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Saad, M., A. Setta, S. Marouf, and A. Hamouda, "Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella in Egyptian poultry farms", J Egy Vet Med Assoc, vol. 77, issue 4, pp. 821-838, 2017.
Setta, A., E. Refaei, and H. Salem, "Pasteurella hemolytica infection in commercial layers: a case report", J Egypt Vet Med Assoc, vol. 77, issue 2, pp. 237-242, 2017.
Naguib, M. M., D. Höper, A. - S. Arafa, A. M. Setta, M. Abed, I. Monne, M. Beer, and T. C. Harder, "Full genome sequence analysis of a newly emerged QX-like infectious bronchitis virus from Sudan reveals distinct spots of recombination.", Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, vol. 46, pp. 42-49, 2016 Dec. Abstract

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection continues to cause economically important diseases in poultry while different geno- and serotypes continue to circulate globally. Two infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV) were isolated from chickens with respiratory disease in Sudan. Sequence analysis of the hypervariable regions of the S1 gene revealed a close relation to the QX-like genotype which has not been detected in Sudan before. Whole genome analysis of IBV/Ck/Sudan/AR251-15/2014 isolate by next generation sequencing revealed a genome size of 27,646 nucleotides harbouring 13 open reading frames: 5'-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3'. Highest nucleotide sequence identity of 93% for the whole genome was found with the Chinese IBV strain Ck/CH/LHLJ/140906, the Italian IBV isolate ITA/90254/2005 and the 4/91 vaccine strain. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene revealed that the IBV/Ck/Sudan/AR251-15/2014 isolate clustered together with viruses of the GI-19 lineage. Recombination analysis gave evidence for distinct patterns of origin of RNA in the Sudanese isolate in multiple genes. Several sites of recombination were scattered throughout the genome suggesting that the Sudan-QX-like strain emerged as a unique recombinant from multiple recombination events of parental viruses from 4/91, H120 and ITA/90254/2005 genotypes. The Sudanese QX-like isolate is plausibly genetically different from IBV strains previously reported in Africa and elsewhere.

Lopes, P. D., O. C. Freitas Neto, D. F. A. Batista, J. Denadai, M. F. F. Alarcon, A. M. Almeida, R. O. Vasconcelos, A. Setta, P. A. Barrow, and A. Berchieri, "Experimental infection of chickens by a flagellated motile strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum.", Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997), vol. 214, pp. 40-6, 2016 Aug. Abstract

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (SG) causes fowl typhoid (FT), a septicaemic disease which can result in high mortality in poultry flocks. The absence of flagella in SG is thought to favour systemic invasion, since bacterial recognition via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5 does not take place during the early stages of FT. In the present study, chicks susceptible to FT were inoculated with a wild type SG (SG) or its flagellated motile derivative (SG Fla(+)). In experiment 1, mortality and clinical signs were assessed, whereas in experiment 2, gross pathology, histopathology, systemic invasion and immune responses were evaluated. SG Fla(+) infection resulted in later development of clinical signs, lower mortality, lower bacterial numbers in the liver and spleen, and less severe pathological changes compared to SG. The CD8(+) T lymphocyte population was higher in the livers of chicks infected with SG at 4 days post-inoculation (dpi). Chicks infected with SG had increased expression of interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA in the caecal tonsil at 1 dpi and increased expression of IL-18 mRNA in the spleen at 4 dpi. In contrast, the CD4(+) T lymphocyte population was higher at 6 dpi in the livers of birds infected with SG Fla(+). Therefore, flagella appeared to modulate the chicken immune response towards a CD4(+) T profile, resulting in more efficient bacterial clearance from systemic sites and milder infection.

de Neto, O. C. F., A. Setta, A. Imre, and A. Bukovinski, "A flagellated motile Salmonella Gallinarum mutant (SG Fla+) elicits a pro-inflammatory response from avian epithelial cells and macrophages and is less virulent to chickens", Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 165, issue 3-4, pp. 425-433, 2013. Abstract

