Fathy, M. M., N. M. Abdelrazek, F. A. Hassan, and A. A. El-Badry, "Molecular Copro-Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in Egyptian Children and Evaluation of Three Diagnostic Methods", INDIAN PEDIATRICS., vol. 51, issue 9, pp. 727-729, 2014.
Ismail, M. A. M., D. M. H. El-Akkad, E. M. A. Rizk, H. M. El-Askary, and A. A. El-Badry, "Molecular seasonality of Giardia lamblia in a cohort of Egyptian children: a circannual pattern.", Parasitology research, vol. 115, issue 11, pp. 4221–4227, 2016 Jul 23. Abstract

Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) is the most worldwide prevailing intestinal parasite, notorious for its broad range of seasonal and age-related prevalence. The potentially lethal nature of giardiasis makes it essential that the seasonality, the groups at risk, and other potential risk factors are identified. The present molecular epidemiological study was designed to determine the genetic diversity of G. lamblia infection, taking into account seasonal peaks, age distribution, and associated symptoms in a cohort of Egyptian diarrheic patients. Stool samples were collected from 1187 diarrheic patients attending outpatient clinics of Cairo University hospitals, of all age groups over a 12-month period. The patients were examined microscopically for fecal G. lamblia cysts, and/or trophozoites, and for copro-DNA detection using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assays targeting beta giardin gene. PCR-positive samples were characterized molecularly by nPCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine Giardia assemblages. The findings revealed circannual prevalence of Giardia, with a seasonal pattern peaking in mid-summer and late winter, with the summer peak preceded by a peak in temperature. Infection was prevailing in 224 (18.9 %) cases, mainly assemblage B (81.2 %) followed by assemblage A (18.8 %). There were statistically significant associations between the detection of Giardia and flatulence, persistent diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, while gender and intermittent diarrhea showed no association. The pre-school age group was the most vulnerable. This is the first study of molecular characterization of Giardia to determine its circannual prevalence in Egypt, a finding which carries promising potential for the diagnosis, treatment, and elimination of the disease.

Ghallab, M. M. I., I. A. Z. Aziz, E. Y. Shoeib, and A. A. El-Badry, "Laboratory utility of coproscopy, copro immunoassays and copro nPCR assay targeting Hsp90 gene for detection of Cryptosporidium in children, Cairo, Egypt", Journal of Parasitic Diseases, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 901–905, 2016. AbstractWebsite

Cryptosporidium is a significant cause of diarrhea worldwide especially in children. Infection may end fatally in immunocompromised patients. Multi-attribute analysis was used to determine the lab utility of 4 diagnostics; coproscopy of AF stained fecal smear, fecal immunoassays by ICT and ELISA and copro-nPCR assay targeting Hsp90 gene, for detection of Cryptosporidium in stool of 250 Egyptian children (150 diarrheic and 100 non-diarrhaeic children). Also, to determine Cryptosporidium molecular prevalence. Cryptosporidium was an important enteric pathogen among both diarrheic and non-diarrheic study children with a clearly high prevalence of 16.4 {%} (n = 41). Conventional methods had perfect specificity (100 {%}) but couldn`t be used as a consistent single detection method due to their lowered sensitivities. Multi-attribute analysis ranked nPCR the highest test for lab use. Being the test with the best diagnostic yield, nPCR is a reliable diagnostic test and is going to replace conventional methods for reliable detection of Cryptosporidium.

Abdel-Shafi, I., E. Shoeib, S. Attia, J. Rubio, and A. El-Badry, "Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae and quantitative circulating antigen detection in selected endemic areas in Egypt", Kasr Al Ainy Medical Journal, vol. 22, issue 1, pp. 34 - 40, 2016/1/1. AbstractWebsite

