treated groups’ revealed different changes in the jejunum of rats. Distortion and cystic dilatation of the crypts, cellular shedding and dilated blood vessels were found. Morphometric study showed decreased villus height and goblet cells, increased the crypts depth. Immunohistochemical examination of the jejunal sections of the methotrexate treated groups showed weak reaction of alkaline phosphatase enzyme when compared with that of the control group.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the toxic effect of methotrexate on the jejunum of rats can be partially improved with the concomitant use of vitamin A.

El-Gaidi MA, Eissa EM, El-Shaarawy EAA. "Free-hand placement of occipital condyle screws: a cadaveric study." European Spine Journal. 2014;23:2182-2188. Abstract

Purpose: Cranio-vertebral junction fixation is challenging due to the complex topographical anatomy and the presence of important anatomical structures. There are several limitations to the traditional occipital squama fixation methods. The purpose of this work is to assess the safety and feasibility of a new optimum trajectory of occipital condyle (OC) screws for occipitocervical fixation via a free-hand technique.
Methods: Eight different parameters of OC morphology were studied in fifty adult skulls. Free-hand placement of OC screws was performed in five cadavers using 3.5-mm titanium polyaxial screws and a 3-mm rod construct (C0–C1–C2). Postoperative computed tomography was performed to determine the success of the screw placement and their angulation, length and effect on hypoglossal canal volume.
Results: The average length, width and height of the OC were 24.2 ± 3.6, 14.2 ± 1.9, and 10.7 ± 2 mm, respectively. The average medio-lateral, hypoglossal canal and atlanto-occipital joint angles were 38.8_ medially ±5_, 7.4_ rostrally ±1.9_ and 23.4_ caudally ±3.5_, respectively. The
ten screws were successfully inserted using a free-hand technique with bicortical purchase. There was no vertebral artery injury or breach of the hypoglossal canal in any specimen. The average screw length was 22.2 ± 3.9 mm. The average medio-lateral angle was 30_ medially ±6.7_. The average cranio-caudal angle was 4_ caudally ±6.2_.
Conclusions: The free-hand technique of OC screw placement is a safe and viable option for occipitocervical fixation and may be a preferred alternative in selected cases. However, further studies are needed to compare its safety and reliability to other more established methods.

undefined, El-Shaarawy EAA, El-Domairy AF, OSMAN M. "Histological and Immunohistochemical study of the hepatic changes following Cisplatin administration in adult male albino rat and possible protective role of L-carnitine." Egyptian journal of Anatomy. 2014;37:159-175. Abstract

Background: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of several human cancers, but its usefulness is limited by its hepatotoxicity which sometimes requires discontinuation of the treatment. A number of drugs were used to ameliorate the injurious effect of cisplatin on liver. One of the most important of these drugs is L-carnitine.
Aim of the work: The present study was designed to investigate the different pathological effects and the extent of apoptosis induced by cisplatin in liver tissue, and the potential protective effect of L-carnitine against it. This in turn, may affect the treatment regime of cisplatin.
Material and methods: Eighty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups. Group I (control group) contained 20 rats, whereas each of the other groups contained 15 rats. These experimental groups were cisplatin group (group II) which received saline injection 5 days prior and after a single cisplatin injection (7 mg/kg IP), cisplatin recovery group (group III) which received saline 5 days before and 21 days after a single cisplatin injection of the same dose. Cisplatin and L-carnitine group (group IV) and cisplatin and L-carnitine recovery group (group V) corresponded to groups II and III respectively in their time design, but L-carnitine was used instead of saline. Liver specimens were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, silver staining as well as immunohistochemical Caspase-3 examination and measurements utilizing image analysis technique.
Results: The histological results revealed the injurious effect of cisplatin on the liver. The groups treated with cisplatin alone showed degeneration featured by cytoplasmic vacuolization, ghost figures, karyolysis, pyknosis, mononuclear cellular infiltration, hypochromatic nuclei, multiple nucleoli, intranuclear vacuolization, portal congestion and oedema and necrotic cells. The lesions affected mainly the pericentral and midzonal areas. The groups treated with cisplatin and L-carnitine showed mild or no affection, with preservation of normal hepatic architecture. The central vein diameter, the stromal framework disruption and apoptotic cells increased in the cisplatin groups, but it was much less affected in the cisplatin and L-carnitine groups. The recovery groups showed statistically higher values as regards the area percent of fibrous tissue, with partial privilege to the L-carnitine combined treatment
Conclusion: The present work revealed that L-carnitine provided an excellent protective factor against the damaging effects of cisplatin on the liver as regards general histological picture, stromal framework integrity, central vein diameter and apoptosis, but it partially protected the liver against fibrosis. The safeguarding effect of L-carnitine increased with its administration for a longer period before and after cisplatin.