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (SG) is a non-flagellated bacterium which causes fowl typhoid, a systemic disease associated with high mortality in birds. It has been suggested that the absence of flagella in SG is advantageous in the early stages of systemic infection through absence of TLR-5 activation. In order to investigate this hypothesis in more detail a flagellated and motile SG mutant (SG Fla(+)) was constructed. The presence of flagella increased invasiveness for chicken kidney cells (CKC) while its presence did not alter survival in HD11 macrophages. SG Fla(+) induced higher levels of CXCLi2, IL-6 and iNOS mRNA expression in CKC than the SG parent strain. The expression of genes responsible for immune response mediators in infected HD11 macrophages were not related to the presence of flagella. Mortality rates were lower in birds challenged with SG Fla(+) when compared with the SG parent. SG Fla(+) was recovered from caecal contents which showed pathological changes suggestive of inflammation and suggested increased colonization ability.

Setta, A., P. Barrow, P. Kaiser, and M. Jones, "Early immune dynamics following infection with Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Infantis, Pullorum and Gallinarum; cytokine and chemokine gene expression profile and cellular changes of chicken cecal tonsils", Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis, vol. 35, issue 5, pp. 397-410, 2012. Abstract

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica infection remains a serious problem in a wide range of animals and in man. Poultry-derived food is the main source of human infection with the non-host-adapted serovars while fowl typhoid and pullorum disease are important diseases of poultry. We have assessed cecal colonization and immune responses of newly hatched and older chickens to Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Infantis, Gallinarum and Pullorum. S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis colonized the ceca more efficiently than S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum. Salmonella infection was also associated with increased staining for B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the cecal tonsils of infected birds. S. Enteritidis infection in newly hatched birds stimulated the expression of CXCLi1 and CXCLi2 chemokines in the cecal tonsils, while S. Gallinarum up-regulated the expression of LITAF. In older chickens, S. Enteritidis infection resulted in a significantly higher expression of CXCLi2, iNOS, LITAF and IL-10 while S. Pullorum appeared to down-regulate CXCLi1 expression in the cecal tonsils. Data from spleens showed either no expression or down-regulation of the tested genes.

Setta, A., P. Barrow, P. Kaiser, and M. Jones, "Immune dynamics following infection of avian macrophages and epithelial cells with typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars; bacterial invasion and persistence, nitric oxide and oxygen production, differential host gene expression, NF-κB s", Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, vol. 146, issue 3-4, pp. 212-224, 2012. Abstract

Poultry-derived food is a common source of infection of human with the non-host-adapted salmonellae while fowl typhoid and pullorum disease are serious diseases in poultry. Development of novel immune-based control strategies against Salmonella infection necessitates a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. Intestinal epithelial cells are the first line of defence against enteric infections and the role of macrophages is crucial in Salmonella infection and pathogenesis. While gene expression following Salmonella infection has been investigated, a comparison between different serovars has not been, as yet, extensively studied in poultry. In this study, chicken macrophage-like cells (HD11) and chick kidney epithelial cells (CKC) were used to study and compare the immune responses and mechanisms that develop after infection with different Salmonella serotypes. Salmonella serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Hadar and Infantis showed a greater level of invasion and/or uptake characters when compared with S. Pullorum or S. Gallinarum. Nitrate and reactive oxygen species were greater in Salmonella-infected HD11 cells with the expression of iNOS and nuclear factor-κB by chicken macrophages infected with both systemic and broad host range serovars. HD11 cells revealed higher mRNA gene expression for CXCLi2, IL-6 and iNOS genes in response to S. Enteritidis infection when compared to S. Pullorum-infected cells. S. Typhimurium- and S. Hadar-infected HD11 showed higher gene expression for CXCLi2 versus S. Pullorum-infected cells. Higher mRNA gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, chemokines CXCLi1 and CXCLi2 and iNOS genes were detected in S. Typhimurium- and S. Enteritidis-infected CKC followed by S. Hadar and S. Infantis while no significant changes were observed in S. Pullorum or S. Gallinarum-infected CKC.