Back ground and objectiveWuchereria bancrofti is responsible for 90% of cases of lymphatic filariasis throughout the tropics and in some subtropical areas worldwide, including Egypt. To combat this disease, the WHO has launched a program aiming to eliminate lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020 in all the endemic countries using mass drug administration (MDA) to interrupt the disease's transmission. The aim of the present work was to study W. bancrofti infection in selected endemic areas in Egypt by performing parasitological examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen detection test, and to analyze the demographic, clinical, and MDA data of the study population in relation to W. bancrofti infection.
Patients and methods
A total of 300 blood samples were collected from residents in endemic areas in five governorates. Parasitological examination and Og4C3 ELISA test were performed to identify W. bancrofti infection.
Results
Microfilariae were identified in one individual while circulating filarial antigens (CFAs) were detected in 10 individuals. Statistical analysis of the collected data showed that CFAs were significantly higher in the male population than in the female population, whereas analysis regarding other demographic, clinical, and MDA data showed no statistical significance.
Conclusion
The study results showed that CFAs are still detected in endemic communities in Egypt, and that the prevalence is higher in the male population than in the female population. Although the Og4C3 ELISA test is a useful research tool for the study of W. bancrofti infections, its cost and format hinder its wide use in endemic areas.

AL ALI, K. H., A. A. El-Badry, M. AL ALI, W. S. M. El-Sayed, and H. A. El-Beshbishy, Phylogenetic Analysis of Aedes aegypti Based on Mitochondrial ND4 Gene Sequences in Almadinah, Saudi Arabia, , vol. 14, issue 2, pp. 58 - 62, 2016/06/15. AbstractWebsite

Background: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the yellow fever and dengue virus. This mosquito has become the major indirect cause of morbidity and mortality of the human worldwide. Dengue virus activity has been reported recently in the western areas of Saudi Arabia. There is no vaccine for dengue virus until now, and the control of the disease depends on the control of the vector. Objectives: The present study has aimed to perform phylogenetic analysis of Aedes aegypti based on mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene at Almadinah, Saudi Arabia in order to get further insight into the epidemiology and transmission of this vector. Materials and Methods: Mitochondrial ND4 gene was sequenced in the eight isolated Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Almadinah, Saudi Arabia, sequences were aligned, and phylogenetic analysis were performed and compared with 54 sequences of Aedes reported in the previous studies from Mexico, Thailand, Brazil, and Africa.Results: Our results suggest that increased gene flow among Aedes aegypti populations occurs between Africa and Saudi Arabia. Conclusions: Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed two genetically distinct Aedes aegypti in Saudi Arabia derived from dual African ancestor.

Abdel-Shafi, I. R., E. Y. Shoeib, S. S. Attia, J. M. Rubio, Y. Edmardash, and A. A. El-Badry, "MOSQUITO IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR XENOMONITORING OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN SELECTED ENDEMIC AREAS IN GIZA AND QUALIOUBIYA GOVERNORATES, EGYPT.", Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 46, issue 1, pp. 93-100, 2016 Apr. Abstract

Lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne health problem that has been focally endemic in Egypt for centuries. The chief vectors of transmission are Culicinae species. Control measures in the form of mass drug administration of DEC citrate treatment have been implemented in Nile delta for almost a decade. This study aimed to identify the prevalent mosquito species in endemic areas in Giza and Qualioubiya governorates and to monitor Wuchereria bancrofti infection by detecting the parasite DNA in collected mosquitoes. Adult mosquitoes were collected using light traps hung indoors. Microscopic examination was performed to identify and examine the morphologic characters of mosquitoes. Female Culex mosquitoes were subjected to semi-nested PCR to detect filarial DNA targeting repetitive DNA sequences (pWbl2 repetitive region) specific for W. bancrofti. The results revealed 3 species of mosquitoes Culex pipiens, Culex pusillus and Culex quinquefasciatus with the predominance of Culex pipiens (85.7%). Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was not detected in any of the collected mosquito pools. With progress of elimination programme in Nile Delta, follow up studies with larger sample size are recommended as the predominance of Culex pipiens the main lymphatic filariasis vector remains a risk of transmission in such areas.

El-Badry, A. A., H. El-Dwibe, M. M. A. Basyoni, A. S. A. Al-Antably, and W. A. Al-Bashier, "Molecular prevalence and estimated risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya.", Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi, 2016 Jan 12. Abstract

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Cutanoeus leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease in the Mediterranean area including Libya. The aim of the present study is to detect the prevalent Leishmania species obtained from smeared cutaneous lesions in addition to studying the diverse sociodemographic risk factors of the reported cases from different provinces of Libya.