El-Shaarawy EAA. "Morphological and morphometrical study of the nasal opening of nasolacrimal duct in man." Folia Morphologica (Warsz). 2014;73:321-330. Abstract

Background: Epiphora constitutes one of the major and very common problems in all age groups. Recent developments in ophthalmology such as balloon dilatation, stent implantation, laser therapy and endoscopy of the lacrimal drainage system raise the need for a detailed anatomical knowledge of this system. It is also important for formulation of principles and techniques in the management of lacrimal problems.
Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to demonstrate variations in shape, size and location of the opening of the nasolacrimal duct and of the lacrimal fold.
Materials and methods: Twenty sagittal head sections were obtained, the nasal septum was removed and the lateral wall of the nasal cavity was exposed and examined. The opening of the nasolacrimal duct (NLD) was demonstrated and was subjected to anatomical observations for the shape, site, size, opening type and the presence of the lacrimal fold. The different measurements for the distances between the opening of NLD and anterior nasal spine, palate and inferior concha were made.
Results: The examined specimens showed that the opening of the NLD was variable in shape taking the form of sulcus in 70% and fissure in 30% of specimens. The sulcus was either vertical or oblique while the fissure was either vertical, oblique or in the form of anteroposterior one. Regarding the location, the opening of the NLD was located at anterior one third below line of attachment of the inferior concha in nearly half of cases (45%). The lacrimal fold was present in most of examined specimens (70%) and absent in 30%. The fold take 5 different forms.
Conclusions: The knowledge of the morphology and morphometry of the lacrimal drainage system enables the ophthalmologist to plan intervention on the lacrimal drainage system precisely and avoid unnecessary manipulations and also minimizing the risk of injury during intra-nasal surgery. (Folia Morphol 2014; 73, 3: 321–330)

SH A, Ehab A. A. El-Shaarawy, Ishaq MF, Moniem MH. "Morphological and radiometrical study of the human intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine." Folia morphologica. 2014;73:7-18. Abstract
SH ES, WH N, AB EF, El-Shaarawy EAA. "The effect of bleomycin on the lung of albino rat and the possible protective role of dexamethasone and n- acetyl cysteine: morphological, histological, histomorphometrical and ultrastructural study." Egyptian Journal of Anatomy. 2011;32:1019-1068. Abstract

