Publications

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2016
Hamed, S. A. M., and M. F. MOHAMED, "CHARACTERIZATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL WOOD STAINED WITH BAT EXCRETIONS USING VARIOUS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES", INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSERVATION SCIENCE, vol. 7, issue 3, pp. 647-658, 2016. Abstractijcs-16-37_hamed.pdfWebsite

This study was conducted to diagnose and evaluate the deterioration of archaeological wood
caused by bat excretions. The samples were collected from the ceiling of Mohamed Ali palace
(1812), which is located in Suez, and Baron Empain palace (1911), which is located in Cairo,
Egypt. The wooden samples were covered with a preparation layer (gesso) on one side. Parts
from both sides of the wooden samples that suffered from the accumulation of bat excretions
were examined. The effects of bat excretions on the anatomical structure and chemical
composition of the wooden samples were examined and evaluated using various analytical
methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, a microbiological study was
undertaken to identify microbial activity on the wood surface. The results showed that the
wood suffered changes in its anatomical structure in addition to scratches on the wood surface
that were caused by the bats’ claws. Changes in the molecular bonds of both lignin and
cellulose were noted in the wood. In addition, the polymerization degree of cellulose was
reduced.
Keywords: Archaeological wood; Bat excretion; SEM; FTIR; XRD; Microbial activity

2014
Hamed, S. A. M., "Investigation of deterioration in archaeological wood used in architectural elements: Microscopic study", Microscopy: advances in scientific research and education, Spain, Formatex Research Center, 2014. 857-8621.pdf
2013
Safa Abdelkader Mohamed HAMED*, M. F. ALI, and N. M. N. ELHADIDI, "ASSESSMENT OF COMMONLY USED CLEANING METHODS ON THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL WOOD", International Journal of Conservation Science, vol. Vol. 4, issue 2, pp. 153-160, 2013. ijcs-13-16-hamed.pdf
2012
Hamed, S. A. M., "A preliminary study on using enzymes in cleaning archaeological wood", Journal of Archaeological Science , vol. 39, pp. 2515 - 2520, 2012.
Hamed, S. A. M., M. F. Ali, and N. E. M. N. Hadidi, "Using SEM in monitoring changes in archaeological wood: A review", Current Microscopy Contributions to Advances in Science and Technology, Spain, FORMATEX, 2012.