METHODS: A total of 250 archived microscopic slides from clinically suspected cases of CL attending the leishmaniasis clinic in the Dermatology Department, Tripoli Central Hospital, Tripoli, Libya, were microscopically examined. Leishmania-DNA was amplified using combined polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting kinetoplast-DNA (kDNA) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-DNA with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for direct Leishmania species identification.

RESULTS: Using kDNA and ITS1-PCR, 22.5% and 20% of cases were positive, respectively. Only 14.4% of cases were positive using microscopy. Nominating ITS1-PCR as the reference standard, kDNA-PCR assay was highly sensitive while microscopy was 100% specific but of limited sensitivity (72%) with a substantial agreement and an overall accuracy of 94.4%. Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were the predominant species reported from the north-western provinces including Tripoli, Zintan, and Gharyan with their related subprovinces; Asabaa, Mizdan, Alkawasem, and Alorban. CL prevailed more among men and residents of rural areas. House wives and students were the most affected professions. Children were the least affected, while the middle-aged were the most affected age group.

CONCLUSION: L. major and L. tropica are the predominant species in the north-western regions of Libya. ITS1-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay offered a sensitive, specific, and faster diagnostic method especially with negative parasitologic examination.

El-Dib, N. A., A. A. El-Badry, T. - H. Ta-Tang, and J. M. Rubio, "Molecular detection of Capillaria philippinensis: An emerging zoonosis in Egypt.", Experimental parasitology, vol. 154, pp. 127-33, 2015 Jul. Abstract

Human infection with Capillaria philippinensis is accidental; however, it may end fatally if not diagnosed and treated in the proper time. The first case was detected in the Philippines in 1963, but later reported in other countries around the world, including Egypt. In this report, molecular diagnosis using a specific nested PCR for detection of C. philippinensis in faeces is described based on the amplification of small ribosomal subunit. The test showed sensitivity and specificity, as it detected all the positive cases and gave no cross-reaction with human DNA and DNA of other tested parasites. This method can be very useful not only for improvement of diagnosis, but also to understand the different environmental routes of transmission by detection of C. philippinensis DNA-stages in the possible fish intermediate hosts and reservoir animal host, helping to improve strategies for surveillance and prevention of human disease.

El-Badry, A. A., A. S. A. Al-Antably, M. A. Hassan, N. A. Hanafy, and E. Y. Abu-Sarea, "Molecular seasonal, age and gender distributions of Cryptosporidium in diarrhoeic Egyptians: distinct endemicity.", European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 34, issue 12, pp. 2447-53, 2015 Dec. Abstract

Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide gastrointestinal disease caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium parasite. It has a broad range of seasonal and age-related prevalence. We aimed to study the molecular prevalence and seasonality of Cryptosporidium over a period of 1 year in a cohort of Egyptian diarrhoeic patients. Stool samples were collected from 865 diarrhoeic patients attending outpatient clinics of Cairo University hospitals, from all age groups over a 12-month period, examined microscopically for faecal Cryptosporidium oocysts by the acid-fast staining method and for copro-DNA detection using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assays. PCR-positive samples were characterised molecularly by nPCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine Cryptosporidium genotypes. Cryptosporidium copro-DNA was detected in 19.5% of the collected samples throughout the year, with a major peak in summer (August) and a small rise in spring (April). Infection was mainly C. hominis (95.8%) followed by C. parvum (3.0%), affecting all age groups, with predominance in the pre-school age group, and decrease with age. There were statistically significant associations between the detection of Cryptosporidium and season, diarrhoea, patient age and drinking water, while gender, contact with animals and presence of mucus in stool showed no association. Cryptosporidium in diarrhoeic Egyptians was of distinct endemicity, with the bi-model mostly influenced by population dynamics, with a clear high prevalence in pre-school children and predominating anthroponotic (C. hominis) transmission throughout the year. The obtained results highlight Cryptosporidium as a water contaminant and an important cause of health problems in Egypt, necessitating further studies of the risk factors.

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