Background: Bleomycin is an effective antineoplastic drug; however it is associated with pulmonary pathology which may progress to fibrosis.
Aim of the work: The present work was planned to study the injurious effects of bleomycin administration on the lung and the possible protective role of dexamethasone and N-acetyl cysteine.
Materials and methods: Forty albino rats were divided, into Group I: control and Group II: bleomycin-treated group which was subdivided into three subgroups: (A) which received bleomycin only, (B) which received dexamethasone and bleomycin and(C) which received N-acetyl cysteine in combination with bleomycin. Rats were sacrificed three weeks after administration of bleomycin. Lungs were carefully excised, weighed and grossly examined for any changes. Histological study was done for histological changes. Ultrathin sections were done and studied.
Results: The present study revealed a significant increase in the lung weight of rats that received bleomycin as compared to the control. The lung that received bleomycin manifested loss of normal alveolar pattern, associated diffuse mononuclear cellular infiltration, consolidation and collapse. Some specimens manifested emphysematous changes. The nuclei of pneumocytes displayed degeneration and pyknosis, the cytoplasm was rarefied with some degenerated organelles and shortening of the microvilli. Abundant fibroblasts and excessive collagen deposition. Thickened arterioles associated with exravasated blood.
Conclusion: Co-administration of dexamethasone or N-acetyl cysteine with bleomycin, resulted in regenerative changes of the alveolar damage. This protective effect was variable among the animals within the same group, where, in most specimens the lungs regained normal pulmonary architecture. No significant difference was observed between the protective role of dexamethasone and N-acetyl cysteine.


Objectives: Vertebral canal stenosis has attracted the attention of anatomists and clinician as an important structural change with significant radiological and clinical implications. Narrowing of all diameters of the vertebral foramen with age could be responsible as a factor which might produce back pain. The aim of the present study was to estimate the averages anatomical changes in the transverse and anteroposterior diameters of the lumbar vertebral canal in Egyptian population to establish a clue to the underlying some causes of the low-back pain of unknown etiology.
Methods: The present study investigated the lumbar part of the vertebral column of 20 adult skeletons and 200 plain X-rays of normal living subjects (100 males and 100 females) for both morphometric and radiometric analyses.
Results: The mean width of the body of vertebrae showed gradual increase with the exception at L4 in dry bones. In addition, the mean width and depth of the vertebral foramina showed a gradual increase with the exception of L3 in dry bones. The study recorded a positive relationship between the mean width of the vertebral foramen and that of the body. The mean vertebral foramen width/body ratio was 0.6 except at L3 and L5 where the ratio was 0.5.
Conclusion: The present study has shown a narrower depth of the lumbar vertebral canal in Egyptian population. L3 remains the center point for transition in the dimensions and hence more susceptible to stenosis and spinal nerve compression. This study has also shown that the ratio between the width of body and foramen of lumbar vertebrae remains constant. By this ratio it may be possible to predict any lumbar vertebral anomalies or vertebral canal stenoses and to give some explanation about low-back pain of unknown etiology.

Mitry HL, Abdel-Salam TA, El-Shaarawy EAA, Elsayed RM. "Adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity and the possible protective role of silymarin: light and electron microscopic study." Egyptian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009;30:536-542. Abstract


El-Shaarawy EAA, Sabri SM. "Morphological and ultrastructural study on the protective effects of melatonin in methyl mercury peripheral neurotoxicity." Egyptian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009;30:479-503. Abstract


Ghaly EN, El-Fadaly AB, El-Shaarawy EAA, Imam RAN. "Effect of cadmium chloride on the liver of adult albino rat and the possible protective role of selenium combined with other antioxidants." Egyptian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 2008;29:973-1006. Abstract


El-Ghamrawy TA, Zaky SM, El-Shaarawy EAA. "The effect of vitamin “A” in type -I diabetic nephropathy: A histological and ultrastructural study." Egyptian Journal of Anatomy. 2006;29:65-88. Abstract


Sherif M. Zaky TGA, El-Shaarawy EAA. "Methotrexate- Induced Hepatic Injury In The Albino Rat and The Protective Role of L-Carnitine: Histological and Morphometric Study." Egyptian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 2006;27:83-99. Abstract
Mohamed H.M. Wahdan MMEA, El-Shaarawy EAA. "ANATOMICAL, RADIOLOGICAL AND ENDOSCOPIC STUDY OF THE RECTOSIGMOID JUNCTION IN MAN." Egyptin Journal of Anatatomy. 2005;28:1-33. Abstract
El-Shaarawy EAA. "The conus medullaris and terminal ventricle in man: Anatomical and radiological study." Egyptian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2005;25:42-60. Abstract